(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "A topographical dictionary of Scotland, comprising the several counties, islands, cities, burgh and market towns, parishes, and principal villages, with historical and statistical descriptions: embellished with engravings of the seals and arms of the different burghs and universities"

T:i 



Case 



^lackje &f Son Limited 
Private Library 

dd Shelf ..^ 



TOPOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 



SCOTLAND 



COMPRISING THE 



SEVERAL COUNTIES, ISLANDS, CITIES, BURGH AND MARKET TOWNS, 
PARISHES, AND PRINCIPAL VILLAGES, 

WITH 

HISTORICAL AND STATISTICAL DESCRIPTIONS 

EMBELLISHED WITH 

ENGRAVINGS OF THE SEALS AND ARMS OF THE DIFFERENT BURGHS AND UNIVERSITIES. 



BY SAMUEL LEWIS. 



IN TWO VOLUMES. 
VOL. L 

From Abbey to Jura. 



^ffonti (0tiition. 



LONDON: 
PUBLISHED BY S. LEWIS AND CO., 13, FINSBURY PLACE, SOUTH. 



M.DCCC.LI. 



LONDON : 

GILBERT AND RIVINGTO.N, PRINTERS, 

ST. John's square. 



UNlVEiJSiTV OF CALIFORNU 
3A1XTA BARBARA 



P R E F A C E. 



The Proprietors , of the "Topographical Dictionary of Scotland" have much satisfaction in 
presenting their Subscribers with the concluding portion of their undertaking in illustration 
of the Topography of the United Kingdom. Some time has now elapsed since they first 
circulated proposals for publishing Dictionaries of England, Wales, Ireland, and Scotland, 
in succession, in ten volumes. They trust, however, that the delay has enabled them to 
make the volumes more exact and comprehensive than they could possibly have been made 
in a shorter period ; and the Proprietors of this almost national Publication can truly say, 
that they have spared no pains, and held back from no reasonable expense, calculated to 
render their labours worthy of the favour of the Subscribers. 

In compiling the present Dictionary, the Proprietors have had the benefit of the stores 
of topographical and statistical information collected in the fifteen octavo volumes of the 
" New Statistical Account of Scotland," a work to which the Established Clergy were the 
chief contributors. It would be impossible to enumerate the various private parties to 
whom the Dictionary is Indebted for valuable assistance. As in the prefaces to the former 
volumes, the Proprietors must now content themselves with a general and yet most grateful 
acknowledgment of the kind aid they have received from numerous persons. 

For the Seals and Arms that embellish the Work, the Proprietors' thanks are chiefly 
due to the Town-Clerks of the several Burghs, who obliged them with the wax iinpres- 
sions from which most of the engravings have been executed. Their best acknowledgments 
are also due to the Principals of King's College Aberdeen, of Marischal College Aberdeen, 
and of Glasgow College ; the Reverend the Librarian of the University of Edinburgh ; and 
the Reverend C. J. Lyon, M.A., of St. Andrew's, Author of the valuable History of that 
city ; for copies of the Official Seals of the five great Universities of Scotland. 

A 2 



i^ PREFACE. 

It may be well to remind the Reader, that the Work, as denoted in the title-page, 
simply comprises separate articles upon the Islands, Counties, Cities, Towns, Parishes, and 
Principal Villages ; the rivers, mountains, lakes, seats, and such objects, being (unlike the 
manner of a o'eneral gazetteer) described under the heads of parishes, &c. Thus, the 
far-famed mansion of Abbotsford is noticed in the article on Melrose. The arrangement 
of the places is strictly alphabetical, each being given under its proper name; and the 
epithet, if any, by which it is distinguished from another locality of the same designation, 
following after the chief heading. In this way, all such terms as .S*^., East, West, North 
and South, Great and Little, Old and New, will be found to come after the real names : 
as Andrew's, St.; Berwick, North ; Cumnock, Old; INIonkland, New. 

The following minor points may also be noticed. The statements of acres in the Work 
refer to the imperial standard measure. The ministers' stipends, which usually depend on 
the price of grain, are in most cases taken from the Report made by the Royal Commis- 
sioners ; in other cases they are derived from private and later information : the sum for 
communion elements is generally included in the statement. The annual value of real 
property in each parish is inserted also on the authority of a parliamentary paper, printed 
some years ago, and having reference to the assessments under the property-tax. 

In conclusion, the Proprietors have to request the indulgence of the Subscribers with 
regard to any errors they may detect. No topographical work can be wholly free from 
errors. To say that inaccuracies have crept into a compilation of this nature would be only 
to say, in other words, that the hand of time may be stayed, and that the fugitive and 
varying circumstances of a country can be always the same. The Proprietors have used 
every means to ensure correctness ; and they hope that the Work will be received by the 
Subscribers with kind consideration. 



TOPOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 



OF 



SCOTLAND. 



A B BO 



A B B O 



AbBEY-GREEN, a considerable village, in the parish 
of Lesmahagow, Upper ward of the county of Lanark, 
6 miles (S. W.) from Lanark ; containing, with Turf- 
holm, 881 inhabitants. This village, formerly called 
Macute's-Green, derives its present name from its vici- 
nity to the ruins of an ancient monastery dependent on 
the abbey of Kelso. It is pleasantly seated in a valley 
on the west bank of the Nethan, a fine stream tributary 
to the Clyde. The village is in the centre of the parish, 
and contains the parochial church. The inhabitants are 
employed in various trades requisite for the supply of 
the neighbourhood, and in hand-loom weaving for the 
manufacturers of Glasgow and Paisley. 

ABBEY PARISH, Renfrewshire. — See Paisley. 

ABBEY ST. BATHAN'S.— See Bathan's, St. 

ABBOTSHALL, a parish, in the district of Kirk- 
caldy, county of Fife ; containing, with the village of 
Chapel, 4811 inhabitants, of whom 4100 are in the town 
of Abbotshall, consisting of Linktown and Newtown. 
This place derived its name from its having been the 
residence of the abbots of Dunfermline, one of whom 
erected a mansion here, the site of which is still pointed 
out by a yew-tree of very ancient growth. The lands, 
about the middle of the fifteenth century, belonged to 
the abbey of Dunfermline, and are supposed, after the 
dissolution of monasteries, to have been granted to the 
bailies and corporation of the town of Kirkcaldy, and 
by them transferred to the family of the Scotts of Bal- 
weary, from whom they passed into the possession of 
the Ramsays of this place, and were purchased by the 
ancestors of the present proprietor. The greater portion 
of the lands formerly in Kirkcaldy, was, in the year 1650, 
separated from that parish, and, together with the lands 
of Easter and Wester Touch, formerly in the parish of 
Kinghorn, and those of Wester Bogie, in the parish of 
Dysart, erected into a separate and distinct parish, under 
the appellation of Abbotshall. 

The parish is situated on the Firth of Forth, by 
which it is bounded on the south-east, and comprises 
Vol. I.— 1 



about 4000 acres, of which about 3320 are under tillage, 
and the remainder in natural wood and in plantations. 
Along the coast the surface is level ; but the ground 
rises in a gentle slope, towards the middle of the parish, 
and thence is pleasingly undulated. A small stream 
issuing from the Camilla loch, in the parish of Auchter- 
tool, on the west, flows through the lower lands into 
the river Tiel, near its influ-v into the sea. The soil is 
mostly fertile : towards the coast, it is light, but pro- 
ductive ; on the rising grounds, more inland, it is a 
deep rich loam, and iu other parts varies considerably 
in quality. The crops are, wheat, barley, oats, potatoes, 
and turnips, with peas, beans, and other green crops ; 
the system of husbandry is in a highly improved state, 
and the farm-buildings, and the inclosures and fences, 
are kept in excellent repair. Some sheep are fed, prin- 
cipally on the lands belonging to the principal seats; 
and these are generally of the Cheviot breed : there are 
also a few black-cattle reared, chiefly of the Fifeshire, 
and a mixture of the Fife, Angus, and other breeds. 
The plantations are mainly on the estate of Raith, and 
consist of oak, ash, elm, chesnut, sycamore, beech, 
spruce, and Scotch firs, with some larch, with the ex- 
ception of which last all thrive well, and attain to a 
majestic growth. In general the substratum is carboni- 
ferous limestone, and coal interspersed with trap ; the 
limestone is quarried for farming and other uses, and 
there are extensive lime-works iu the village of Chapel, 
but the coal, from the immediate vicinity of long-esta- 
blished mines, from which an abundant supply is ob- 
tained at a moderate price, has not been worked for 
many years. Fossils of various kinds are found im- 
bedded in the limestone. There are also some quarries 
of freestone in the parish, which is used for building 
purposes. The annual value of real property in the parish 
is £8777. 

The chief seat is Raith : the mansion-house was 
partly built in 1694, by Lord Raith, who erected the 
central portion, to which two capacious wings were 

B 



A B BO 



ABDI 



added by a late Mr. Ferguson ; and the late proprietor, 
his successor, completed the building by the erection 
of a beautiful portico of the Ionic order, rendering the 
whole one of the most spacious and elegant mansions in 
the country. The demesne is very extensive, and richly 
planted ; and the pleasure-grounds are ornamented by 
a picturesque lake, surrounded with fine walks, varied 
with parterres of flowering shrubs and thriving planta- 
tions. This lake, which covers more than twenty acres, 
was formed in 181'^ ; it is in some parts twenty-five feet 
in depth, abounds with fish of various kinds, and is 
frequented by numerous aquatic birds : it is situated at 
the base of the eminence on which the mansion is built, 
and adds greatly to the beauty of the scenery. Within 
a short distance of the house, and nearly on the summit 
of a hill, is a lofty tower, from which is obtained, on 
a clear day, a view over fifteen counties. In front of 
the house is a remarkably fine beech-tree, measuring 
fourteen feet in girth ; and among the plantations are 
numerous specimens of stately and venerable timber. 
Wester Bogie, another residence, is a handsome castel- 
lated mansion of modern erection, situated in a demesne 
of no great extent, but laid out in fine taste and embel- 
lished svith flourishing plantations. 

The chief manufacture is the weaving of ticking, which 
is carried on to a very considerable extent, employing 
nearly 500 looms ; the weaving of dowlas has also been 
introduced, both for the home trade and for exportation. 
There is a factory worked by steam, for manufacturing 
a thin kind of linen sheeting, another for canvass for 
making sails, and also a bleachfield. The parish contains 
several mills for barley-meal and flour, all of which, 
together with one for grinding flint, are driven by water; 
a pottery for brown earthenware is carried on by the 
proprietor of the flint-mill, and there is likewise a large 
establishment for the making of bricks and tiles, for 
which purpose clay of good quality is found in the 
neighbourhood. Coal-gas works have been established 
for lighting the towns of Linktown and Newtown. A 
brewery is also conducted, but the only produce is small 
beer. Great facility of intercourse is afforded by the 
Edinburgh, Perth, and Dundee railway. Fairs are held 
in Linktown on the third Friday in April and October, 
which were great marts for the sale of linseed and black- 
cattle ; but both have for some time been declining, and 
the principal articles exposed for sale are shoes, brought 
from a distance, and articles of pedlery. 

Ecclesiastically the parish is within the bounds of the 
presbytery of Kirkcaldy and synod of Fife ; patron, 
R. Ferguson, Esq., of Raith. The stipend of the incum- 
bent is £199. 11. 11.: the manse was rebuilt in 177^, 
and has been recently enlarged ; the glebe comprises 
six acres and a half of good land, valued at £36 per 
annum. The present church, which occupies the site 
of the ancient edifice, was built in 17SS, and is adapted 
for a congregation of 8'25 persons. An additional 
church, in connexion with the Establishment, has been 
erected for the benefit of the surplus population of this 
and the adjoining parish of Kinghorn ; and there are 
places of worship for members of the Free Church and 
the United Presbyterian Church. The parochial school 
affords a liberal education ; the master has a salary of 
£34. 4. 4., with £35 school fees, and money from other 
sources. There is also a free school endowed by Robert 
Philip, Esq., who bequeathed property to the amount of 
2 



£80,000, for the foundation and endowment of schools 
in Abbotshall, Kirkcaldy, Dysart, and Kinghorn : the 
number of children attending the school in this parish is 
100 ; they are all clothed, and supplied with books and 
stationery, and, on leaving the school, receive a sum of 
money to enable them to learn some trade. 

Near the site of the tower in the demesne of Raith, 
have been found coffins of stone, rudely formed, and 
urns containing human bones. There are still some 
remains of the ancient castle of Balweary, consisting 
chiefly of the eastern wall, which is entire, and part of 
the north and south walls; they are more than six feet in 
thickness, and appear to have inclosed an area of about 
thirty feet. Balweary was the birth-place of Sir Michael 
Scott, who, from his eminence in the science of mathe- 
matics, and in general literature, was regarded as a 
prodigy : on his return to his native land, after many 
years spent in the universities of the continent, he was 
appointed, on the death of Alexander III., to bring home 
the young queen from Norway. William Adam, the 
architect, was also a native of Abbotshall parish. The 
parish has given title to many distinguished persons, 
among whom were, Thomas Scott and Andrew Ramsay, 
Lords Abbotshall ; and George Melville, Earl of Raith. 
— See Linktown, and Newtown. 

ABDIE, a parish, in the district of Cupar, county 
of Fife, 2^ miles (P. S. E.) from Newburgh ; including 
the villages of Lindores, Grange of Lindores, Glenburnie, 
and a suburb of the town of Newburgh, called Mount- 
Pleasant ; and containing 1508 inhabitants. This place 
formed part of the lands of Macduff, Thane of Fife ; it 
continued in the possession of his descendants for many 
ages, and afterwards, together with the earldom, passed 
to the family of Mordac, Duke of Albany, on whose 
attainder and decapitation at Stirling, in the reign of 
James I., his estates in Fife, and other property, reverted 
to the crown. The lands of Denmill, which included 
the greater portion of this parish, were granted by 
James II. to James Balfour, son of Sir John Balfour, 
of Balgarvie, one of whose descendants was killed in the 
battle of Flodden Field, to which he attended his sove- 
reign James IV. ; and another, Sir James Balfour, of 
Denmill, was appointed lyon king-at-arms to Charles I. 
and Charles II. There are still remaining some vestiges 
of the ancient castle of Lindores, in the village of that 
name, said to have been the residence of Duncan Mac- 
duff, first Thane of Fife ; near which, according to the 
annals drawn up by Sir James Balfour, a sanguinary 
battle took place in the year 1300, between the Scots, 
headed by Sir William Wallace, and the English, when 
the latter were defeated, with the loss of 3000 slain on 
the field, and 500 taken prisoners. 

The parish, anciently called Lindores, was formerly 
of much greater extent than at present, including the 
lands of the parish of Newburgh, which was separated 
from it in 1633. Its surface is very uneven, rising in 
some parts into hills of considerable elevation, of which 
the highest are the Norman's Law and the Clatchard 
Crag. Tlie former is 936 feet above the level of the sea, 
and commands an extensive prospect, combining much 
interesting scenery, especially towards the north, em- 
bracing the Carse of Gowrie, with its richly cultivated 
surface, and the Firth of Tay, and lauds in its vicinity, 
which are richly planted. The Clatchard Crag, situated 
to the south-east of Newburgh, is a taU and stately cliff. 



A BD I 



A B E R 



abruptly rising to an elevation of 250 feet above the 
level of the plain, and towering with rugged majesty- 
above the road, which passes near its base. The river 
Tay bounds the parish on the north and east ; and a 
powerful stream issues from the loch of Lindores, in the 
parish, and in its course gives motion to several large 
mills. The loch of Lindores is a beautiful sheet of water, 
covering nearly seventy acres of ground, and measuring 
iu many places almost twenty feet in depth. It is sup- 
plied by a copious stream that rises in a tract of moss 
about half a mile distant, called the Priest's burn, which 
in the winter is never frozen, and in the driest sum- 
mers is always abundant. The lake abounds with 
perch, pike, and eels, and is much frequented by ducks, 
teals, and snipes. 

The number of acres in the parish is nearly 7000, 
whereof 4580 are arable, about 1530 in pasture, 300 
in wood, and the remainder waste land, of which, pro- 
bably, nearly 200 acres might be brought into cultiva- 
tion. The soil is extremely various : along the banks 
of the Tay, in the lower part of the parish, it is remark- 
ably fertile ; on the slopes it is a black loam of great 
depth, and in other parts hght and gravelly. The accli- 
vities of the hills are partly covered with heath, but in 
many places afford good pasturage for sheep, of which 
considerable numbers, chiefly of a mixed breed, are 
reared in the parish, and sold in the neighbouring mar- 
kets. Great numbers of sheep of different kinds are 
also fed here upon turnips, and shipped to London by 
steamers from Leith and Dundee. The chief crops are, 
barley, oats, wheat, potatoes, and turnips : from the 
improved system of agriculture, and the draining and 
reclaiming of waste lands, the crops have been greatly 
increased in value ; and large quantities of grain and 
potatoes are exported. There are likewise several dairy 
farms, producing butter and cheese of good quality. 
The substratum is generally whinstone, of which there 
are quarries in full operation ; it is much valued for 
building and other purposes, and was formerly exported 
to a great extent. A kind of red sandstone is prevalent, 
which was once quarried ; and limestone is also found, 
but, from the distance of coal, every attempt to work it 
for burning into lime has been given up. The annual 
value of real property in the parish is £8145. 

The principal seat is Inchrye House, a castellated 
building in the early English style, crowned with battle- 
ments, and embellished with turrets, erected at an ex- 
pense of £12,000. It is seen with peculiar effect from 
the road leading to Newburgh ; it is surrounded with 
thriving woods and ornamental plantations, and the 
grounds are laid out with great taste. The House of 
Lindores, the residence of Admiral Maitland, who com- 
manded the Bellerophon when Napoleon Buonaparte 
surrendered himself prisoner, is pleasantly situated upon 
an eminence, embracing much varied and interesting 
scenery overlooking the loch of Lindores. There are 
various other handsome residences, finely seated, and 
adding to the beauty of the landscape. The weaving of 
linen is carried on in the parish, affording employment 
to a considerable number of persons who work with 
hand-leoms in their own dwellings ; there are corn and 
barley mills in full and increasing operation, a saw-mill 
for timber, on a very extensive scale, and a mill for 
grinding bones for manure. Great facility of intercourse 
is afforded by the Perth line of the Edinburgh, Perth, 
3 



and Dundee railway. Ecclesiastically the parish is 
within the bounds of the presbytery of Cupar and synod 
of Fife ; the Earl of Mansfield is patron, and the stipend 
of the incumbent is £233, with a manse, and a glebe 
comprising four acres of arable, and six of pasture, land, 
valued at £23 per annum. Abdie church, a plain sub- 
stantial edifice, was erected in 1827, and is adapted for 
nearly 600 persons. The parochial school affords a 
liberal course of instruction ; the master has a salary of 
£34. 4. 4., with £17 from school fees, and a good house 
and garden. 

There are some remains of the ancient church, in the 
porch of which is still the basin for the consecrated 
■water ; and, till lately, the steps that formed the ascent 
to the altar were also entire. Urns containing human 
bones and ashes have been found in several parts of the 
parish. One containing a skull and several bones was 
dug up a short time ago near the foot of Clatchard 
Crag ; it was inclosed in loose flat stones placed toge- 
ther in the form of a kistvaen. A similar urn was 
found near the site of the ancient abbey of Lindores, 
containing a great number of small bones. On the 
summit of Clatchard Crag are the vestiges of an ancient 
fort ; and near the top of Norman's Law are three con- 
centric circles, of rough stones rudely formed, supposed 
to have been a Danish encampment. 

ABERCHIRDER, a village, in the parish of Mar- 
NOCH, county of Banff, 7 miles (W. by N.) from Tur- 
riff; containing 819 inhabitants. The whole parish was 
formerly called by the name of this place, derived from 
Sir David Aberkerder, Thane of Aberkerder, who lived 
about the year 1400, and possessed great property in 
this vicinity. The village consists chiefly of three 
streets, regularly laid out, parallel to each other, with a 
square in the centre, in addition to which, several good 
substantial houses have been recently built. Aberchirder 
contains a branch of the North of Scotland Bank, a 
stamp-office, and a post-office ; it is crossed by the turn- 
pike-road between Banff and Huntly, and that between 
Turriff and Portsoy also passes through it. There is an 
Episcopalian chapel. 

ABERBROTHOCK.— See Arbroath. 

ABERCORN, a parish, in the county of Linlith- 
gow, 5^ miles (E. by N.) from Linlithgow ; containing, 
with the villages of Newtown and Philipstown, about 
950 inhabitants. This place, which derives its name 
from its situation at the influx of the small river Cornie 
into the Firth of Forth, is of very remote origin. Its 
ancient castle occupied the site of a Roman station 
between the wall of Antonine and the port of Cramond 
on the Firth, in the harbour of which the Romans 
moored their ships. A monastery appears to have been 
founded here at a very early period by the Culdees, 
which, in the seventh century, became the seat of a 
bishopric ; but after the death of Egfrid, King of 
Northumbria, who, in 696, was killed in a battle with 
the northern Picts, the bishop who then presided over 
the see, not thinking the establishment sufficiently 
secure, removed it to a place less exposed to danger. 
Of this monastery, which is supposed to have occupied 
a site near the present parish church, there are not the 
slightest vestiges remaining ; and its only memorial is 
preserved in the names Priestinch, Priest's Folly, and 
others, by which some lands in the parish that most 
probably appertained to it, are still distinguished. The 

B2 



A BER 



ABER 



castle, and the lands belonging to it, in the twelfth cen- 
tury were the property of the Avenale family, from whom 
they passed by marriage to the Grahams ; and in 129S 
they were held by Sir John Graham, the friend and 
firm adherent of Sir William Wallace, under whose ban- 
ner, fighting for the independence of his country, against 
Edward I. of England, he fell in the battle of Falkirk. 
Abercorn subsequently became the property of the 
Douglas family, and on the rebeUion of the Earl of 
Douglas, the castle, which was one of the strongholds 
of his party, was besieged by James II., and taken by 
storm on the Sth of April, 1455, when the earl's re- 
tainers were put to death, and the fortifications demo- 
lished. Eventually the castle became a complete ruin, 
and every vestige of it has long since disappeared : the 
site, however, is still apparent, being marked by a grassy 
mound on which several cedars of Lebanon now grow. 
The lands were afterwards granted by the crown to 
Claude Hamilton, third son of the Earl of Arran, and 
the first Viscount Paisley, by whose devoted attachment 
to the fortunes of Mary, Queen of Scots, they became 
forfeited ; but they were subsequently restored by James 
VI. to his son, whom, in 1606, that monarch created 
Earl of Abercorn. From this family, the estate passed 
successively to the Muirs, the Lindsays, and the Setons ; 
and in I67S, the lands, which had been greatly dimi- 
nished in extent, but to which was still attached the 
sheriffdom of the county, were sold by Sir AV alter Seton 
to Sir John Hope, ancestor of the Earls of Hopetoun. 
The office of sheriff was separated from the estate about 
the middle of the eighteenth century. 

The PARISH is situated on the south shore of the 
Firth of Forth, and comprises about 4500 acres, of which 
3700 are arable, meadow, and pasture, 670 woodland 
and plantations, and the remainder roads and waste. 
Its surface is pleasingly undulated, and rises in two 
points into hills of inconsiderable eminence, of which 
the highest, Binns, has an elevation of about 350 feet, 
and Priestinch of nearly 100 feet. The former of these, 
at the western extremity of the parish, ascending gra- 
dually from the shore of the Firth, is arable to the very 
summit, and commands an interesting and extensive 
view ; and the latter, on the south border of the parish, 
is a precipitous rock of trapstone, of elliptical form, on 
the flat summit of which are some remains of an ancient 
fortification. The shore, extending for about four miles, 
is beautifully diversified with bays, headlands, and un- 
dulating banks, enriched with plantations to the water's 
edge, and occasionally interspersed with verdant patches 
of sloping meadow-land. The only rivers are, the Ne- 
thermill burn, and the Cornie, a still smaller stream, 
both which, uniting near the church, flow into the 
Firth ; and the Blackness and Linnmill burns, of which 
the former separates the parish from that of Carriden, 
and the latter from the parish of Dalmeny. In general 
the soil is a clayey loam, producing grain of all kinds of 
good quality, with potatoes and turnips ; the pastures 
are rich, and the meadows yield abundant crops of hay. 
Considerable attention has been paid to the rearing of 
cattle, in which much benefit has been effected by the 
introduction of the Teeswater breed ; and all the recent 
improvements in husbandry, and in the construction of 
agricultural implements, have been generally adopted. 
The plantations, which are extensive, and carefully ma 
naged by regular thinnmg and pruning, consist mostly 



of beech, elm, oak, sycamore, lime, and chesnut, with 
larch, Scotch, silver, and spruce firs, of all of which 
many beautiful specimens are to be found. There are 
quarries of valuable freestone in various parts of the 
parish, which have been wrought for many generations, 
the stone varying, in colour from a light cream to a dark 
grey ; and in the hill of Priestinch is a quarry of trap, 
affording excellent materials for the roads. Limestone 
is also abundant, and of very pure qualit)', better adapted 
for agricultural purposes than for building ; it occurs in 
beds ten feet in thickness, generally at a depth varying 
from fifteen to twenty-five feet below the surface. There 
is likewise a small mine of coal near Priestinch, of 
moderate quality, in working which about twenty per- 
sons are employed. The annual value of real property 
in the parish is £8009. 

Hopetoun House, the seat of the Earl of Hopetoun, 
originally commenced after a design by Sir William 
Bruce, in I696, and completed under the superintend- 
ence of Mr. Adam, is a spacious and handsome man- 
sion, consisting of a centre connected by colonnades of 
graceful curvature, with boldly projecting wings, termi- 
nating in octagonal turrets crowned with domes. Being 
seated on a splendid terrace overlooking the Firth, it 
for.Tis a truly magnificent feature as seen from the water. 
It contains numerous stately apartments, decorated with 
costly splendour ; the library contains an extensive and 
well assorted collection of scarce and valuable books and 
manuscripts, with numerous illuminated missals and 
other conventual antiquities, and the picture-gallery is 
rich in specimens of the ancient masters of the Flemish 
and Italian schools. The grounds are tastefully laid out, 
embellished with plantations ; and the walks along the 
heights overlooking the Firth command diversified pros- 
pects : the eastern approach to the mansion is through 
a level esplanade, and the western under a stately avenue 
of elms. His Majesty George IV. visited General the 
Earl of Hopetoun at this seat, on the day of his return 
from Scotland, in 1S22, and, after partaking of the earl's 
hospitality, embarked at Port-Edgar, for London. Binns 
House is an ancient castellated mansion, beautifully situ- 
ated on the western slope of the hill of the same name, 
and surrounded with a park containing much picturesque 
and romantic scenery ; the grounds are pleasingly embel- 
lished with plantations, interspersed with lawns and 
walks, and on the summit of the hill is a lofty circular 
tower forming a conspicuous landmark. Duddingston 
House is a modern mansion in the castellated style, situ- 
ated on an eminence in the south-east of the parish, and 
commanding an extensive view. Midhope House, for- 
merly a seat of the Earls of Linlithgow, is an ancient 
mansion still in tolerable preservation, and now occupied 
in tenements, to which an old staircase of massive oak 
affords access ; the building consists of a square embat- 
tled tower with angular turrets, and above the entrance 
is a coronet, with the letters J. L. 

The inhabitants are chiefly engaged in agricultural 
pursuits, and in the quarries and mines. About thirty 
persons are employed in a salmon-fishery at the mouth 
of the Linnmill burn, where several stake-nets are placed. 
The quantity of fish taken was formerly very consider- 
able, but has, within the last few years, very much 
diminished ; the lessee of the fishery pays a rent of £60 
per annum, and the whole produce is estimated at about 
£200. Facility of communication is afforded by the 



AB E R 



A B E R 



turnpike-road from Queensferry to Linlithgow ; the 
Union canal intersects the southern portion of the parish, 
and the Edinburgh and Glasgow railway, which pursues 
a direction parallel with the canal, frequently approaches 
within a few yards of its line. At Society, in the parish, 
is a small bay, where vessels with coal land their car- 
goes on the beach, and occasionally take back lime. 
There are two corn-mills propelled by water, and a saw- 
mill has been built on the Nethermill burn. 

Ecclesiastically the parish is within the bounds of the 
presbytery of Linlithgow and synod of Lothian and 
Tweeddale. The minister's stipend is £188. 15. 2., with 
a manse, and the glebe is valued at £16 per annum; 
patron, the Earl of Hopetoun. Abercorn church, a very 
ancient building, was enlarged at the time of the Reform- 
ation ; it is an irregular building, but in 1838 was tho- 
roughly repaired, previously affording very indifferent 
accommodation. There is a place of worship for mem- 
bers of the Free Church. The parochial school is well 
conducted ; the master has a salary of £34. 4. 4., with a 
house and garden, and the fees average about £40 per 
annum. A parochial library was established in 1833, 
but it was superseded in 1844 by a parish church library, 
which contains upwards of 300 volumes. 

ABERCROMBIE, or St. Monan's, a parish, in the 
district of St. Andrew's, county of Fife, 2 miles (W. 
by S.) from Pittenweem ; containing 1157 inhabitants, 
of whom 1029 are in the town of St. Monan's. This 
parish, which appears to have been a distinct parish since 
the middle of the twelfth century, is in ancient docu- 
ments invariably called Abercrombie, or Abercrumbin ; 
but towards the close of the year 1647, on the annexation 
of the barony of St. Monan's, previously in the adjoin- 
ing parish of Kilconquhar, it obtained the latter appella- 
tion, by which, till within the last thirty or forty years, 
it was generally designated. It is bounded on the 
south by the Firth of Forth, and is about a mile and 
a half in length from north to south, and a mile in 
breadth from east to west. The surface rises abruptly 
from the coast to the higher lands, which are agreeably 
undulated, and the general appearance of the parish is 
enriched and varied with thriving plantations. A small 
rivulet called the Inweary, rising in the marshy lands of 
Kilconquhar, intersects the parish, and, after a course of 
nearly two miles, falls into the Firth near the church ; 
while on the north-east flows the burn of Dreel, which, 
after bounding that portion of the parish, falls also into 
the river Forth at Anstruther Wester. 

The soil is mostly a light and friable loam, partly 
intermixed with clay, and generally very fertile ; the 
system of agriculture is in an improved state, and the 
crops are oats, barley, wheat, beans, potatoes, and tur- 
nips. There is comparatively little land in pasture. 
The substratum is chiefly sandstone and limestone, with 
some till, of which the rocks on the coast principally 
consist ; ironstone is found in great abundance on the 
beach, and coal in various parts of the parish. In the 
barony of St. Monan's are not less than six seams of 
coal, of different thickness, varying from one foot and a 
half to eighteen feet : they were formerly worked to the 
depth of nearly thirty fathoms ; but from want of capi- 
tal, they have been for some time discontinued. There 
are also several seams in the lands of Abercrombie, 
which have never been wrought. The limestone is of 
excellent quality; but the depth from the surface ren- 
5 



dered the working of it unprofitable, and since the coal- 
works have been discontinued, the quarries have been 
altogether abandoned : the want of lime is, however, 
supplied by the great quantities of sea-weed thrown 
upon the shore, which is carefully collected for manure. 
The ironstone is chiefly obtained in nodules from one 
to two pounds in weight; it is found to contain from 
twelve to eighteen hundred weight in the ton, and con- 
siderable quantities are sent away as ballast by ship- 
masters. Freestone is also found. The annual value 
of real property in the parish is £2134. 

Ecclesiastically, the parish is within the bounds of 
the presbytery of St. Andrew's and synod of Fife ; 
patron, the Crown. The stipend of the incumbent 
amounts to £l62. 0. 11., of which about a fifth is re- 
ceived from the exchequer ; the manse was rebuilt in 
1796, and enlarged in 1819, and the glebe comprises 
about twelve acres of good land. The church, formerly 
the chapel of St. Monan, is said to have been originally 
founded by David II., about the year 1370, and by him 
dedicated to St. Monan, the tutelar saint of the place, 
in gratitude for the deliverance of his queen and himself 
from shipwreck on this part of the coast. It is a beau- 
tiful specimen of the style prevailing at that period, and 
forms a cruciform structure, with a square tower rising 
from the centre, surmounted by an octagonal spire. 
The nave had become a complete ruin, and had been 
altogether removed ; the transepts were roofless and 
dilapidated, and the choir, the only portion, except the 
tower, which remained entire, was for many years used 
as the parish church ; but in 182S, the building was 
restored, with the exception of the nave ; the walls of 
the transepts were raised to a height equal to that of 
the choir, and the whole now forms one of the most 
beautiful edifices in the country. It is adapted for a 
congregation of 530 persons. The parochial school is 
under good regulation ; the master has a salary of £34. 
4. 4., and fees £34, with a house and garden. 

At the north-east end of the parish, near the lands of 
Balcaskie, are some remains of the ancient church of 
Abercrombie, which, after the annexation of the barony 
of St. Monan's, was abandoned as a place of worship ; 
they are situated in a secluded and romantic spot, for- 
merly the churchyard, and still the burying-place of the 
Anstruther family, and of others. There are also some 
remains of the old mansion-house of Newark, the an- 
cient residence of the family of Sandiland, lords of the 
barony, consisting of three stories. The northern part 
is still in tolerable repair, but the other portion is roof- 
less and much dilapidated ; the ground-floor contains 
several apartments with vaulted roofs, and the upper 
stories had, till lately, some comfortable rooms occupied 
by servants belonging to the farm. The building is so 
near a lofty rock rising precipitously from the sea-shore, 
that there is scarcely room for a person to pass between 
the cliff and the southern gable. Lieut.- General Sir 
David Leslie, son of Lord Lindores, resided at Newark, 
which he had purchased from the Sandiland family, and 
was created Lord Newark in the reign of Charles II. ; 
he distinguished himself greatly in the civil wars, and 
was interred at this place. — See Monan's, St. 

ABERDALGIE and DUPPLIN, a parish, in the 
county of Perth, 3 miles (S. W.) from Perth ; contain- 
ing 360 inhabitants. These two ancient parishes were 
united in the year I6l8. They are beautifully situated on 



AB E R 



AB E R 



the northern side of the vale of Stratheam ; they measure 
about three miles in length, from east to west, and two 
miles and a half in breadth, comprising '3900 acres, of 
which more than '2000 are under tillage, and the remain- 
der wood and waste. The river Earn flows on the south, 
and, with its picturesque windings through the strath, 
and its banks ornamented with gentlemen's seats, good 
farm-houses, and well-cultivated lands, forms a principal 
feature in the interesting scenery of this locality. In 
the direction of the river, the prospect is terminated by 
the Ochil hills ; whilst towards the north, where the 
higher lands of the parish gradually slope again in a 
northern direction, appear the vales of the Almond, the 
Tay, and Strathmore, the richly diversified views being 
bounded by the Grampian mountains. The parish con- 
sists of six large farms and three of smaller extent, 
which are under the best system of husbandry. In the 
northern district, where the climate is sharp and the 
soil cold and tilly, the lands produce oats, barley, peas, 
and beans ; in the southern portion wheat is much cul- 
tivated, the greater warmth of the sun and the rich 
loamy and clayey soil favouring its growth. Among the 
many improvements in agriculture, wedge-draining has 
been of great service on the wet cold grounds, and is 
extensively practised : much benefit has also been de- 
rived from the introduction of turnip husbandry, and 
the increase in the growth of potatoes. The prevailing 
rock is the old red sandstone, of which there are several 
quarries. The annual value of real property in the 
parish is £3871. Here is the handsome mansion of 
Dupplin Castle, the seat of the Earl of Kinnoull, the 
sole heritor. The former house was accidentally burnt 
on the 11th of Sept., IS'27, and a new edifice was erected 
on the same site, and completed about the year 1S3'2, 
in the Elizabethan style, by the present earl, at a cost 
of upwards of £30,000. The wood on the property is 
exceedingly beautiful, extending over some hundreds of 
acres, and comprising sweet and horse chesuuts, beech, 
spruce, and Scotch fir, some of which are of large bulk 
and stature. Dupplin Castle was visited by Her Majesty, 
during her first tour in Scotland, on the 6th of Sept., 
1842; she arrived here at two o'clock, and, after par- 
taking of a sumptuous dejeuner, received a deputation 
from the city of Perth, consisting of the provost, magis- 
trates, and other authorities, who presented a loyal 
address. There are considerable facilities of intercourse. 
The old road from Perth to Stirling passes through the 
northern declivity of the parish, and a new line running 
along the plain below was finished in 1811, for the com- 
mencement of which the Earl of Kinnoull advanced 
£3000. On the sides of this road, many excellent 
farm-houses have been built, and it has proved of great 
advantage to the locality for the conveyance of lime and 
manures, as well as for the export of general produce, 
consisting chiefly of grain and potatoes, sent to Perth 
and Ncwburgb. 

Ecclesiastically the parish is in the presbytery of 
Perth, synod of Perth and Stirling, and in the alternate 
patronage of the Crown and the Earl of Kiunoidl : the 
minister's stipend is £1,5". 19. 4., with a manse, and a 
glebe of fourteen acres, including the site of the manse, 
garden, &c. The present church of Aberdalgie was 
built in 1773, and a vault was constructed under it for 
the Hay-Druramond family, though their ancient burial- 
place is at the church of Kinnoull. In the churchyard is 



the burial-place of the Lords Oliphant, of Bachilton, for 
centuries the feudal lords of Aberdalgie, and on the 
outside is a large stone with a well-executed figure of 
a warrior. The foundations of the old church of Dup- 
plin are still remaining, within an inclosed churchyard. 
The parochial school affords instruction in the ordinary 
branches ; the master has a salary of £34. 4. 4., with a 
house, and £14 fees. The Earl of Kinnoull takes the 
title of Viscount Dupplin from this place. 

ABERDARGIE, a village, in that part of the parish 
of Abernethy which is in the county of Perth, 1 mile 
(W.) of Abernethy ; containing 200 inhabitants. It is 
pleasantly situated, and the road from Kinghorn to 
Perth passes through the village. A part of the inha- 
bitants, both male and female, are engaged in weaving 
linen-yarn. 



SEAL AND ARMS. 




Reverse. 



ABERDEEN, a city, and sea-port town, the seat of a 
university, the capital of the county of Aberdeen, and 
the metropolis of the North of Scotland, 109 miles 
(N. N. E.) from Edinburgh, and 511 (X. by W.) from 
London ; containing, with parts of the parishes of Old 
Aberdeen and Banchory-Devenick, 67,000 inhabitants. 
This ancient city is by some historians identified with 
the Devana of Ptolemy ; and according to an absurd 
tradition, Gregory the Great, King of Scotland, is said 
to have made the town a royal burgh. Little of its 
authentic history is known prior to the reign of Malcolm 
III. ; and the first traces of its having attained any 
importance are found in a charter granted at Perth, by 
U'Uliam the Lion, conferring on the inhabitants the pri- 
vilege of free trade, as fully as their ancestors had en- 
joyed that liberty in the time of Malcolm : the same 
monarch, by a second charter, dated 28th of Aug., 1 179, 
granted them exemption from tolls and customs in all 
markets and fairs within his kingdom. About this time, 
Esteyn, one of the Norwegian kings, in a piratical ex- 
cursion along the British coast, landed at this place, and 
plundered the town, which had attained sufficient im- 
portance to attract the notice of the sovereign, who 
erected for his occasional residence, when visiting here, 
an edifice near the east end of the present Green, 
which he afterwards bestowed on the monks of the 
Holy Trinity, who had recently been introduced into 
Scotland. William also established an exchequer and a 
mint, near the south end of the modern Castle-street, 
where money was coined during his reign. Alexander 
II. on various occasions made protracted visits to the 
town ; and about the year 1222, in company with 
his sister, the Princess Isabella, he celebrated the fes- 
tival of Christmas here : he subsequently built, on 



A B E R 



A B E R 



the site now occupied by Gordon's Hospital, a convent 
for Dominician or Black friars. This monarch, by a 
charter to the burgesses, confirmed all the privileges 
bestowed by his predecessors, to which he added the 
grant of a weekly market, and the right of establishing 
a merchant guild. In 1244, the town was nearly de- 
stroyed by an accidental fire, which burnt many of the 
houses, at that time built chiefly of wood ; and about 
the year 1260, it suffered materially from a similar 
calamity. Alexander HI., by charter dated at Kintore, 
in 1274, granted to the burgesses the privilege of an 
annual fair, to continue for fourteen days. The town, 
however, had made but little progress in commerce ; 
though, as a sea-port, it had obtained a reputation for 
the curing of fish, of which its rivers and the sea 
afforded ample supplies for the use of the inhabitants, 
and also for exportation. 

Aberdeen, after it had recovered from the devastation 
it had suffered from fire, was defended by a strong 
castle, and by gates at the entrances of the principal 
streets ; and the inhabitants, who in every time of 
danger were distinguished by their undaunted courage 
in resisting the attacks of its enemies, in all cases of 
assault were headed by their chief magistrate, who 
invariably acted as their captain. In the wars which, 
after the death of Alexander III., arose from the dis- 
puted succession to the throne, the city had its full 
share of vicissitude and of the troubles of that distracted 
period. Edward, King of England, to whom the arbi- 
tration of the contest had been referred, though he 
appointed John Daliol to the Scottish throne, yet con- 
sidered himself entitled to the sovereignty, and taking 
advantage of the internal hostilities which prevailed, 
invaded Scotland with a powerful army, and made him- 
self master of the southern portion of the kingdom. 
Having dethroned Baliol, he advanced with his forces to 
Aberdeen, and, securing possession of the castle, placed 
in it an English garrison, ^Jvhich held the town and 
neighbourhood in subjection. On the approach of 
H'illiam Wallace to the relief of the citizens, the En- 
glish reinforced the garrison, plundered and set fire to 
the town, and embarked on board their ships. Wallace, 
after besieging the castle without success, retreated to 
Angus, and having sustained various reverses, was 
betrayed into the hands of Edward, and conveyed 
prisoner to London, where he suffered death as a 
traitor ; and his body being quartered, one of his 
mangled quarters was exposed on the gate of the castle 
here, to intimidate his followers in this part of the 
country. Robert Bruce, in asserting his right to the 
Scottish throne, experienced many privations, and was 
reduced to the necessity of taking refuge, with his wife 
and children, among the mountains of Aberdeenshire ; 
but having mustered a considerable force, which was 
augmented by the citizens of Aberdeen, who embraced 
his cause, he gave battle near the hill of Barra, and 
obtained a victory over the English, who were under 
the command of Comyn, Earl of Buchan, and Mowbray, 
the English leader. According to Boece, the citizens, 
flushed with this success, returned to the town, assaulted 
the castle, which they took by storm, and put the 
garrison to the sword ; and to prevent its falling again 
into the hands of the enemy, they demolished the 
fortifications. The English in the vicinity assembled 
their forces, and assaulted the city ; but the townsmen, 
7 



led on by Eraser, their provost, repulsed them with con- 
siderable slaughter. In reward of their patriotism and 
valour on this occasion, the king granted the city new 
armorial-bearings, with the motto Bon Accord, their 
watchword on that memorable occasion ; and after the 
battle of Bannockburn, being firmly seated on the 
throne, he gave the citizens several charters, some 
ample donations of lands, and the forest of Stocket, with 
all the privileges attached to it, reserving to himself only 
the growing timber, with the right of hunting. In 1319 
he honoured the town with a visit. 

Subsequently to the death of Robert Bruce, and 
during the minority of his son David II., a civil war 
broke out in the country ; and Edward III. of England, 
who, with the exception of Aberdeen, had all the Scottish 
fortresses in his possession, invaded the kingdom to 
assert his right to the sovereignty. While triumphant 
in the southern districts of the kingdom, Sir Thomas 
Roscelyn, one of his knights, landed a body of forces at 
Dunnottar, with which he advanced to Aberdeen : the 
citizens, taking arms, met the invaders on the Green, but 
were defeated with considerable loss, though Roscelyn 
fell in the encounter ; and the town was given up to 
plunder, and set on fire by the English. David 11. , who 
during these troubles had remained in France, returned 
with his queen, and having regained his kingdom, held 
his first parliament in Aberdeen, which he occasionally 
made his residence. He confirmed to the citizens all 
the grants which his father had conferred, and gave 
them every assistance in rebuilding their town, which 
thence took the appellation of New Aberdeen, though of 
much greater antiquity than the Kirktown of Seaton, 
since that period called Old Aberdeen. 

After the expulsion of the English from Scotland, 
Aberdeen began to flourish as a place of commerce, and 
was represented in parliament. In a parliament held at 
Edinburgh, in 1357, to concert measures for the ransom 
of the Scottish king, David II., who since the battle of 
Neville's Cross had been detained prisoner in England, 
the city ranked as the fourth in the kingdom, and 
became joint guarantee for the payment of the stipulated 
sura. The king, on his return to Scotland, took up his 
residence in the town, which he frequently afterwards 
visited, and which, in a subsequent parliament, appeared 
as the first city on the roll, after Edinburgh. Robert II., 
the first of the race of Stuart, assembled a parliament 
in the town, in order to plan a hostile incursion into 
England ; and granted various privileges to the city, 
which was at that time the residence of several branches 
of the royal family, among whom were the Princess 
Matilda, sister of King David, and Christian, sister of 
King Robert Bruce. The trade of the port had now 
become considerable, and consisted chiefly in wool, 
hides, tallow, coarse woollen-cloth, cured salmon and 
other fish, which were exported to England, France, 
Holland, Flanders, and Hamburgh, whence there were 
imported linen, fine woollen-cloth, wines, oil, salt, soap, 
dye-stuffs, spices, hardware, iron, armour of various 
kinds, malt, wheat, and numerous other articles. Du- 
ring the regency of the Duke of Albany, in the time of 
Robert III., Donald, Lord of the Isles, having entered 
into an alliance with England, asserted a claim to. the 
earldom of Ross, and raised an army of 10,000 men, 
to obtain forcible possession of that territory ; on which 
occasion the citizens of Aberdeen, headed by Sir Robert 



ABER 



ABER 



Davidson, their provost, joined the forces under the 
Earl of Mar, which had been raised to oppose Donald, 
Lord of the Isles ; and encountering the army of Donald 
at Harlaw, about eighteen miles to the north of the city, 
a sanguinary battle took place, in vshich Sir Robert and 
many of the citizens were killed. The conflict termi- 
nated with the day, neither party claiming the victory, 
but in the course of the night the Highlanders retreated 
to the mountains. The provost was buried in the 
church of St. Nicholas, near the altar of St. Ann, which 
his father had founded. The standard borne by the 
citizens on the occasion of this battle was long preserved 
in the armoury of the town. On the release of King 
Jatnes, son of Robert III., who had been kept as a 
prisoner in England during the regency, Aberdeen was 
one of the four cities which became bound to pay the 
English monarch £40,000, for his maintenance and 
education while in captivity. After the murder of 
James, in the year 143", the citizens chose for their 
provost Sir Alexander Irvine of Drum, whom they 
invested with the title of captain and governor of the 
city ; and in the anarchy which prevailed during the 
minority of Khig James II., they fortified the town, armed 
themselves, and enforced the strictest military discipline. 
In 1448, James II. made his first visit to the city, where 
he was received with every demonstration of loyalty and 
respect; and in 145.'), the same marks of attention were 
paid his queen. 

Upon the death of James III., at the battle of Sau- 
chie-Burn, in 14SS, an attempt was made to rescue the 
young prince from the power of a faction that had led 
him into rebellion against his father, James III. ; in 
which attempt the citizens concuired, attaching the 
common seal of the corporation to their resolutions to 
that effect. About the same time, Sir Andrew Wood, 
admiral of Scotland, endeavoured to deprive them of 
the lands of Stocket granted to them by King Robert 
Bruce, but, on appeal to the sovereign, their possession 
was confirmed by a decree of James IV., in 149*. This 
monarch frequently visited the city, and, on one occa- 
sion, remained here for a considerable time, while 
making arrangements for the establishment of a univer- 
sity, for which purpose he obtained from Pope Alex- 
ander a bull dated the 6th of February, 1494. Under 
an apprehension of invasion from England, in conse- 
quence of the countenance afforded to Perkin Warbeck, 
in the reign of Henry VII., by the Scottish monarch, 
the citizens fortified the town, erected a blockhouse near 
the mouth of the river, and threw up a breastwork as an 
additional defence ; but a treaty for peace rendered 
these preparations unnecessary ; and on the subsequent 
marriage of James IV. with the Princess Margaret, 
daughter of the English monarch, the council sent a 
deputation of the citizens, attended by a band of min- 
strels, to congratulate their sovereign. In the year 
1 .6 1 1 , the queen visited Aberdeen, where she was received 
with acclamations of joy ; and during her stay the chief 
streets of the city were hung with tapestry and fancifully 
adorned. The inhabitants, in 1513, contributed a com- 
pany of spearmen, and a squadron of horse, towards the 
expedition of Flodden Field, in which the king and many 
of the Scottish nobility were killed. A few years after- 
wards, in 15'25, Alexander Scton of Meldrum, in resent- 
ment of a supposed affront to his clan, entered the city 
at night, with a large party of his followers, and a battle 
8 



ensued, in which eighty of the citizens, including several 
of the magistrates, were slain. In 1530, Lord Forbes of 
Castle-Forbes, who had been in the habit of receiving 
annually a tun of wine for preserving the fisheries of the 
rivers Dee and Don, provoked by the discontinuance of 
this present in consequence of a quarrel between his 
sons and the citizens, entered the city with a numerous 
retinue, and a fierce conflict arose, which terminated in 
his complete defeat. On his giving security, how-ever, 
for the future good conduct of his partisans, the magis- 
trates renewed their accustomed present. In 1540, 
James V., after the melancholy loss of his two sons in 
one day, visited the city, attended by his queen and 
court, to divert his grief, and remained for fourteen days ; 
and the citizens fitted out a ship of war, to join the royal 
squadron in the Firth of Forth, to convoy the king to 
England, on a visit to Henry VIII. Upon the invasion 
of Scotland by the Duke of Somerset, in 1547, the 
citizens furnished a large supply of men to join the 
queen's forces under the Earl of Arran, of whom very 
few returned from the fatal battle of Pinkie ; and in 
1552, the earl, who had been appointed regent during 
the minority of Mary, attended by the queen dowager, 
visited the town, and was hospitably entertained by the 
citizens. 

On the introduction of the Reformed religion, the 
citizens were little disposed to receive it. At the solici- 
tation of Gavin Dunbar, Bishop of Aberdeen, in 1525, a 
manifesto was issued by the king, directing the magis- 
trates of Aberdeen to inquire into the conduct of those 
who maintained heretical opinions ; but it was not till 
1544 that any attention was paid to that injunction, 
when two Protestant citizens were committed to prison 
by the Earl of Huntlj', then provost of the city, till they 
should be brought to trial. In 1559, on the approach 
of a body of Reformers called the Congregation, the 
magistrates took the precaution of removing from the 
church of St. Nicholas the sacred vessels, and ornaments, 
with every thing of value, which they deposited, with 
the archives of the town, in a place of security. On the 
29th of December, in that year, a large party of Re- 
formers from Angus and Mearns entered the city, re- 
solved upon the destruction of the sacred edifices, and 
commenced an attack on the spire of the church, which 
they attempted to pull down. But the citizens, flying 
to arms, arrested the work of demolition, and it was 
not till the 4th of January following, that the Reform- 
ers ventured to renew their efforts. They then pro- 
ceeded to the monastery of the Black friars, in School- 
hill, and the convent of the Carmelites, on the Green ; 
and, having demolished those buildings and carried off 
the property, advanced to the monastery of the Grey 
friars, in Broad-street, stripped the church of its leaden 
roof, and were about to demolish the building, when 
the citizens again interposed and prevented further 
injury. The citizens, notwithstanding, ultimately em- 
braced the Reformed religion ; and in a meeting of the 
council, it was resolved to demolish the monasteries, to 
convert the materials to the public use, and to sell the 
silver, brass, and other ornaments, which had been re- 
moved from the church of St. Nicholas, and place the 
proceeds in the common fund of the city. It was re- 
solved, also, to furnish forty men for the service of the 
Congregation, and to use all their efforts for the sup- 
pression of idolatry ; and Adam Heriot, friar of the 



ABER 



ABER 



order of St. Augustine, and a brother of the abbey of 
St. Andrew, having renounced the errors of popery, 
was appointed by the General Assembly minister of 
Aberdeen, which office he held till his death. In 1562, 
M.\RY, Queen of Scots, in her progress through the 
north, visited Aberdeen, where she was hospitably en- 
tertained, and during her stay was waited upon by Lady 
Huntly, who, interceding for her son Sir John Gordon, 
obtained his pardon, on condition of his confinement in 
Stirling Castle during her majesty's pleasure. On his 
way to that fortress, however, he escaped from his 
guards, and returning to the north, appeared with a 
body of 1000 horse, and was soon after joined by his 
father, the Earl of Huntly. The queen's army, under 
the command of the Earl of Murray, having come from 
Inverness to Aberdeen, marched against the forces of the 
Earl of Huntly and his son, over whom they gained a 
complete victory ; the earl was killed, and his two sons, 
Sir John and Adam Gordon, with many others, were 
brought prisoners to Aberdeen, where Sir John Gor- 
don, two days after the battle, was beheaded in Castle- 
street. 

In 1581, James VI. paid a visit to Aberdeen, on 
which occasion the citizens presented him with 3000 
merks in gold; and in 15S9, that monarch, attended by 
his court, remained in Aberdeen for some time, during 
which butts for the practice of archery were erected on 
Castle-hill, for their amusement. In the same year, the 
citizens fitted out a ship of war, to join the squadron 
intended to convoy the king and queen, on their return 
from Denmark. In 159'2, the king again visited the 
city ; and though welcomed by the usual presents, he 
took a bond from the magistrates that they would not 
confederate with the Earl of Huntly, nor join with 
Jesuits, priests, or rebels, but faithfully observe the 
true doctrines of the Reformed religion. On the defeat 
of the royal forces in Banffshire, in 1594, the king re- 
paired to Aberdeen, where, raising a body of troops, he 
was joined by Lord Forbes and other barons, against 
the popish Lords Errol, Angus, Huntly, and others ; 
and in 1600, the inhabitants celebrated the escape of 
their sovereign from the conspiracy of the Earl of 
Ruthven, by a public procession, and presented an 
address, composed in Latin by the rector of the gram- 
mar school, expressing their abhorrence of the attempt 
on his life. In 16 17, after his accession to the throne 
of England, James VI. visited his native country, and 
the magistrates of Aberdeen received intimation that 
he would visit their city, in his progress through the 
north ; but their expectations were not fulfilled. In 
1620, Sir Thomas Menzies, provost of the city, was 
sent on a mission to the court of London, and on his 
introduction presented to the king a valuable pearl, 
which, it is said, has a place in the imperial crown of 
Great Britain. 

The city sent a deputation to express to Charles I., 
on his landing in Scotland, a testimony of their affec- 
tionate loyalty. At this time, the Covenant, which had 
obtained almost universal subscription, found but little 
support in Aberdeen ; and the citizens, firmly attached 
to their sovereign, acquiesced in all his endeavours to 
establish episcopacy. In 1638, the Earl of Montrose, 
the Lords Coupar, Forbes, and others, with the ministers 
of Irvine and Pitsligo, appeared in the town, as com- 
missioners from the General Assembly, and called upon 
Vol. I.— 9 



the citizens to subscribe the Solemn League and Cove- 
nant. Failing in their object, they took their departure, 
and the Assembly held a court at Glasgow, at which 
they ordered the Covenant to be subscribed, on pain of 
excommunication : this order was generally obeyed, and 
the whole country became subject to the Covenanters, 
with the exception of Aberdeen, which, under the 
influence of the Marquess of Huntly, a zealous adherent 
of the reigning monarch, still held out. In this state of 
affairs, the citizens placed the town in a posture of de- 
fence : the provost and sixteen of the principal citizens 
formed a council of war ; a vessel laden with arms and 
warlike stores arrived in the harbour from England, 
and every preparation was made to resist an attack. 
The Earl of Montrose, at the head of an army of 
Covenanters, made his appearance in the neighbour- 
hood, and advanced to the town with a force of 9000 
horse and foot, which he encamped on the links of 
Aberdeen ; while the Earl of Kinghorn, who had been 
appointed governor of the town, had only a garrison of 
1800 for its defence. After some time, the Earl of 
Montrose withdrew his army to Inverury ; but, again 
encamping on the links, the citizens ultimately sub- 
scribed the Covenant, and four of them were appointed 
by Montrose as commissioners to the General Assembly 
at Edinburgh. During the progress of the civil war, 
the town suffered materially from all parties, as they 
became successively predominant, and was exposed to 
continual vicissitudes. The last battle that occurred 
here was in 1646, in which year Major Middleton, 
arriving in the town, took the command of the Cove- 
nanters' army, against the Marquess of Huntly and 
the Earl of Aboyne, when it fell an easy conquest to the 
marquess, who was, however, soon after seized by the 
Covenanters, and sent, with many others, to Edinburgh, 
where he was put to death. Charles II., on his return 
from the continent, was received in Aberdeen with 
every feeling of attachment ; the keys were delivered to 
him by the provost, and he remained in the town for 
more than a week. On his restoration in I66O, the 
citizens testified their joy by a public procession, and 
sent a deputation to London, to present a congratulatory 
address. 

In 1668, the city raised a corps of 120 men, in aug- 
mentation of the militia ; and on the subsequent accession 
of James II. and of IVilliam III., the inhabitants duly 
testified their loyalty. The accession of Queen Anne, 
daughter of James II., was proclaimed here with public 
rejoicings ; and on the union of the two kingdoms, in 
1707, Aberdeen, in conjunction with the burghs ot 
Arbroath, Montrose, Brechin, and Bervie, sent a mem- 
ber to the united parliament. Soon after the accession 
of George I., the Earl of Mar, a zealous adherent of the 
exiled family, assembled some forces at Braemar, in the 
highland districts of Aberdeenshire, and proclaimed the 
Chevalier de St. George, son of James II. (or James VII. 
of Scotland), sovereign of Britain by the title of 
James VIII., and levied an army of 10,000 men for his 
support. The magistrates of Aberdeen, who were zea- 
lously attached to the reigning family, put the city in a 
state of defence ; but the partisans of the Pretender, 
having gained an ascendancy, assumed the civil govern- 
ment, and the earl-marischal, arriving soon after with a 
squadron of horse, proclaimed the Pretender at the 
Cross, on the day for the election of the city officers. 

C 



A BE R 



A B E R 



The magistrates and council absented themselves, with- 
out making any election for the ensuing year; and on 
the day following, the earl-niarischal, in the East church, 
chose such of the burgesses as were favourable to his 
cause, and formed an administration for the government 
of the city. The earl levied an imposition of £200 for 
the use of the Pretender's army, and £2000 as a loan, 
which, with other supplies, were sent to his head-quarters 
at Perth. The Pretender soon afterwards arriving, with 
a retinue of six gentlemen, from France, landed at 
Peterhead, and passed incognito through Aberdeen to 
Fetteresso, on his way to Perth, where he was received 
by the Earl of Mar and the earl-marischal ; the pro- 
fessors of Marischal and King's Colleges having waited 
upon him at Fetteresso, with an address of congratula- 
tion. The royal army, however, under the Duke of 
Argyll, was every day increasing in numbers, while that 
of the Pretender was rapidly diminishing, and was 
eventually dispersed ; the administration of the city 
returned into its proper channel, and the election of the 
magistrates, which had been interrupted by this rash 
adventure, was made as usual. In 1*16, a fire broke 
out at the Gallowgate, which very soon extended itself 
to other parts of the town ; many houses were destroyed, 
and the council made a liberal contribution for the relief 
of the sufferers. This calamity was not long after fol- 
lowed by apprehensions of a famine, from a continued 
state of unfavourable weather ; to counteract this evil, 
the magistrates and council, with the neighbouring 
gentry, supplied the town with 4000 bolls of meal, and 
imported a considerable quantity of grain from Holland. 
In 1741, a fire broke out in Broad-street which de- 
stroyed many houses, the dwellings being at that time 
chiefly built of wood : and an act of council was soon 
afterwards passed, enjoining that the outer walls of 
all houses should be in future built of stone. The 
city consequently began to assume a more regular and 
handsome appearance. 

On the landing of Charles Edward, eldest son of the 
Pretender, in 17-15, the citizens firmly maintained their 
allegiance to the reigning family ; and General Cope 
embarked his forces at this place, previously to the 
battle of Prestonpans. Hamilton, an exceedingly zealous 
partisan of the adventurer, marched to Aberdeen, with 
a detachment of the rebel army, on the day of election 
of the town magistrates, and proclaimed Prince Charles 
regent of the kingdom ; he compelled the magistrates 
to attend him, and hberated the prisoners in the gaol. 
In November, Lord Lewis Gordon, who had been ap- 
pointed by the Young Pretender lord lieutenant of the 
counties of Aberdeen and Banff, made his appearance in 
the city, summoned the magistrates to attend him at the 
town-house, and completed the election which had been 
suspended on the arrival of Hamilton : he appointed 
magistrates whom he thought likely to promote his 
views, but they all refused to act ; and made his deputy 
lieutenant-governor of the town. Soon afterwards. 
Lord John Drummond arrived in the city, as com- 
mander-in-chief of the forces of His Most Christian 
Majesty, and published a manifesto at the market-cross, 
calling on the citizens for their support ; but it received 
little attention. In the mean time, the Earl of Loudon, 
commander-in-chief of the royal forces, having assem- 
bled an army of Highlanders, consisting of the clans of 
the M'Leods, Monroes, Sutherlands, and others, ad- 
10 



vanced to Aberdeen, to deliver the city from the posses- 
sion of the rebels ; but Gordon, who had gone out to 
intercept them, meeting with some success, returned to 
Aberdeen with several prisoners, among whom was the 
principal of Marischal College, and levied a contribution 
of £1000 for the maintenance of the rebel army. On 
the Sth of February, 1746, a party of the rebels, flying 
from before the army under the Duke of Cumberland, 
arrived in the city ; but they were soon followed by the 
whole of the royal forces, who were cantoned in the 
town, in Old Aberdeen, and the neighbouring villages ; 
and on the '27th, the duke, with his entire staff, and a 
company of dragoons, made his appearance here, and 
was congratulated by the provost and magistrates on his 
success. The army remained in their quarters till the 
beginning of April ; and upon their departure, the city 
was protected by a garrison, and the newly-erected 
buildings of Gordon Hospital were occupied as a tempo- 
rary fort. After the battle of Culloden, the magistrates 
voted the freedom of the city to the Duke of Cumber- 
land, which was presented to him in a box of gold. On 
the anniversary of the accession of George I., some of 
the officers of the army quartered in Aberdeen ordered 
a general illumination, which not being so fully complied 
with as they expected, orders were given to their soldiers 
to break the windows of the houses of the inhabitants. 
Upon this occasion, the magistrates issued a warrant 
for the apprehension of the officers who had issued those 
orders, and committed them to prison, till they gave 
security for the reparation of the damage. 

The coronation of George III. w-as celebrated here with 
great rejoicings; and soon after the commencement of the 
American war, the city raised a corps of 500 volunteers 
for the defence of the town and port, and offered to pro- 
vide a regiment for the service of government : in 1*81, 
it fitted out three privateers, two of which were cut 
out of the bay of Aberdeen, where they were riding at 
anchor, by the notorious Captain Fall, under the guns 
of the newly-erected battery. During the scarcity that 
prevailed in 17S2, the magistrates raised large sums of 
money for the alleviation of the sufferings of the poor ; 
and in cases of shipwreck, of which many melancholy 
instances have occurred off this part of the coast, they 
have always been remarkable for the liberality of their 
contributions of relief. In 1809, from the increase of 
the trade and shipping of the port, it was found neces- 
sary to extend and improve the harbour, a work which 
was shortly proceeded with under the superintendence 
of the late Mr. Telford, the eminent engineer ; and sub- 
sequently, many changes have been made in the build- 
ings and plan of the city. New streets have been 
opened ; the public roads and approaches have been 
greatly improved ; several handsome public buildings 
have been erected, and the whole being built of the 
beautiful species of granite peculiar to this part of the 
country, the city presents an appearance of splendour 
and magnificence fully entitling it to the appellation of 
the metropolis of the north. 

In the month of September, 1848, Her Majesty the 
Queen, Prince Albert, the Prince of Wales, Prince 
Alfred, and the Princess Royal, with their attendants, 
visited the city on their way to Balmoral, in Strathdee. 
The royal yacht arrived here on the morning of Thurs- 
day, the 7th of September ; and at half past one o'clock, 
the provost and magistrates of the city proceeded from 



ABER 



A B E R 



the town-house to the yacht for the purpose of present- 
ing a dutiful address to Her Majesty, and the freedom 
of the city to her royal consort. A deputation from the 
senatus academicus of Marischal College was also in 
attendance, for the purpose of presenting an address 
from the university. Later in the afternoon. His Royal 
Highness visited Old Aberdeen, halting at King's Col- 
lege, where the Earl of Aberdeen, as chancellor of the 
university of King's College, and the professors of this 
ancient seat of learning, were in waiting to receive the 
party at the entrance : an address from the senatus was 
presented to the prince in the college hall by Lord Aber- 
deen, and Provost Nicoll presented an address from the 
magistrates of Old Aberdeen. After visiting the library 
and chapel, His Royal Highness walked from the college 
to the old cathedral, and was there received by the 
reverend minister of the parish, who conducted him 
through the edifice. The royal party then returned to 
New Aberdeen, and paid a visit to Marischal College : 
here an address was also presented, and the prince 
inspected the library, museum, and observatory of the 
university. The polished-granite works of Messrs. Mc 
Donald and Leslie were next visited ; and at about half 
past five o'clock. His Royal Highness rejoined the queen 
in the royal yacht. In the course of the evening, Her 
Majesty received the principal and professors of King's 
College in the saloon of the yacht ; also the provost and 
magistrates of Old Aberdeen : and on the following 
morning, the 8th of September, the corporate, ecclesias- 
tical, and other authorities of Aberdeen took up their 
appropriate positions for the public reception of her 
Majesty on landing. At half past eight o'clock the 
royal family quitted the yacht, and took their seats in 
the royal carriage, a procession being formed, which 
passed along the quay, and through the city. On ar- 
riving at the confines of the city at Holburn, the magis- 
trates and other city officials drew aside, and the car- 
riages of the royal party proceeded on their way to 
Balmoral, which was reached in the afternoon, after a 
progress marked with the most lively demonstrations of 
loyalty and affection. On the occasion of this visit, His 
Royal Highness Prince Albert was invested with the free- 
dom of Old Aberdeen, as well as that of Aberdeen ; and 
also had the degree of LL.D. conferred upon him by the 
senatus academicus of King's College. 

This TOWN, which, on its being restored from the de- 
vastation it suffered during the wars with England, ob- 
tained the name of New Aberdeen, is situated on slightly 
elevated ground on the north bank of the river Dee, 
near its influx into the sea, and about a mile and a half 
from the mouth of the river Don. It is bounded on the 
south by the harbour, and on the cast by the Castle-hill. 
The more ancient part is built on a very unequal surface, 
consisting of several hills of trifling elevation, of which 
the Castle-hill, St. Katharine's hill, School-hill, 'Woolman- 
hill, and Port-hill are the most prominent. At the 
entrances from the suburbs into the principal streets 
were formerly gates, the chief of them being Gallowgate, 
Justice-port, Futtie's-port, Trinity or Quay-head port, 
Netherkirkgate-port, and Upperkirkgate-port, all of 
which have been removed in the various improvements 
effected at different times. The present town is rather 
more than a mile in length, from the barracks on the 
east to the extremity of Union-street on the west, and 
about 1500 yards in breadth, from the quays on the 
11 



south to Love-lane on the north. The more modern 
part, forming by far the greater portion, consists of spa- 
cious and well-formed streets, of which Union-street, 
extending from the west end of Castle-street to the 
western extremity of the town, is seventy feet wide, and 
is carried over the Denburn rivulet, and the vale through 
which it flows, by a magnificent bridge of granite. This 
bridge consists of one spacious arch, 150 feet in span, 
and 50 feet in height, crowned with a parapet and cor- 
nice surmounted by an open balustrade, and having a 
rise of twenty-nine feet only from the spring of the arch, 
on the west side of which is a dry arch, and on the east 
two drj' arches, to raise the street to a proper level. Two 
streets, also, have been arched over for the line of Union- 
street ; and carriages highly loaded can pass under the 
arches with ease. King-street, leading from Castle- 
street towards the north, is a fine street, sixty feet in 
width ; and St. Nicholas street, branching from Union- 
street to the north, is also a handsome and spacious « 
street. During the latter part of the last century, a 
number of new streets were opened, of which the prin- 
cipal are Virginia-street, Tannery-street, North-street, 
Marischal-street, Belmont, Queen, James, Carmelite, 
George, and St. Andrew's streets ; and since the com- 
mencement of the present century, the area of the town 
has been at least doubled. The houses, built of fine 
granite, with which the neighbourhood abounds, have 
a splendid appearance ; and the city generally, from the 
style and character of its buildings, wears a command- 
ing aspect. 

Aberdeen was at first lighted with gas extracted from 
oil, by a company established in IS'24; but finding it 
an unprofitable undertaking, they afterwards had re- 
course to coal-gas, in the production of which the best 
parrot-coal is used, and the streets are now brilliantly 
lighted with gas, carefully purified, and conducted by 
cast-iron pipes, of which the aggregate length exceeds 
forty-eight miles : the works are extensive, and conve- 
niently situated in the lower part of the town. The inha- 
bitants were originally supplied with water from wells 
sunk in various parts of the town, and from a cistern in 
Broad-street, containing more than 30,000 gallons. The 
quantity, however, being found inadequate to the in- 
creasing population, works were constructed by com- 
missioners for bringing a supply from the river Dee, 
and steam-engines erected at the north end of the bridge 
of Dee, to which the water is conveyed by a tunnel about 
500 yards in length, into which it enters, not directly 
from the river, but after passing through a filtering bed 
of sand. The engines, two in number, of thirty-horse 
power each, can raise in twenty-four hours a supply of 
1,100,000 gallons; and the water is thence forced into 
a cistern at the west end of Union-place, 40 feet above 
the level of the street, and l.'JO feet above that of the 
engine, from which cistern the water is distributed 
through the city by cast-iron pipes. The management 
of the supply of water, and also of the lighting, watching, 
and cleansing of the streets, is vested in the commis- 
sioners of police. 

The approaches have been rendered commodious, and 
much improved in appearance ; the great north road 
from Stonehaven, the road from Charlestown on the 
north side of the Dee, the road from Skene, and the 
o-reat roads from the north and north-west, all meet in 
the centre of the town. The bridge over the Dee was pro- 

C2 



A B E R 



A B ER 



jected in 148S, by Bishop Elphinstone, who, dying before 
any considerable progress was made in its erection, left 
a large sum of money for its completion, which was ap- 
plied to that purpose by his successor. Bishop Dunbar, 
who, on the opening of the bridge, in 1518, made over 
to the magistrates and council ample funds for keeping 
it in repair. It is a handsome structure of seven arches, 
and had a chapel at the northern extremity, dedicated to 
the Virgin Mary, which was destroyed at the Reforma- 
tion, and at the other end a watch-tower, in which the 
citizens mounted guard in times of danger. The greater 
])ortion of the bridge was rebuilt in 1722, and about 
ten years ago it was nearly doubled in width, at an 
expense of £7000 ; the whole charges at each period 
were defrayed from the endowment left by the bishops, 
and the funds are still unexhausted. Lower down the 
river, where the banks are precipitously steep, an ele- 
gant suspension-bridge has been constructed, at an 
expense of £8000, raised by subscription, affording 
faciUty of access to the city in that direction; and 
communicating with Old Aberdeen is an interesting and 
truly picturesque bridge over the Don, of one lofty arch, 
the particulars of which are detailed in the article Old 
Aberdeen. 

In Castle-street, to the west of the town-house, is the 
Cross, the pavement round which was formerly used as 
an exchange, and frequented by the merchants of the 
city. This structure was erected in 1686, to replace 
the ancient cross, and is of hexagonal form, eighteen 
feet in height : the faces, which are ten feet in breadth, 
are ornamented with duplicated Ionic columns at the 
angles, sustaining an entablature and cornice, surmounted 
by a parapet and an open balustrade ; and from the 
centre of the area, which is twenty-one feet in diameter, 
rises a lofty Corinthian column, supporting a unicorn 
bearing a shield with a lion rampant. The entrance 
was once by a door in the north face, leading to a stair- 
case forming an ascent to the platform, from which all 
public proclamations were read. The entablature above 
each of the faces is divided into two compartments, in 
the western and eastern of which are respectively the 
arms of the town and the royal arms of Scotland, and in 
the others busts of the sovereigns from James I. of Scot- 
land to James II. of England. A few years ago the 
Cross was taken down, and rebuilt on a site farther to 
the east than the former ; but the original structure was 
carefully preserved, except that the masonry between 
the supporting columns was removed, and the lower part 
of the fabric thus thrown open. The Barracks stand 
near the site of the ancient chapel of St. Ninian, on the 
Castle-hill, which, together with all the ground within 
the ramparts of the castle, was given to government for 
that purpose, by the magistrates and council of the city. 
They were erected in 179-*, at an expense of nearly 
£18,000, and form a handsome range of buildings, con- 
taining, exclusively of the officers' apartments, accom- 
modation for 600 men, with guard-room, chapel, in- 
firmary, and other requisites, and an ample ground for 
parade. 

The Mechanics' Institution was commenced in 1824, 
for the improvement and instruction of its members, by 
the delivery of lectures, at a moderate expense, on che- 
mistry, natural philosophy, and other branches of sci- 
ence. In a few years, it began to languish, and in 
1830 it was found necessary to discontinue the lectures 
12 



The library, however, which at that time contained 
nearly 1100 volumes on practical science, induced those 
of the subscribers who remained, to supply funds for its 
preservation ; and in 1835, the plan of the institution 
was remodelled by the establishment of classes, upon 
moderate terms, in the various branches of science and 
literature, since which it has continued to flourish. 
The Society of Advocates was incorporated by royal char- 
ter in 17*4, and in 1*99 by a more extensive charter, 
in which they are styled the " President and Society of 
Advocates in Aberdeen," for the improvement of its 
members in their profession, and for the establishment 
of a fund for the relief of their widows, orphans, and 
near relatives. The widows receive an allowance of £40 
per annum. The society have a valuable law library of 
1900 volumes, which is open to the use of all its mem- 
bers ; and they have lately erected a spacious building 
in Union-street, containing a handsome hall for holding 
their meetings, a library, and other apartments. The 
Medical Society was first instituted in 1*89, by a small 
number of young practitioners, for their mutual im- 
provement. They held their meetings in one of the 
class-rooms of Marischal College, and subsequently in 
apartments hired for that purpose, till, from the increase 
of their numbers, and the acquisition of sufficient funds, 
they erected the Medical Hall in King-street, which was 
completed in 1820. It contains a hall for their public 
meetings, a library of 3000 volumes on medical science, 
to which the members have free access, and a museum, 
with class-rooms and other apartments. The society 
consists of two classes of members, one of practitioners 
resident in the city and neighbourhood, who meet once 
in the month for mutual communication ; and the other 
of students of medicine, who meet weekly for the dis- 
cussion of medical questions, and for attending lectures 
on the various branches of the profession. 

There are several subscription libraries, of which the 
principal are those of Messrs. Brown and Co., D. Wyllie 
and Son, and W. Russel ; they contain collections 
amounting in the whole to about 60,000 volumes, and the 
terms of subscription vary from fifteen shillings to 
£1. 11. 6. per annum. The Athenaeum in Castle-street, 
and the Union Club News-rooms in Union-street, are 
well supported, and amply supplied with journals and 
periodical publications. Card and dancing assemblies, 
which are maintained by subscription, are held regularly 
every month, during the winter season, in the spacious 
rooms erected about thirty years ago. The Theatre, 
situated on the west side of Marischal-street, was built 
by subscription, in 1795, at an expense of £3000 ; it is 
a handsome structure, capable of seating 600 spectators, 
and is opened occasionally by itinerant companies, to 
whom it is let by the subscribers. A weekly concert 
was, for many years, conducted by a proprietary of 
amateur and other subscribers, and a hall was erected 
for its use, on the east side of Broad-street ; but the 
concerts have long been discontinued. A Golf Club 
was originally established in the vicinity, by a society of 
gentlemen, in 1*80, which after its dissolution in the 
course of a few years, was revived in 1815, under the 
appellation of the Aberdeen Golf Club. It is under the 
direction of a committee, consisting of a captain, secre- 
tary, and four councillors, chosen annually at the general 
meeting. The members are admitted by ballot, on pay- 
ment of £1. 1., and an annual subscription of five 



A B E R 



ABER 



shillings ; and at the annual meeting, which takes place 
in May, a gold medal is awarded to the most successful 
player. A society for the practice of archery also once 
existed, under the designation of the "Bowmen of Mar:" 
in a short time, however, it dwindled away. Races were 
formerly celebrated here, under the patronage of the 
members of the Northern Shooting Club, who, in 1*90, 
voted a piece of plate, of fifty guineas value, and the 
magistrates also gave a purse of thirty guineas ; but they 
were soon discontinued. After an interval of twenty 
years, an association of the gentry of the counties of 
Aberdeen, Banff, and Kincardine, was formed for their 
revival ; and an excellent course was made on the links 
of Aberdeen, where races took place annually in October, 
until 1828, continuing for four days, under the superin- 
tendence of a president and stewards, chosen from the 
association. At one of the meetings, four silver cups, 
value fifty guineas each ; a purse of sixty guineas, by 
subscription of the ladies ; an open plate of fifty guineas, 
by the corporation of the city; a silver cup, value 100 
guineas, by the members of parliament for the counties; 
and an open plate of fifty guineas, by the members for 
the boroughs, were run for, and spiritedly contested. 

A mineral spring called the Spa well, rising at the 
base of Woolman-hill, near the site of the Infirmary, was 
long celebrated for its efficacy in the cure of nephritic 
diseases ; it appears to have been in repute from a re- 
mote period, and was inclosed with a building orna- 
mented with representations of six of the Apostles. In 
1,516, it attracted the notice of Mr. William Barclay, an 
eminent physician, who analyzed the water, which he 
found to contain carbonate of iron and vitriol. The 
building having fallen into dilapidation, was restored by 
George Jamieson, the celebrated painter, but was after- 
wards destroyed by an inundation of the Denburu 
rivulet, and the spring remained concealed under the 
ruins of the building, till 16*0, when it was discovered, 
and the present building erected by Alexander Skene, of 
Newtyle, then bailie of the town. It was again lost in 
IZ'Jl, and subsequently discovered by Dr. James Gor- 
don, long after which it continued to flow with its 
accustomed freedom ; but from recent erections at the 
infirmary, in the immediate neighbourhood, the water 
has a third time disappeared. Baths were opened a 
century ago on the east side of the Denburn vale, for 
which there was a commodious bathing-house, with 
dressing-rooms and every requisite ; they were amply 
supplied with pure spring water, and, previously to the 
establishment of those near the sea, numerously attended. 
The beach on the sea-coast is a fine level sand, affording 
every facility for bathing, and is much frequented during 
the season, by visiters from different parts of the country ; 
bathing machines are kept, and on the shore are warm 
salt-water baths fitted up with every accommodation. 
The environs of Aberdeen afford various interesting 
walks and rides, through a district abounding with 
romantic scenery. 

The principal manufactures carried on in the town, 
prior to 1745, were plaidings, serge, coarse woollen- 
stuffs, and knit-stockings, of which last great quantities 
were sent to Holland and Germany ; and to such per- 
fection were the stockings made here brought, that those 
of the finest wool were sold at from two to five guineas 
per pair. The manufacture of coarse woollen-cloth was 
also introduced about this period, but, after languishing 
13 



for a time was abandoned, towards the close of the 
century. The Linen manufacture was originally intro- 
duced in 1749, by a company from Edinburgh, for the 
spinning of flax, the making of thread, and the weaving 
and bleaching of cloth, all of which were soon brought 
to a considerable degree of perfection. An extensive 
mill for spinning flax was erected on the left bank of 
the river Don, in 179S, and also works for bleaching 
yarn and cloth. Another was soon after erected at Broad- 
ford, near the town, the machinery of which was driven 
by steam ; and there are now three extensive establish- 
ments for the manufacture of linen of every quality, 
from the coarsest Osnaburghs to the finest shirting, 
and for the making of thread of every degree of fineness. 
The manufacture of sail-cloth is also carried on, and 
likewise that of brown sheeting, of which large quanti- 
ties are sent to the East Indies and America. Tape is 
woven to a large extent, by the Aberdeen Tape Com- 
pany. The number of persons employed in the flax 
manufacture is about 3000, of whom about one-half are 
females. The Cotton manufacture was introduced in 
1779, by Messrs. Gordon, Barron, and Company, who 
established a spacious bleaching and printing field at 
Woodside, where they also erected a large mill for 
spinning cotton-yarn, and weaving by machinery put in 
motion by the river Don. Another mill was soon after- 
wards established by Messrs. Forbes, Low, and Com- 
pany, on the south side of the Denburn rivulet ; the 
machinery of which is propelled by steam. There are 
now four establishments in the cotton trade, producing 
every variety of cotton goods ; and in one of them, thread, 
equal in quality and fineness to that of flax, is made in 
large quantities and of all colours. The number of 
persons employed in the trade is about 4000, of vvhom 
a considerable number are women and children. The 
M^oollen manufacture was introduced in 1789, by Mr. 
Charles Baird, who brought from England some card- 
ing-engines and spinning-jennies, with other apparatus, 
and erected a mill at Stoneywood, for the manufacture 
of plaiding, serge, and the coarser woollen-cloths, by 
the aid of machinery. Several other factories were 
soon afterwards established, and the Messrs. Haddens, 
who had been long engaged in the stocking trade, 
erected extensive works on the Green, in which they 
employed the most improved machinery, propelled by 
powerful steam-engines. The manufacture of carpets is 
also carried on with success. The number of persons 
employed in the woollen trade is about 2500. 

The manufacture of Paper was introduced in the year 
1770, at Peterculter, in the vicinity of Aberdeen, where 
the business is still pursued ; and several mills were 
subsequently established, of which the only one now 
left is on the right bank of the river Don, for making 
all the various kinds of paper, which, previously to the 
establishment of these works, was imported from Hol- 
land. The number of persons employed in the trade 
is about 400. The manufacture of Combs, which had 
been introduced in 1788, and carried on to a very mode- 
rate extent, was in 1830 commenced upon a greatly en- 
larged scale, by Messrs. Stewart, Rowell, and Company, 
who first employed steam-power in the manufacture, 
and introduced other improvements by which the articles 
can now be produced almost at a sixth part of the 
former cost. In this concern, about 250 persons are 
employed, and the number of combs of all kinds made 



A B E R 



ABE R 



is about 43,000 weekly. The Iron manufacture is also 
verj' extensive. There are not less than eight foundries 
at present in active operation, in which the largest cast- 
ings, and the heaviest articles, are produced ; and nume- 
rous establishments are carried on for the manufacture 
of machinery of all kinds, five of which are engaged in 
the making of steam-engines. Iron boats are con- 
structed in considerable numbers, and an iron vessel of 
.550 tons' burthen has lately been launched from the 
docks. There are also several establishments for the 
manufacture of chains and chain-cables, and of boilers 
for steam-engines. Above 1000 persons are generally 
employed inthe iron trade. There are several Rope- 
ivalks of large extent, for the supply of the shipping of 
the port, and others on a smaller scale, for the making 
of cord and twine for various uses, and to a great ex- 
tent for the making of fishing-nets : the number of 
persons in these works is about 200. Some breweries are 
conducted on an extensive plan, from which considera- 
ble quantities of ale and porter are sent to London and 
other places, where they find a ready market ; and also 
several upon a smaller scale, for the supply of the town 
and neighbourhood. There are likewise tanneries in 
operation here. The present extensive trade in Granite 
appears to have originated with the Messrs. Adam, 
architects, of London, who, having entered into a con- 
tract for paving the metropolis, in 1*64, commenced 
some quarries in the rocks on the sea-coast, near the 
lands of Torrie, and brought the stone, when prepared, 
to London. Finding this mode of supply, however, too 
expensive, they employed the Aberdeen masons to fur- 
nish them with stone ; and in a short time a very ex- 
tensive trade was estabhshed, not only in paving-stones, 
but in blocks of granite for public buildings and works 
of great magnitude. Many of the largest blocks have 
been sent to Sheerness, for the construction of the 
docks at that place, and to London, for the erection of 
bridges over the Thames, and the foundation of the new 
houses of parliament. The granite, which is extremely 
hard, and of great beauty when polished, has lately been 
brought into extensive use for chimney-pieces, vases, 
pedestals, and other ornamental works, by the applica- 
tion of machinery to the purpose of polishing it, by 
which the expense is reduced to about one-third of that 
by hand labour. The quantity of granite exported in 
1844, exceeded 27,400 tons. 

Aberdeen carries on an extensive trade with Russia, 
Sweden, Denmark, Poland, Prussia, Germany, Holland, 
Spain, Portugal, and with the West Indies and America. 
Its chief exports are oatmeal, grain, butter, eggs, sal- 
mon, porter and ale, cattle, sheep, and pigs, linen, cot- 
ton, and woollen manufactured goods, and granite ; the 
chief imports are coal, lime, flax, cotton, hemp, wool, 
iron, salt, timber, whalebone, wheat, and flour. The 
number of vessels registered as belonging to the port, 
in 1844, was 206, of the aggregate burthen of 38,000 
tons. The tonnage of the several vessels which entered 
the port in the same year, was 289,483, of which 
257,703 belonged to Aberdeen, 27,540 to other British 
ports, and 4240 to foreign ports ; and the amount of 
duties paid at the custom-house was £76,259- The 
H.\RBOUR was, for many j-ears, an open basin, with an 
island in the centre called the Inches, which separated 
the channel of the river from the harbour, on the north 
side of it ; and the only building was the Uuay-head, 
14 



which, having become ruinous, was repaired in 1484, 
and rebuilt in 152", with stone brought from Dundee. 
A pier was built in 1607, which, in 1623, was extended 
from the quay- head towards the fishing-village of 
Futtie : by this means a considerable portion of land 
was gained from the basin, and which now forms part 
of the town. In 1*55, the magistrates and council 
engaged Mr. John Smeaton, an eminent engineer, to 
improve the harbour ; and in 1770, he proposed a stone 
pier on the north side of the entrance, which, confining 
the stream of the river within narrow limits, would re- 
move a bank of sand accumulated there. In 17*3, an 
act of parliament was obtained, and the improvements 
on Mr. Smeaton"s plan were carried into full operation, 
at a cost of £18,000. This pier was 1200 feet in length ; 
it was twenty feet broad at the base, twelve on the sum- 
mit, and sixteen feet in height, at the western extremity, 
and gradually increased towards the east, where it was 
thirty-six feet broad at the base, twenty-four on the 
summit, and thirty feet high. It was faced with blocks 
of granite, many of which weighed more than three tons 
each. The pier, however, by a deviation from Mr. 
Smeaton's original plan, being erected too far towards 
the north, a great swell was occasioned in the harbour 
at high water, to remedy which, a breakwater was pro- 
jected from the west end of it, towards the channel of 
the river, with complete effect. The harbour was fur- 
ther improved by Mr. Telford, who, in 1810, extended 
the original pier 900 feet further towards the east, 
where it terminated in a circular head, sixty feet in dia- 
meter, which was destroyed by the sea in the following 
winter, and rebuilt with a slope towards the sea. A 
breakwater 800 feet in length was also erected, on the 
south side, by which the harbour was protected from the 
south-east storms, and the depth of water increased to 
nineteen feet. Commodious wharfs were formed along 
the harbour, on the south-west side of the village of 
Futtie, and quays nearly 4000 feet in length have been 
constructed : the Inches, also, are now connected with 
the town by a swivel-bridge opposite the end of 
Marischal-street. In 1843 an act of parliament was 
obtained for converting a large part of the harbour into 
a wet-dock, and in 1847 an act was passed, as noticed 
below, for some further harbour works. The custom- 
house, situated on the Quay, is a neat building pur- 
chased by government, and fitted up for the purpose ; 
the establishment consists of a collector, comptroller, 
land and tide surveyors, four land-waiters, twenty-eight 
tide-waiters, six boatmen, and other officers. 

Ship-buitdins is carried on to a considerable extent ; 
there are six building-yards, and a patent-slip has been 
constructed in the harbour, at an expense of £3337 : in 
1S38, the number of vessels built in these yards was 
twenty-three, and their aggregate burthen 4058 tons. 
Four steam-packets, of the aggregate burthen of 1360 
tons, and of SlO-horse power, have long continued to ply 
to Leith, Inverness, Caithness, Orkney, and Shetland. 
In 1827, a steam-packet of 550 tons, called the Queen 
of Scotland, began to ply between Aberdeen and London, 
since which, others have been added, which sail weekly 
to London, and likewise one to Hull : these, together 
with a vessel engaged in the London and Inverness 
trade, belong to one company, whose steamers are 
now five in number, of nearly 3900 tons' burthen, and 
1420-horse power. There are also steamers to Dundee, 



A B E R 



ABE R 



and to Peterhead, during the summer. A Salmon-fishery 
has been carried on here from a remote period, and 
from the abundance of the supply afforded by the rivers 
Dee and Don, it is still continued, on an extensive scale, 
affording employment to about 200 persons. The 
average number taken in a season, is 20,000 salmon 
averaging ten pounds each, and 40,000 grilse of about 
four pounds each, of which by far the greater por- 
tion are packed in ice, and sent to the London 
market. The Herring fishery, a pursuit of compara- 
tively recent establishment, at present employs about 
sixty boats, and, from the success with which it is 
attended, has every prospect of being considerably in- 
creased. The Whale fishery was first introduced here 
in 1753, and for some time continued to prosper; in 
1820 there were fifteen vessels employed in the trade, 
each having a crew of fifty men, and in 1823 the quan- 
tity of oil brought home was 1841 tons. From that 
time, however, the trade began to decline, and it is now 
nearly abandoned. 

The Aberdeen Canal, from the harbour of Aberdeen to 
the burgh of Inverury, was constructed by a company 
of £.50 shareholders, who in 1/95 obtained an act of 
parliament, incorporating them under the designation 
of the " Proprietors of the Aberdeenshire Canal Naviga- 
tion," and empowering them to raise a capital of £20,000, 
which by a subsequent act, in 1801, was extended 
to £40,000. It was completed at an expense of £43,895, 
and opened to the public in I8O7. The whole line, from 
the quay at this place to Port Elphinstone, on the river 
Don, at Inverury, is I85 miles in length : the width on 
the surface is 24 feet, and the average depth 3f feet ; it 
has 1 7 locks, 5 aqueducts, and 56 common bridges, and 
the highest summit level is 163 feet above low water 
mark. 

In 1845 an act of parliament was passed authorizing 
the construction of the Aberdeen railway, from Aberdeen 
to the Arbroath and Forfar line at Friockheim and at 
Guthrie, in the county of Forfar, with branches to the 
towns of Montrose and Brechin. This important line 
of communication, connecting the city with the south of 
Scotland and with England, leaves Aberdeen on the 
south side, and in its progress round the basin of the 
Dee, crosses the river by a majestic viaduct standing in 
a skew line across the channel. It passes near the 
towns of Stonehaven and Lawrencekirk, in Kincardine- 
shire, through which county it takes its course into 
Forfarshire, where it has branches to the towns of Mon- 
trose and Brechin, the former on the east and the latter 
on the west side of the main line. The whole railway 
was permanently opened on April 1, 1850. In 1846 an 
act was obtained for the construction of a line to be 
called the Deeside railway, from Ferryhill, near Aber- 
deen, to Charlestown of Aboyne, a distance of 29 miles, 
along the valley of the Dee. Another act was passed 
the same year, for a railway from Aberdeen to Inverness. 
In 1847 an act of parliament was passed to authorize 
the purchase for railway purposes of a piece of ground 
at the upper part of the Inches, and upper part of the 
harbour of Aberdeen, previously vested in the harbour 
commissioners ; and to enable the commissioners to 
construct some new harbour works. 

The MARKET, which is amply supplied with corn, and 
with provisions of all kinds, is on Friday, and on the 
preceding day for meal : the market for fish, with which 
15 



the town is abundantly supplied, is daily. Fairs are 
held on the last Wednesday in April for linen; on the 
last Thursday and Friday in June, and the first Thurs- 
day and Friday in July, for wool ; and on the last 
Wednesday in August for timber. The butchers' market, 
on the east side of the town, was erected by the corpo- 
ration, in 1806, and consists of two ranges, having in 
one thirty-eight stalls twelve feet square, with a pave- 
ment four feet broad in front, and in the other forty- 
eight stalls, each ten feet square : within the area are 
fifteen slaughter-houses. Another market for butchers' 
meat was formed in 1816, in the Lochlands, on the 
north side of the town, containing forty-two stalls, 
thirteen feet long, and twelve feet wide, with a pave- 
ment in front five feet broad, and covered with a roof 
supported on slender cast-iron pillars. The fish market 
is held on the south side of the Shiprow, and is well 
arranged and fitted up, with a view to prevent the ex- 
posure of fish for sale in Castle-street. The meal, 
poultry, and fruit and vegetable markets are situated 
on the west side of King-street, and are amply supplied. 
In the fruit market, great quantities of strawberries and 
gooseberries, the produce of gardens in the neighbour- 
hood of the town, are exposed to sale, frequently to the 
amount of £1000 annually. On the 29th of September, 
1840, the foundation stone was laid of a New Market, 
the principal front of which is towards a street opened 
about the same time between Union-street and the quay. 
The structure is 318 feet in length, and 106 feet in 
breadth, and is divided into two stories, the lower of 
which is even with the old street called the Green, and 
the upper has three spacious and elegant entrances from 
Market-street. The hall, on the level of Market-street, 
extends the whole length of the building ; it is fifty feet 
in height and the same in breadth, and towards its west 
end, near the top of the flight of steps leading to the 
basement story, is a beautiful fountain of polished gra- 
nite, the work of Messrs. Mc Donald and Leslie. The 
roof of the hall is supported by fifty-eight pillars, and 
between them and the outer walls are the galleries, 
twenty-five feet broad, containing fifty-three shops and 
160 yards of counter for dealers in small wares, besides 
a space of fifty by twenty-eight feet at the east end, 
occupied weekly as a grain market. In the hall, under 
the galleries, are fifty-three shops, and in its area benches 
upwards of 370 yards in extent for gardeners and pro- 
vision sellers. The basement floor contains ninety shops, 
and forty-three yards of tables for fishmongers. This 
elegant building was designed by Mr. Archibald Simp- 
son, a native of Aberdeen, and in every respect it does 
credit to his acknowledged talents and good taste. 

The GOVERNMENT of the city, under a succession of 
charters from the reign of William the Lion to that of 
Charles I., who greatly extended the privileges conferred 
by his predecessors, which have been also confirmed 
by subsequent monarchs, is vested in a provost, four 
bailies, and eight councillors, assisted by a treasurer, 
master of shore-works, master of kirk and bridge works, 
master of the guild brethren's hospital, master of morti- 
fications, and a dean of guild. There are seven incor- 
porated trades, viz., the hammermen, bakers, wrights 
and coopers, tailors, shoemakers, weavers, and fleshers. 
The burgesses are entitled to numerous privileges, 
among which are, freedom to trade, and exemption 
from all tolls and customs on goods brought into the 



ABER 



A B E R 



town for their own use. The corporation are patrons of 
the city churches, and of the professorships of mathe- 
matics and divinity in Marischal College, and have the 
presentation to thirty-six bursaries in that establish- 
ment ; they are also patrons of the grammar-school, 
and various other schools, and of the charitable endow- 
ments in the city. Here are two classes of burgesses, 
namely, burgesses of guild, who are entitled to trade 
in all branches of merchandise, but not to exercise any 
craft ; and freemen of the seven incorporated trades, 
who have the privilege of exercising their respective 
crafts. The fees paid by strangers on becoming guild 
burgesses are £35, and by the sons of burgesses, £12 ; 
the fees paid by strangers on becoming trade burgesses 
are £11. 12. 2., and by sons of freemen, 10s. for the 
eldest, and £1. 10. for the younger. The jurisdiction of 
the magistrates extends over the whole of the city and 
royalty, and they hold a bailie court every Saturday, for 
civil actions to any amount, in which they are assisted 
by an assessor, appointed for that purpose, who is gene- 
rally an advocate of Aberdeen. The sheriff, however, 
exercises a concurrent jurisdiction with the magistrates ; 
and since the establishment of the sheriff's small-debt 
court, the civil business of the bailie court has been very 
much diminished. The police establishment is con- 
sidered to be fully sufficient for all purposes connected 
with its institution, and is under the control of com- 
missioners elected by the nine wards into which the 
police district was divided by the act of 1829. This city 
was formerly the head of a district, including the burghs 
of Arbroath, Montrose, Brechin, and Bervie, in con- 
junction with which it returned one member to the im- 
perial parliament. At present, Aberdeen of itself sends 
a representative to the house of commons ; and the 
right of election, previously in the magistrates and 
council, is, by the Reform act, vested in the resident 
£10 householders. The annual value of real property 
in the six parishes of the city, assessed to the Income tax 
for the year ending April, 1843, was £96,588 ; the amount 
for the parish of Old Aberdeen was £67,192. 

The Toicn House, built at various periods, is situated 
on the north side of Castle-street, and has undergone 
frequent alterations : in 1750 the appearance of the 
front was greatly improved. It has five spacious and 
handsome windows, and above the roof is a tower sur- 
mounted by a spire 120 feet in height. The town-hall is 
about forty-seven feet in length, and twenty-nine feet 
wide, and is embellished with an elegant mantel-piece of 
variegated marble, executed in Holland, above which is 
a perspective view of the city, taken from the lands of 
Torrie. The walls of the apartment are hung with a 
full-length portrait of Queen Anne by Sir Godfrey 
Kneller, and full-length portraits of the Earl and 
Countess Findlater by Alexander ; a portrait of Provost 
James Hadden by Pickersgill, and one of Provost James 
Blaikie by Phillips. This hall, which is appropriated to 
the meetings of the magistrates and council, is on 
public occasions brilliantly lighted by three elegant cut- 
glass chandeliers, suspended from the ceiling, and by 
twelve sconces on the walls. In the upper part of the 
building, on the west, is the town armoury, in which are 
deposited 300 muskets, a very ancient coat of mail, the 
staff of the banner borne by the citizens at Harlaw, and 
the furniture of the provost's charger when he attended 
the coronation of Charles I. at Edinburgh. The County 
16 



Buildings, in Union-street, erected in 1820, by the 
counties of Aberdeen and Banff, for festive meetings, at 
a cost of £11,500, is a handsome structure of finely- 
dressed granite, in the Grecian style of architecture, with 
a stately portico of the Ionic order. It contains a 
spacious assembly-room, richly decorated ; card, tea, and 
supper rooms, and various other apartments. 

The Town Gaol, adjoining the town-house, has been 
considerably enlarged. Above the entrance is a strong 
vaulted chamber, in which are deposited the records 
and archives of the town, the church registers, and 
other valuable documents. The City Bridewell was 
erected at an expense of £12,000, on a site of two 
acres and a half on the confines of the town, and was 
opened in 1S09. It is a handsome structure in the 
castellated style, surrounded with a wall fourteen feet in 
height. There are five stories, of which part of the 
uppermost is used as an hospital, and the interior is 
divided throughout its whole length by a gallery, on one 
side of which are dormitories, and on the other cells for 
labour; the whole number of cells is 109, each eight 
feet long, and seven feet wide. The building is warmed 
by steam and lighted with gas. Adjoining the rear is 
the governor's house, containing a committee-room for 
the meeting of the magistrates, a chapel, and apart- 
ments for a surgeon, in addition to the requisite accom- 
modations for the governor, matron, and other officers 
necessary for the performance of the various duties of 
the establishment. The prisoners are employed in pro- 
fitable labour. 

The university of Maris- 
CH.\L College was founded 
in 1593, under a charter from 
James VI., by George Keith, 
fifth earl-marischal of Scot- 
land, who endowed it with 
the church, conventual build- 
ings, and lands of the Fran- 
ciscan monastery, which had 
been presented to him foi 
that purpose by the magis- 
trates and council of the 
city, and with the lands, 
tenements, and other property of the Dominican and 
Carmelite convents situated respectively on the School- 
hill and the Green, and which had been demolished 
at the Reformation. The original endowment was aug- 
mented by a grant of £300 per annum, by William III., 
payable out of the bishops' rents of Aberdeen and 
Moray, and by a grant of £105 per annum by Queen 
Anne ; and the funds have since been increased by 
royal grants, for the foundation of additional professor- 
ships, and by donations and bequests from various in- 
dividuals, for the foundation of bursaries and lecture- 
ships. The primary establishment consisted of a 
principal, three regents in philosophy and languages, 
six bursars, an ceconomus and other officers. As at 
present constituted, the university consists of a chan- 
cellor, generally a nobleman of high rank, who is elected 
by the senatus academicus, and holds his office for life ; 
a rector elected periodically by the siippositi of the 
university ; a dean of faculty, elected by the senatus 
academicus and the senior minister of Aberdeen ; and a 
principal, who is appointed by the crown. There are 
thirteen professorships, of which the Greek, civil and 




Seal and Arms. 



A B E R 



A B E R 



natural history, natural philosophy, and moral phi- 
losophy and logic, were founded in 1593, at the ori- 
ginal institution of the university ; and those of mathe- 
matics, divinity, oriental languages, church history, 
humanity, medicine, chemistry, anatomy, and surgery, 
at subsequent periods. Of these professorships, that of 
divinity, founded in I6l5 by Mr. Patrick Copland, a 
dissenting minister at Norton in the county of North- 
ampton, and that of mathematics, founded in 1613 by 
Dr. Duncan Liddell, are in the patronage of the town 
council; that of oriental languages, founded in 1723 by 
the Rev. Gilbert Ramsay, rector of Christ Church, 
Barbadoes, is in the patronage of his descendant. Sir A. 
Ramsay, of Balmaine ; and all the others are in the 
patronage of the crown. There are also lectureships on 
practical religion, the evidences of Christianity, Scottish 
law and conveyancing, botany, materia medica, institutes 
of medicine, midwifery, medical jurisprudence, com- 
parative anatomy, and agriculture. The lectureship 
on practical religion is in the patronage of the trustees 
of Mr. Gordon of Murtle ; on Scottish law and con- 
veyancing, in the patronage of the Society of Advocates ; 
on agriculture, in that of the magistrates of Aberdeen ; 
and all the others in the patronage of the college. 
Attached to the university are likewise 11,5 bursaries, 
varying in value from £5 to £30 each per annum, 
tenable for four years, and of which more than sixty are 
open to general competition, and thirty-six in the patron- 
age of the town council. The average number of students 
is about 400. 

The University Library, now very extensive and valu- 
able, consisted originally of the books belonging to 
St. Nicholas' church, among which were several pre- 
viously in the ancient monasteries, comprising the lives 
of the fathers of the church, and some volumes of the 
classics in manuscript. The collection has been greatly 
increased by successive donations, the most considerable 
being that of Mr. Thomas Reid, Latin secretary to 
James VI., who, in the course of his travels, had pur- 
chased the best editions of the classics, with the most 
celebrated works of the ancient philosophers, lawyers, 
and critics, and numerous valuable MSS., all of which 
he bequeathed to the university, in which he was edu- 
cated, with a sum of money as a fund for its further 
improvement, and for a salary to the librarian. In 
1782, the Earl of Bute, then chancellor, presented to 
the library a collection of 1400 volumes ; and it was 
subsequently enlarged by the collections of Sir William 
Fordyce and Professor Donaldson. Altogether the 
number of volumes is about 12,000. The Museum con- 
tains numerous specimens in the various departments 
of natural history, and many artificial curiosities. 
Among its contents are, an Egyptian mummy ; an 
antique statue of Esculapius, in white marble, two feet 
in height ; the staff of office of the earls-marischal of 
Scotland ; a box of gold presented to the university by 
the Earlof Buchan, in 1*69, inclosing a silver pen, which 
is annually awarded as a prize to the most successful 
student of the Greek class ; the dies for a gold medal 
two ounces in weight, given by the late John Gray, Esq., 
of London, to be presented to such of his mathematical 
bursars as should distinguish themselves in acquire- 
ments ; the various apparatus for the illustration of 
natural history ; and the common seal of the university, 
bearing the arms of the marischal family, and those of 
Vol. I.— 17 



the city of Aberdeen impaled, with the crest a meridian 
sun, and the motto Luceo. The Observatory, formerly 
on the Castle-hill, at a distance from the college, was 
removed on the erection of the present barracks, and 
government granted to the university a sum of money 
towards the building of another within the precincts of 
the college, which was completed in 1840. It contains 
a universal equatorial circle, a transit instrument, a 
moveable quadrant of two feet radius, an achromatic 
telescope with refraction apparatus, reflecting-telescopes, 
an orrery, and various other astronomical instruments, 
with a clock striking the seconds within the hearing of 
the observer, and an astronomical clock exhibiting the 
motions of the celestial bodies. 

The buildings of the university, originally the Fran- 
ciscan monastery, several portions of which were rapidly 
falling into decay, were taken down in 1838; and the 
present elegant structure, towards the erection of which 
government made a grant of £15,000, was completed at 
an expense of £25,000. The principal front of the pre- 
sent buildings, on the east side of Broad-street, occupies 
three sides of a quadrangle, and is in the later style of 
English or pointed architecture. The central range is 
ornamented with a stately square tower, with octagonal 
turrets at the angles, surmounted by minarets crowned 
with ogee domes, crocketed, and terminating in flowered 
finials. Above the doorway is a noble oriel window of 
two stages, and on each side are three open arches, lead- 
ing into the interior portion of the structure, above 
which are windows of two lights, cinquefoiled, and sur- 
mounted with square-headed dripstones. The wings, 
which are also two stories high, are lighted by ranges of 
windows of corresponding style, and at the angles are 
octagonal turrets, rising to the parapets, and crowned 
with lofty minarets similar to those of the principal 
tower. The buildings contain a public hall, library, 
museum, and observatory, with spacious class-rooms 
and other apartments. In the hall are portraits of the 
fifth earl-marischal, founder of the university, the last 
earl, and his brother, Field-Marshal Keith ; of Bishop 
Burnet, the Earl of Bute, Sir Robert Gordon of Straloch, 
Dr. Arthur Johnston, Sir Paul Menzies, provost of Aber- 
deen, and others, by the celebrated artist Jamieson. 

The city formerly constituted the parish of St. Ni- 
cholas alone, which was divided by the authority of the 
Court of Teinds, in 1828, into the six separate parishes 
of East, West, North, South, the Grey Friars, and St. 
Clement. The parish of the East Kirk, situated in the 
centre of the city, contains a population of 4798 ; the 
minister's stipend is £300, paid by the corporation, who 
are patrons of the whole of the six churches, and receive 
the seat-rents, and apply them to Church purposes. 
The church, originally the choir of the collegiate church 
of St. Nicholas, was rebuilt about fifteen years ago, at 
an expense of £5000 ; it is a handsome structure in the 
later English style, eighty-six feet in length, and is se- 
parated from the West church, which formed the western 
portion of the old edifice, by the lofty arches of the 
tower. Externally, the two churches are connected, and 
embellished with an elegant facade of granite, 160 feet 
in length. The East church contains 1705 sittings. 
There are places of worship for the United Presbyterian 
Synod and United Original Seceders, and an episcopal 
chapel dedicated to St. Paul, erected in 1722, at an 
expense of £1000 ; also places of worship for Wesleyans, 

D 



ABER 



A B ER 



Glassites, Unitarians, and United Christians. The 
parish of ff'est Kirk contains a population of 10,1S6; 
the minister's stipend is £300, paid by the corporation. 
The West church, originally the nave of the ancient 
church of St. Nicholas, is separated from the East 
church by the arches of the tower, which is surmounted 
by a lofty spire 143 feet high ; the church was hand- 
somely rebuilt in the eighteenth century, was enlarged 
in 1836, and now contains 1454 sittings. There are 
places of worship for Independents and members of the 
United Presbyterian Church. The parish of North Kirk 
is situated within the town, and contains a population 
of 5381 ; the minister's stipend is £300, paid by the 
corporation. The church is a handsome structure of 
dressed granite, in the Grecian style, with a lofty tower, 
and an elegant portico of the Ionic order ; it was erected 
in 1831, by the corporation, and contains 1486 sittings. 
There are a place of worship for Independents, a Roman 
Catholic chapel, an episcopal chapel dedicated to St. 
John, and one dedicated to St. Andrew, the latter a 
handsome structure in the later English style, erected in 
1817, at an expense of £8000. The parish of South 
Kirk is situated within the town, and contains a popu- 
lation of 3934 ; the minister's stipend is £250, paid by 
the corporation. The church, originally a chapel of ease, 
was rebuilt in 1831, at an expense of £4544, and eon- 
tains 1562 sittings. There are places of worship for the 
United Presbyterian Church and Independents. The 
parish of the Grey Friars is wholly in the town, and con- 
tains a population of 5356; the minister's stipend is £250, 
paid by the corporation. The church, formerly the 
church of the monastery of Grey Friars, is a very ancient 
structure, enlarged and improved some years since, and 
contains 1042 sittings. There is a place of worship for 
the Society of Friends. The parish of St. Clement is to 
the south-east of the town, in the district of Futtie, and 
contains a population of 7092 ; the minister's stipend is 
£250, arising principally from bequeathed lands. The 
church, erected in 1787, on the site of an ancient chapel, 
was afterwards rebuilt, on a larger scale, at an expense 
of £2600 ; it is capable of accommodating 1300 persons. 
The Union quoad sacra parish, which, like similar ec- 
clesiastical districts in other parts of the country, was 
afterwards dissolved, was separated from the parishes of 
East Kirk and St. Clement in 1834, and contained a 
population of 2790. The church was built by subscrip- 
tion, in 1822, at an expense of £2600, and contains 1238 
sittings. A chapel for seamen was built in the same 
year, at an expense of £800, by the Seamen's Friend 
Society, containing 570 sittings, all of which are free. 
The quoad sacra parish of Spring-Garden was separated 
from the parish of West Kirk, and annexed to a Gaelic 
church, in 1834, and contained a population of 1887 ; 
the church was built in 1795, by subscription and loan, 
and contains sittings for 700 persons. The quoad sacra 
parish of the Hohj Trinity was separated from the parish 
of South Kirk, in 1834, and contained a population of 
2058 ; the church was erected in 1794, at an expense of 
£1700, and contains 1247 sittings. The quoad sacra 
parish of John Knox, separated from the parish of the 
Grey Friars, in 1836, contained a population of 3377 ; 
the church was built by subscription, at a cost of £1000, 
and contains 1054 sittings. Places of worship for 
members of the Free Church have been built in different 
parts of the city : of these, three are at the head of 
IS 



the Mutton Brae, connected together, and surmounted 
by a lofty and elegant spire. 

The Grammar School is of so remote antiquity that 
the origin of its foundation is not distinctly known ; in 
1418 Andrew de Syves, vicar of Bervie, who had been 
master for some years, died, and the school has since 
that period continued to prosper under a succession of 
masters, whose salaries have gradually increased from 
£5 Scotch to 600 merks per annum. It appears to have 
been supported by various donations, and small fees 
paid by the scholars, till 1634, when Dr. Patrick Dun, 
principal of Marischal College, bequeathed the lands of 
Ferryhill, for the support of four masters, appropriating 
one-half of the proceeds to the head master or rector, 
and the remainder to be equally divided among the 
other three masters. The school is under the patronage 
of the corporation, the ministers of the town, and the 
professors of Marischal College, by whom the masters 
are appointed, with preference to candidates of the name 
of Dun. Instruction is given in the Greek and Latin 
classics, the French language, historj', geography, arith- 
metic, and the mathematics. The salary of the rector 
is £100, and that of the other masters £50 each, with 
the fees of their respective classes, amounting to 13s. 4d. 
for each pupil, with the exception of the sons of poor 
tenants on the Ferryhill property, who are taught gra- 
tuitously. There are about 200 scholars in attendance. 
The buildings, erected in 1757, form three sides of a 
quadrangle, with two additional wings in the rear. 

Gordon's Hospital, for the maintenance and education 
of the sons of decayed burgesses, was founded in 1732, 
by Robert Gordon, Esq., who by deed conveyed the 
whole of his property, amounting to £10,300, in trust to 
the provost and council of the city, and the ministers of 
Aberdeen. These trustees accordingly erected a hand- 
some building on the ground, formerly belonging to the 
Dominican friary, on School-hill, which had been pur- 
chased by Mr. Gordon ; but the funds, having been 
much reduced by the erection of the building, were 
suffered to accumulate till 1750, when the hospital was 
opened, and thirty boys admitted on the foundation. 
The number gradually increased to eighty ; and in 1816, 
Alexander Simpson, Esq., of Collie-hill, bequeathed to 
the principal and professors of Marischal College, and 
the ministers of Aberdeen, lands in the parishes of New 
and Old Deer, for the maintenance and education of an 
additional number of boys, for which purpose the build- 
ing was enlarged by the erection of two wings, at an 
expense of £14,000, and fifty more boys were admitted. 
The buildings consist of a central range, connected with 
the wings by a handsome colonnade, and surmounted 
by a small neat spire : over the principal entrance, in a 
niche, is a statue of the founder, in white marble. In 
the hall is a full-length portrait, and in the public school- 
room a half-length portrait of the founder. The Boys' 
Hospital originated in the separation from the Poor's 
hospital of the adult inmates and girls, and the sub- 
sequent appropriation of the remaining part of the funds 
to the maintenance and education of poor boys, of whom 
twenty-five were admitted in I768, since which time the 
number has been increased to fifty, who are clothed, 
maintained, and taught the ordinary branches of learning. 
The Girls' Hospital, upon a similar plan, was instituted in 
1829, and is supported by subscription and annual 
collections ; thirty girls are clothed, maintained, and in- 



ABER 



A B E R 



structed, till they are fourteen years of age, when they 
are placed out to service. Dr. Bell, of Sladras, be- 
queathed to the magistrates and council £10,000 three 
per cents., for the support of schools upon his system ; 
and two have been consequently established, in one of 
which are 400 boys, and in the other 300 girls. Schools 
on the Lancasterian plan were opened in 1815, in which, 
for some years, were 450 boys and the same number of 
girls ; but since the establishment of the Madras schools, 
the number of scholars has been reduced to less than 
one-half. The Aberdeen schools of industry, established 
in part in the year 1841, have done much for the pre- 
vention of crime, by affording employment, instruction, 
&c., to juvenile vagrants. In addition to these institu- 
tions, there are nearly forty parochial and other schools 
in the town and neighbourhood, in which the fees vary 
from two to five shillings per quarter, and the aggregate 
number of scholars amounts to nearly 4000. There are 
also week-day evening schools, in which the number of 
scholars is about 700 ; and twenty Sabbath-schools, in 
which there are 2000 scholars. 

The Injirmary was first established in 1739, by sub- 
scription, aided by a grant of £36 per annum by the 
magistrates, who also gave a site for the erection of the 
building, which was partly effected in 1760, when forty- 
eight patients were admitted. An addition to the 
building, in 1820, increased the number to seventy, and 
in 1833 the managers resolved to erect an edifice on a 
larger scale, which was accomplished in 1835, at an 
expense of £8500, and the institution adapted for the 
reception of 210 patients. The government is vested by 
charter in the magistrates, the professor of medicine in 
Marischal College, and the moderator of the synod of 
Aberdeen, who, with all benefactors of £50 each, consti- 
tute the body of directors, of whom sixteen, chosen 
annually, form a committee of management. There are 
two physicians, two surgeons, a resident surgeon, and 
an apothecary. The buildings are spacious, and well 
ventilated ; there are twenty wards of large dimensions, 
and eleven apartments for cases requiring separate 
treatment and attendance. The income averages £2500. 
A dispensary was originally established in connexion 
with the infirmary, and partly supported from the same 
funds ; but subsequently dispensaries were opened, and 
maintained by subscription, three of them in the town, 
and two in the suburbs : these, in 1823, were incor- 
porated into one institution called the General Dispensary. 
The Lunatic Asylum was first instituted in 1799, and a 
building erected for the purpose at a cost of £3484, 
towards which the magistrates, as trustees of Mr. Car- 
gill's charity, contributed £1130, on condition of being 
permitted to send ten pauper patients gratuitously ; and 
for the reception of an increasing number of patients, 
and their requisite classification, some ground adjoining 
the asylum was purchased, and an additional building 
erected, in 1819, at a cost of £13,135, towards which 
the governors appropriated a bequest of £10,000 by 
John Forbes, Esq. In 1836, about eleven acres of land 
were purchased for £3000, in the cultivation of which 
many of the patients are engaged ; several workshops 
have also been erected for such as show any predilection 
for mechanical pursuits, and to these are added the 
powerful influences of religious worship, for which there 
is a chapel. John 6'o;Y/ow,£'s7.,of Murtle, in the year 1815 
bequeathed considerable property to trustees, for pious 
19 



and charitable uses, of which they assigned £100 per 
annum to the lecturers on practical religion in King's 
and Marischal Colleges, £150 to aged female servants, 
£150 towards the support of Sunday schools, £300 for 
the establishment of an hospital for female orphans, and 
the residue in annual donations to the Deaf and Dumb 
Society, and other institutions. Mr. John Carnegie, in 
1S35, left nearly £8000 to trustees, for the establishment 
of an Orphan Hospital for females, and in 1836, Mrs. 
Elmslie, of London, bequeathed for the same purpose 
£26,000 : with these funds, an appropriate building has 
been erected, on the west side of the town, and properly 
endowed. The House of Refuge was established in 1 836, 
by subscription, aided by a donation of £1000 from 
George Watt, Esq., and is supported by annual con- 
tributions : the number of inmates, in the year 1839, 
was 420, of whom 120 males and 90 females, under 
fourteen years of age, were being instructed in the ordi- 
nary branches of a useful education. The House of In- 
dustry and the Magdalen Asylum were also founded chiefly 
by Mr. Watt, who for that purpose conveyed to trustees 
the property of Oldmill, producing a rental of £164. 
The Deaf and Dujnb Institution was established by sub- 
scription, in 1819; but from the inadequacy of the 
funds, only one-half of the expense of maintenance is 
afforded to the inmates, who generally derive the re- 
mainder from other charitable funds : the management 
is vested in a committee, and the teacher is allowed to 
receive private boarders, who are not chargeable to the 
funds. The Asylum for the Indigent Blind was instituted 
in 1818, by the trustees of Miss Cruickshank, who 
devoted the bulk of her property to that benevolent 
purpose, which, after the funds had been suffered for 
some years to accumulate, was carried into effect, and 
an appropriate building erected. An hospital for the 
maintenance and education of five orphan or destitute 
boys, and as many girls, and for which, at present, a 
house has been hired in the Gallowgate, was founded by 
a bequest of Alexander Shaw's, in the year 1S07. The 
boys are apprenticed, and the girls placed out as ser- 
vants ; the former, on the expiration of their indentures, 
and the latter after five years' service in the same family, 
receive a premium of £ 1 0. There are also numerous 
missionary and other religious societies, some of which 
are supported exclusively by members of the Esta- 
blished Church, others by various dissenting bodies, 
and some indiscriminately by both : as, however, they 
have no permanent funds or vested property for their 
support, and present no peculiar features in their ma- 
nagement or objects, it is unnecessary to give a detailed 
account of them. 

Among the most Eminent Natives may be noticed, 
John Barbour, Archdeacon of Aberdeen in 1330, and 
author of a metrical history of Robert Bruce ; George 
Jamieson, a portrait-painter, who was born in 1586, and 
painted more than 100 portraits of the principal nobility 
and gentry, which are held in high estimation; David 
Anderson, distinguished for his mechanical genius, and 
who, in I6l8, greatly improved the harbour by the re- 
moval of a large rock which lay in the middle of the 
channel, and obstructed the entrance ; James Gregory, 
inventor of the reflecting-tclescope, born in 1638, and 
educated at Marischal College ; James Gibbs, born in 
1688, the architect of the church of St. Martin's-in-the- 
Fields, London, who furnished the design for the present 

D2 



A B E R 



ABER 



West church in his native city ; John Gregory, born 
in 1/24, professor of medicine in King's College, Aber- 
deen, and afterwards of Edinburgh, where he was suc- 
ceeded by his son, Dr. James Gregory, also a native of 
this place ; and John Ramage, eminent for his practical 
skill in the construction of reflecting-telescopes, of which 
he made one now in the Royal Observatory, which, 
though greatly inferior in size, is nearly equal in power 
to Herschel's celebrated forty-feet reflector. Connected 
with the town have been also. Dr. Robert Hamilton, pro- 
fessor of natural philosophy, and afterwards of mathe- 
matics, in Marischal College, and author of a valued 
essay on the national debt ; Dr. Patrick Copland, like- 
wise professor of mathematics and natural philosophy in 
the college, the museum of which he enriched with appa- 
ratus and models of his own construction ; and Dr. 
Thomas Reid, Dr James Beattie, and the late Lord 
Byron, who were residents of Aberdeen. In the fore- 
going enumeration of natives and others, are probably 
some that were connected with Old Aberdeen ; but it 
would not be easy, and perhaps it is not necessary, to 
draw an accurate line between those men of talents and 
celebrity who have lived in Aberdeen, and those who 
properly belong to the adjoining town. The city gives 
the title of Earl to a branch of the Gordon family, a 
dignity created in the year 16S2. 

ABERDEEN, OLD, or 
Old Machar, a parish, 
chiefly without, but partly- 
within, the city of Aber- 
deen, in the county of 
' Aberdeen ; comprising the 
former quoad sacra parishes 
of Bon-Accord, Gilcomston, 
Holburn, and Woodside ; 
and containing 28,020 inha- 
bitants. This place, origi- 
nally a small hamlet, consist- 
ing only of a few scattered 
cottages, was, from the erection of a chapel near the 
ancient bridge of Seaton by St. Machar in the ninth 
century, called the Kirktown of Seaton. It was undis- 
tinguished, however, by any event of importance till the 
year 1137, when it became the seat of a diocese, on the 
removal of the see of Aberdeen by David I. from Mort- 
lach, in the county of Banff, where it was originally 
founded by Malcolm II., and had continued for more 
than 120 years. Bishop Kinnimond, at that time pre- 
late of the see, founded a cathedral church on the site of 
the ancient chapel of St. Machar ; and towards the end 
of the thirteenth century, this church was taken down by 
Bishop Cheyne, for the purpose of erecting a structure 
of more ample dimensions, and more appropriate charac- 
ter ; but in the contested succession to the throne of 
Scotland, becoming an adherent of Baliol, he was com- 
pelled to retire into e.xile, and the rebuilding of the 
cathedral was suspended. On the establishment of 
Robert Bruce, that monarch recalled the exiled bishop, 
who recommenced the work ; and the undertaking was 
continued by his successors, of whom Bishop Elphin- 
stone, the founder of King's College, with the assistance 
of James IV., made rapid progress in the rebuilding of 
the cathedral. It was completed by Bishop Dunbar, in 
1.518, and, since the abolition of episcopacy in Scotland, 
has been appropriated as the parish church. In the 
20 




Burgh Seal. 



long line of bishops who made this place the seat of 
ecclesiastical state, there were some who by their deeds 
and character threw a lustre even upon their high and 
holy office. 

The TOWN is pleasantly situated on a gentle eminence, 
near the river Don. Across the river is an ancient pic- 
turesque bridge of one lofty arch, in the early English 
style, said to have been built by Bishop Cheyne, though 
by others ascribed to King Robert Bruce, and concerning 
which, under the appellation of the Brig of Balgownie, a 
traditionary legend prophetic of its downfall is quoted 
by Lord Byron. Considerably to the east of this, is 
another bridge, affording a passage from Aberdeen to 
the north, erected from the funds for keeping the old 
bridge in repair, originally left for that purpose by Sir 
Alexander Hay, and which, from £2. 5. 6., had accumu- 
lated to £20,000 : it is a handsome structure of five 
arches, built of granite. The principal street, which 
consists of houses irregularly built, extends from south 
to north, to the town-house, where it diverges into two 
branches, one leading to the church, and the other to 
the old bridge ; the streets are lighted, and the inhabi- 
tants are well supplied with water by commissioners 
appointed by the rate-payers. The environs are ex- 
tremely pleasant, and richly wooded ; and in the imme- 
diate vicinity of the town are numerous villas. 

On the establishment of the see at this place, the town 
was made a burgh of barony, by charter of David I. ; 
and the various privileges conferred upon it by subsequent 
sovereigns were confirmed by charter of George I., who 
granted the inhabitants the power of choosing their own 
magistrates. The government is vested, by charter, in a 
provost, four bailies, a treasurer, and council of eight 
merchant and five trade burgesses, assisted by a town- 
clerk, procurator-fiscal, and other officers. There are 
seven incorporated trades, viz., the hammermen, weavers, 
tailors, wrights and coopers, bakers and brewers, fleshers 
and fishers, and shoemakers, who elect their own dea- 
cons, and also a deacon convener. The fees on entrance 
to these trades, which confer the privilege of carrying on 
trade in the burgh, are £8, and a payment of £3 to the 
court of conveners ; and for a merchant burgess £5. 7. 
The jurisdiction of the magistrates extends over the 
whole burgh, but is seldom exercised : not more than 
two civil causes have been determined in one year; in 
criminal cases, their jurisdiction is limited to petty mis- 
demeanors, and all more serious offences are referred 
to the sheriff's court. For parliamentary purposes the 
burgh is associated with Aberdeen, and the right of 
election, under the Reform act, is vested in the resident 
£10 householders of the place. The number of mem- 
bers of all the several guilds does not in the aggregate 
exceed 120, and of these not more than fifteen exercise 
any trade. The town-hall, which is situated at the 
northern extremity of the principal street, was built by 
subscription, in 1702, and has been since rebuilt. It 
contains a spacious hall for public meetings, a couucil- 
room for the occasional use of the magistrates, and 
various other apartments ; in the upper floor is the 
grammar school, and on the ground floor a school for 
English. Opposite to the town-hall was formerly an 
ancient cross, consisting of a pedestal bearing the arms 
of the Bishops Dunbar, Stewart, and Gordon, from which 
rose a pillar surmounted by an effigy of the Virgin Mary; 
but this was removed on the rebuilding of the hall. 



A B ER 



ABE R 




Seal of the University. 



Since the dissolution of 
the see^ the town has owed 
its chief prosperity and sup- 
port to its university, which 
was founded by Bishop 
Elphinstone, in the reign of 
James IV., who for that pur- 
pose procured a bull from 
Pope Alexander VI. The 
college was first dedicated to 
St. Mary ; but from the great 
liberality of the monarch in 
its endowment, it was subse- 
quently called King's College, a designation it has 
ever since retained. The first principal of the college 
was Hector Boethius, the celebrated historian, under 
whom and his successors it continued to flourish till the 
Reformation, when many of its functionaries were ex- 
pelled. In 1578, the institution received a charter from 
the parliament, after which it languished under the gross 
mismanagement of its principals, who sold the ornaments 
of the chapel, alienated the revenues for their own 
emolument, and committed other abuses. In 1619, 
however. Bishop Forbes, by great perseverance, reco- 
vered part of the alienated property, and restored several 
of the professorships, to which, in 1628, he added a 
professorship of divinity, which was afterwards held by 
his son. From this time, the institution revived, and 
continued to flourish till the introduction of the Cove- 
nant, for refusing to sign which several of the professors 
were expelled, among whom was Dr. Forbes, the divinity 
professor. Many of the new professors appointed by 
the Covenanters were, in their turn, ejected by Cromwell, 
under whom General Monk despatched Colonels Desbo- 
rough, Fenvvick, and others, to visit and reform the 
college : these officers, though they removed some of the 
professors, and appointed others, still promoted the 
general interests of the establishment, and subscribed 
liberally towards the erection of houses for the students. 
After the restoration of Charles II., the bishops of Aber- 
deen assumed their authority as chancellors of the uni- 
versity, and reformed the disorders which had been 
introduced during the interregnum. 

The university, as at present constituted, is under 
the direction of a chancellor, generally a nobleman of 
high rank, who is elected by the senutus acadciiiicus ; a 
rector, chosen by the same body ; and a principal and 
sub-principal, elected by the rector, procuratores gentium, 
and the professors, and admitted by the chancellor. 
There are nine professorships, of which those of Greek, 
humanity, medicine and chemistry, and civil law, are in 
the patronage of the rector, prncuratores, and senatus 
(icademicus ; that of divinity in the patronage of the 
synod of Aberdeen, the principal, and dean of faculty of 
theology ; those of mathematics, natural philosophy, and 
moral philosophy, in the patronage of the senutus acade- 
micus ; and that of oriental languages, in the patronage 
of the crown. There are also eleven lectureships, of 
which that of practical religion is in the patronage of 
the trustees of John Gordon, Esq., of Murtle, the 
founder ; and those of the evidences and principles of 
the Christian religion, Murray's Sunday lectures, materia 
medico, anatomy and physiology, surgery, practice of 
medicine, midwifery, institutes of medicine, medical 
jurisprudence, and botany, are all in the patronage of 
21 



the senutus academicus. The number of bursaries is 
above 150, varying from £5 to £50 per annum, and 
mostly tenable for four years. Of these, ninety-six are 
open to public competition, and the others are in the 
patronage of the professors of the college, or represen- 
tatives of the founders. 

The site of the college occupies a quadrangular area 
of considerable extent, surrounded with buildings raised 
at different periods, of which the most ancient were 
erected in 1500. The whole possesses a strikingly 
venerable appearance. In the north-west angle is a 
lofty massive tower, strengthened with canopied but- 
tresses, bearing the royal arms of Scotland, and those 
of Stewart, Archbishop of St. Andrew's, and others : 
above the parapet is a lantern, supported by flying but- 
tresses springing from the angles, in the form of an 
imperial crown; This kind of lantern also surmounts 
the cathedral of St. Giles at Edinburgh, the Cross or 
Tolbooth steeple at Glasgow, and at one time surmounted 
the central tower of the parish church of Haddington, 
and the tower of the church of Linlithgow : in England, 
only one example of it is known, namely, that which, far 
excelling any of these in the north, crowns the tower of 
St. Nicholas' church at Newcastle-on-Tyne. On the 
north side of the college quadrangle is the ancient cha- 
pel erected by Bishop Elphinstone, originally a stately 
structure of elegant design, with a lofty spire, and inter- 
nally embellished with most costly ornaments, which, as 
before noticed, were sold by the parliamentarian function- 
aries. The nave is now appropriated to the use of the 
college library, and the chancel is the college chapel. 
There are still remaining, in the former portion, many 
traces of its pristine beauty, and an inventory in Latin of 
the various ornaments of the chapel ; and in the chancel 
are the rich tabernacle work of the prebendal stalls, the 
pews for the diocesan synod, the carved oak roof, and 
the tombs of Bishop Elphinstone and the first principal, 
Boethius. The south side of the quadrangle, rebuilt by 
Dr. Eraser in 1725, is of plain character, ll'i feet in 
length, with a piazza in front, and at the extremities 
were circular towers, of which one only is remaining. 
The common hall, which is sixty feet in length, and 
twenty-three feet wide, contains numerous portraits by 
Jamieson, including portraits of Bishops Elphinstone, 
Dunbar, Forbes, Leslie, and Scougal, Professors Sandi- 
land and Gordon, George Buchanan, and Queen Mary. 
In the committee-room is a painting, on panel, of the 
college as it appeared in the sixteenth century. The 
library contains a very valuable and extensive collection 
of books and manuscripts, and was formerly entitled to 
a copy of every work entered at Stationers' Hall, of 
which privilege it was deprived by act of parliament in 
1836, the loss being compensated for by an annual 
grant of £Z1Q. It comprises about 34,000 volumes. 
The museum contains a large collection of specimens in 
mineralogy and zoology, numerous Grecian and Roman 
coins and antiquities, casts from ancient gems, and some 
valuable books of engravings illustrative of these sub- 
jects : this department was, in 1 790, enriched with the 
coins and medals bequeathed by Dr. Cummin, of An- 
dover, and has been subsequently increased by numerous 
specimens. A commodious room, in the more modern 
portion of the building, was handsomely fitted up by 
subscription, in the year 1842, as a museum of natural 
history. . 



ABE R 



ABE R 



Among the many distinguished individuals that have 
been connected with the university may be noticed, 
George, Earl Marischal, the founder of Marischal Col- 
lege ; Chancellor Gordon, of Haddo, created Earl of 
Aberdeen in lee's ; Dr. Thomas Bovver, an eminent 
mathematician; the celebrated Dr. Reid, professor of 
philosophy, and afterwards of Glasgow ; Lord Mon- 
boddo ; Mr. Charles Burney, a distinguished Greek 
scholar ; Arthur Johnston, a Latin poet ; Dr. James 
Gregory, and his sons, afterwards professors of medicine 
at Edinburgh ; Robert Hall, the distinguished preacher ; 
and Sir James Mackintosh. 

The p.\RiSH originally comprehended the parishes of 
New Machar and Newhills, which, after the Reformation, 
were separated from it : anciently there was a deanery 
of St. Machar. The present parish is about eight miles 
in length, and varies from two to four in breadth, situ- 
ated on a peninsula, between the rivers Dee and Don. 
Its surface rises gradually from the sea-shore, and the 
scenery is interspersed with flourishing plantations, and 
with the windings of the Dee and the Don, the banks of 
which latter are richly wooded, and in some parts, from 
their precipitous acclivity and rugged aspect, have a 
strikingly romantic appearance. The higher grounds 
command extensive views of the German Ocean, of the 
lofty and ancient bridge on the one side, and on the 
other of the cathedral and the spires of Aberdeen. The 
soil is various, in some parts richly fertile, and in others 
almost sterile ; but the lands are generally in good cul- 
tivation, and the state of agriculture highly improved. 
The annual value of real property in the parish is 
£67,192. 

Ecclesiastically the parish is in the presbytery and 
synod of Aberdeen, and patronage of the Earl of Fife ; 
the stipend of the first minister is £2*3. 1. 3., and that 
of the second £282. 19. 9., with a manse, and a glebe 
valued at £31. 10. per annum. The church was for- 
merly an elegant structure, of which the choir was de- 
stroyed by the reformers ; and the remainder of the 
building was preserved from demolition only by the 
Earl of Huntly, and Leslie of Balquhan, who, at the 
head of a large body of their armed retainers, drove 
away the band which had been assembled for its de- 
struction. The interior of the remaining portion suf- 
fered great mutdation under the Covenanters, who 
destroyed the altar, and the rich carvings and other 
ornaments; and in 1688, the high tower at the east 
end of the nave, which had been undermined by the 
soldiers of Cromwell, through the removal of masonry 
for the erection of their works at Castle-hill, and which, 
with its spire, 150 feet in height, had long served as a 
landmark to mariners, fell to the ground, destroying in 
its fall a considerable portion of the nave, with several 
of the monuments. The great arches on which the 
central tower was supported, have been built up, and 
the two towers at the west end are in good preservation ; 
they are 112 feet high, and after rising to the height of 
fifty-two feet in a quadrilateral form, are continued by a 
succession of octangular turrets, decreasing in size till they 
terminate in a finial surmounted by a cross. The nave 
is nearly perfect ; and its western front, built of the 
obdurate granite of the country, is stately in the severe 
symmetry of its simple design. The choir seems never 
to have been finished ; and of the transepts, only the 
foundations now remain. The ceiling of the nave is 
22 



divided into forty-eight compartments, in which are 
emblazoned, in vivid colours recently renewed, the 
armorial bearings of the Scottish kings, the ecclesias- 
tical dignitaries, and the principal nobility. Of the 
several monuments still remaining, that of Bishop 
Scougal, father of Henry Scougal, author of the Life of 
God in the Soul of Man, is the most interesting and 
entire ; there are also a monument to William Blake of 
Haddo, sub-principal of King's College, and tablets to 
Gordon and Scott, professors, and David Mitchell, Esq., 
LL.D. The portion of the building appropriated as the 
pari.sh church is neatly fitted up, and contains 1594 
sittings ; the chapel in King's College contains 350 
sittings. There are places of worship for members of 
the Free Church. 

The grammar school, which is held in the town-hall, 
is under the patronage of the magistrates and council, 
and is visited annually by the professors of the college, 
and the ministers. The parochial school affords instruc- 
tion to about seventy scholars ; the master has a salary 
of £30, with an equal sum from the trustees of Dick's 
bequest, and the fees average about £30 per annum. 
There are also two schools on the Madras system, 
founded by a bequest left by Dr. Bell. An hospital was 
founded in 1531, by Bishop Dunbar, who endowed it 
for twelve aged men ; the buildings consisted of a re- 
fectory, twelve dormitories, and a chapel surmounted 
with a small spire. The endowment has been subse- 
quently increased by donations and bequests, and by 
the proceeds of the sale of the buildings ; the present 
funds are about £3000, from the interest of which 
twenty-one aged men derive relief. An hospital was 
founded in 1801, by Dr. Mitchell, for lodging, clothing, 
and maintaining five widows, and five unmarried daugh- 
ters of burgesses in indigent circumstances, for which 
purpose he bequeathed ample funds, in trust, to the 
principal of King's College, the provost and senior baihe 
of the town, and the two ministers of the parish. The 
building, which is situated near the church, is one story 
high ; it contains a kitchen, refectory, and dormitories, 
neatly furnished ; and attached to it is a pleasure- 
ground. A dispensary was established in 1826. 

ABERDEENSHIRE, a maritime county, in the 
north-east part of Scotland, and one of the most exten- 
sive counties in the kingdom, bounded on the north by 
the Moray Firth ; on the east by the German Ocean ; 
on the south by Perth, Forfar, and Kincardine shires, and 
on the west by the counties of Banff and Inverness. It lies 
between 56° 52' and 57° 42' (N. Lat.), and 1° 49' and 3° 
48' (W. Lon.), and is eighty-six miles in extreme length, 
and forty-two miles in extreme breadth ; comprising an 
area of 1985 square miles, or 1,2/0,400 acres ; 32,063 
inhabited, and 1091 uninhabited, houses; and contain- 
ing a population of 192,387, of which number 89,707 
are males, and 102,680 females. From the time of 
David I., the county was included in the diocese of 
Aberdeen ; at present, it is almost wholly in the synod 
of Aberdeen, and includes several presbyteries, the whole 
containing eighty-five parishes. For civil purposes, it 
is divided into eight districts, Aberdeen, Alford, Deer 
otherwise Buchan, Ellon, Garioch, Kincardine-O'Neil, 
Strathbogie, and Turriff, in each of which, under the 
superintendence of a deputy lieutenant, the county ma- 
gistrates hold regular courts. It contains the three 
royal burghs of Aberdeen, Kintore, and Inverury, the 



A BER 



A BE R 



market-towns of Peterhead, Fraserburgh, Huntly, Turriff, 
and Meldrum, and numerous large fishing-villages on 
the coast. Under the act of the 2nd William IV., the 
county returns one member to parliament. 

The SURFACE, towards the sea, is tolerably level ; but 
the greater portion forms part of the central highlands, 
and consists of high mountains, interspersed with a few 
valleys. The principal mountains are, Ben-Macdhui, 
the loftiest in Britain ; the Braeriach, which has an 
elevation of 4304 feet ; Ben-Aburd, Ben-Aven, Loch- 
nagar, and Morven, which vary from '2500 to 4300 in 
height, with numerous others from 800 to 2000 feet in 
height. Of the valleys the chief are the Garioch and 
Strathbogie, the former inclosed on all sides with hills 
of moderate height, and the latter enriched with wood, 
abounding in beautiful scenery, and highly cultivated. 
The rivers are the Dee, the Don, the Ythan, the Do- 
veron, and the Ugie, but the rapidity of their currents 
renders them comparatively useless for the purpose of 
navigation ; they have their sources, generally, among 
the mountains in the south-west, and flow towards the 
north and north-east. All of them abound with fine sal- 
mon, and fish of every kind is taken on the coast. 

About one-third of the land is under cultivation, and 
the remainder mountain, pasture, and waste. Towards 
the sea, and in the valleys, the soil is rich and fertile, 
producing excellent crops of wheat and other grain ; 
and in the more secluded portions of the county is some 
fine timber, among which are numerous lofty pine-trees, 
fit for the masts of ships ; but from the want of inland 
navigation, few of them are felled for that purpose. 
Between the Dee and the Ythan is a low tract of waste, 
on which are some sand-hills that have been lamentably 
destructive of the adjacent lands ; several fertile fields, 
to the north of the Ythan, have been covered, to a great 
extent, with sand blown from these hills, and the walls 
of a church and a manse that have been buried by them 
are still to be seen. The minerals are quartz and as- 
bestos ; and various gems and pieces of amber are 
found in the mountains : the principal quarries are of 
granite of very superior quality, of which vast quantities 
are sent to London and other places, and freestone and 
limestone are also extensively quarried. Many of the 
proprietors reside on their lands, and have materially 
contributed to their improvement, by extensive planta- 
tions, and the introduction of a better system of agricul- 
ture, and superior breeds of cattle ; and much waste 
land has been brought into cultivation under the pa- 
tronage of the Highland Society. The chief seats are 
Haddo House, Aboyne Castle, Huntly Lodge, Slains 
Castle, Keith Hall, Mar Lodge, Delgaty Castle, Skene, 
Castle-Forbes, Philorth House, iVIonymusk, Ellon Castle, 
Fintray House, Fyvie Castle, Gordon Lodge, and Castle- 
Frazer. The coast is bold and rocky, with some alter- 
nations of level beach. On the Moray Firth, the most 
prominent headlands are Rosehearty Point and Kin- 
naird Head ; and on the German Ocean, Cairnbulg 
Point, Rattray Head, Scotstown Point, Invernetty Point, 
and Buchan Ness. The chief bays in the former are, 
the harbour of Rosehearty, and the bay of Fraserburgh ; 
and in the latter, Peterhead Bay, Cruden Bay, Sandy 
Haven, Long Haven, Garrick's Haven, and the bay of 
Aberdeen. Facility of communication is maintained by 
good roads, some of which were made under the autho- 
rity of the commissioners for Highland roads and 
23 



bridges, appointed by act of parliament. The annual 
value of real property in the county is £605, S02, of 
which £423,388 are returned for lands, £145,366 for 
houses, £8864 for fisheries, £108* for canal navigation, 
£1085 for quarries, and £26,012 for other species of 
real property. 

ABERDOUR, a parish, in the district of Deer, 
county of Aberdeen; containing 1645 inhabitants, of 
whom 376 are in the village of New Aberdour, 8 miles 
(W. by S.) from Fraserburgh. The name of this place 
is supposed to have been derived from the Gaelic term 
y^ier, signifying "mouth" or "opening," in reference to 
the rivulet Dour, which finds an entrance into the sea a 
short distance below the manse. There are numerous 
cairns and tumuli, containing stone coffins with the 
ashes and bones of human bodies, indicating the 
parish to have been the theatre of military conflict. 
The castle of Dundargue, also, stands here, which Sir 
Thomas Beaumont fortified and garrisoned, in right of 
his wife, daughter to the Earl of Buchan, when he ac- 
companied Edward Baliol, who came to claim the king- 
dom of Scotland. This castle was of great importance 
in the feudal times, and is famed for a long siege in 
1336, when Henry de Beaumont, the English Earl of 
Buchan, capitulated to Murray, Regent of Scotland, 
during the captivity of David Bruce. On the coast is a 
cave called Cowshaven, which is celebrated as the hiding- 
place of Lord Pitsligo, after the battle of CuUoden : this 
retreat was at last discovered by the impressions on the 
snow, of the footsteps of a woman who supplied him with 
food; and he was obliged to flee thence for safety. 

The parish contains 15,165 acres, of which 5873 
are cultivated, 5608 are moor or green pasture, 3496 
moss, 88 wood, and 101 occupied by roads, &c. Its 
form is altogether irregular, consisting of a kind of zig- 
zag boundary, some parts of which strike off to a con- 
siderable extent. The northern boundary runs for 
about seven miles along the shore of the Moray Firth, 
which is broken by numerous openings and caves, some 
of them penetrating for a long distance into the land. 
The coast in general is bold and rocky, and on the estate 
of Auchmedden rises the colossal Pitjossie, an immense 
natural arch, which strikes the beholder with astonish- 
ment, when viewed from the summit of the adjoining 
cliff, and is said to rival the celebrated BuUers of Buchan. 
On the coast are also the three small bays of Aberdour, 
Pennan, and Nethermill, the beach of which consists 
of large quantities of stones washed down the Dour 
burn and other streams, and thrown back by the vio- 
lence of the sea on the occurrence of a storm. The sur- 
face of the parish, generally, is unequal, the eastern 
division being flat and low, while the estate of Auch- 
medden, on the western side, rises about 200 or 300 
feet above the level of the sea : on that property are 
several deep ravines and dens, which, with the adjacent 
scenery, present a striking and romantic appearance. 
In the south-eastern extremity are three farms, entirely 
cut off from the rest of the parish by the lands of Tyrie, 
and which some suppose to have been originally grazing 
land for the cattle belonging to the tenants on the sea- 
coast ; whilst others think that, at the time the parish 
was erected, they formed a separate estate belonging to 
the proprietor, who, wishing to have all his property in 
one parish, included them within the bounds of Aber- 
dour. In the south-west of the parish, on the farm of 



A B ER 



ABER 



Kinbeani, is a fresh-water loch called Monwig, situated 
in a large and deep raoss ; it is "200 yards long and 
twenty-two broad, in some parts very deep, and the dark 
mossy water of which it consists is covered in the season 
with flocks of wild geese and ducks. There are several 
small streams, all of which run into the Moray Firth ; 
and near Pitjossie, in the glen of Dardar, is a cascade, 
the water of which, after dashing from the top of a rock 
into three successive basins, glides gently for 100 yards, 
until it falls into the Firth. 

Near the coast the soil is a strong loamy clay, which, 
with good husbandry, yields fine crops ; but in many 
other parts it is cold and mossy, exhibiting merely cul- 
tivated patches of land : the produce raised chiefly com- 
prises oats, turnips, potatoes, barley, bear, and hay. 
Great improvements have taken place in agriculture 
within the last thirty or forty years, especially upon the 
estate of Aberdour, where a regular and scientific system 
of drainage has been adopted. The bog, the moss, and 
moor, with which the arable land was mixed, have been 
removed, bridges and roads have been constructed, and 
a proper rotation of crops has been introduced and ob- 
served i improvements which have entirely altered the 
character of the parish. In other parts, however, there 
is a deficiency of good inclosures, arising from the 
scarcity of stones for forming dykes. The rocks along 
the shore, which are lofty and precipitous, and of con- 
siderable interest, are a coarse sandstone, frequently 
passing into conglomerate of various degrees of coarse- 
ness, and connected with a greywacke slate : the out- 
lying blocks of loose stone, or boulders, are primary trap 
or granite. There are several quarries in the parish of 
granite and sandstone, and two quarries of millstone, 
one of which latter, in the rocks of Pennan, is said to 
contain some of the best stones in Britain : the stones 
from this quarry were formerly in great repute, and sent 
to the south and west of Scotland, but the demand for 
them has of late years greatly diminished. The annual 
value of real property in the parish is £4510. Aberdour 
House is an old-fashioned narrow building, occupying a 
very bleak situation ; and there are several other resi- 
dences, including one on the estate of Auchmedden : the 
glens of this estate are justly celebrated as the beds of 
the finest collection of plants to be found in Scotland, and 
afford some scarce specimens of botanical treasure. 

The parish contains the villages of New Aberdour and 
Pennan, the former erected in 1798 ; the inhabitants are 
employed in agricultural pursuits, with the exception of 
a few engaged in fishing at Pennan. A manufacture 
of kelp was formerly carried on to a considerable extent, 
but it has been greatly reduced, in consequence of the 
repeal of the duty upon Spanish barilla, which is now 
generally used instead of kelp. The white-fishing at 
Pennan, on the estate of Auchmedden, employs six 
boats, with four men each, who pay a rent to the pro- 
pi-ietor of £'20 and some dried fish ; and several long 
boats annually proceed to the herring-fishing in the 
Moray Firth, which abounds with fish of almost every 
description, except salmon, very few of which are to be 
obtained. There are two meal-mills in the parish, one 
at Aberdour, and the other at Nethermill, each of them 
built partly of granite and partly of red sandstone. 
Four annual fairs are held at New Aberdour, for cattle, 
merchandise, and for hiring servants, in the middle of 
April, at Whitsuntide, in the middle of August, and at 
24 



Martinmas : there is also a cattlfe-fair called Byth 
Market, occurring twice in the year, in May and October, 
upon a moor in the south of the parish. The turnpike- 
road from Fraserburgh to Banff touches the parish, at 
the two points of Bridgend in the east, and Cowbog in 
the west, and is rendered available to the parishioners 
by an excellent junction road. 

For ecclesiastical purposes the parish is in the pres- 
bytery of Deer and synod of Aberdeen ; patron, 
A. D. Fordyce, Esq. : the minister's stipend is sixteen 
chalders and a half of victual, half meal half barley, 
payable by the fairs of the year ; with a manse, built in 
1822, and a glebe of about seven acres, valued at £14 
a year. The church, which is conveniently situated at 
the northern extremity of the village of New Aberdour, 
was erected in 1818, and contains about 900 sittings. 
There is a parochial school, where Latin is taught, with 
all the ordinary branches of education ; the master has a 
salary of about £32, and £15 fees, with a house. The chief 
relic of antiquity is the castle of Dundargue, situated 
upon a lofty precipice overhanging the sea ; and at a 
place called Chapelden, on a hill opposite the Toar of 
Troup, are the ruins of a chapel. Of the mineral springs 
that are to be found in every direction, the most famed 
is one named Mess John's Well, a strong chalybeate, 
celebrated for its medicinal virtue ; it issues from a 
rock about 200 yards west of the burn of Aberdour, and 
has a small basin, hke a cup, to receive the water that 
drops. The basin is commonly said to have been 
formed by John White, laird of Ardlaw-hill during the 
contest of religious parties. 

ABERDOUR, a parish, in the district of Dunferm- 
line, county of Fife; including the island of Inch- 
colm, and the village of Newtown ; and containing 1916 
inhabitants, of whom 30* are in Easter and 469 in 
Wester Aberdour, S miles (S. \V.) from Dunfermline. 
This place takes its name from its situation at the mouth 
of the Dour, a rivulet which flows into the Forth near 
the village. It was anciently the property of the Vipont 
family, of whose baronial castle there are still consider- 
able remains. The castle, with the lands, passed in 
1125 from the Viponts, by marriage, to the Mortimers, 
of whom Allen de Mortimer granted the western por- 
tion of the lands to the monks of Inchcolm, in con- 
sideration of the privilege of being allowed to bury in 
the church of their monastery on the isle, about a mile 
distant from the mainland. When conveying the re- 
mains of one of that family to the abbey for interment, 
a violent storm is said to have arisen, and compelled 
the party to throw the coffin into the channel, which, 
from that circumstance, obtained the appellation of 
" Mortimer's Deep." The ancient castle is a stately 
pile of massive grandeur, situated on an eminence, on 
the east bank of the Water of Dour, and commanding 
an extensive view of the Firth of Forth : in front is a 
spacious terrace, overlooking the gardens, into which are 
several descents by flights of steps. It was partly de- 
stroyed by an accidental fire, about the beginning of the 
eighteenth century, since which time it has been aban- 
doned, and suffered to fall into decay ; but the roof is 
still entire, and several of the apartments are in tolerable 
preservation, though used only as lumber-rooms. At a 
small distance is the old church, now a roofless ruin ; it 
contains the ancient family vault of the Morton family, 
and is surrounded by a small cemetery. 



AB E R 



A B E R 



This parish, which is bounded on the south by the 
river Forth, is about three miles in length, from east to 
west, and nearly of equal breadth, comprising about 
6240 acres, of which 3240 are arable, about 1800 wood- 
land and plantations, and the remainder meadow and 
pasture. The surface is broken by the ridge of the 
Collelo hills, which traverses the parish from east to 
west, and the summits of which are well wooded, and 
the southern acclivities in profitable cultivation. To- 
wards the river, along which the parish extends for 
more than two miles, the ground is for the most part 
tolerably level ; but on the east, the coast is rocky and 
precipitous, rising abruptly into eminences that are 
wooded to the margin of the Forth. On the face of the 
hills, walks have been laid out, commanding diversified 
prospects ; and on the west is a rich bay of white sand, 
surrounded with trees, whence the ground rises towards 
the west into eminences crowned with thriving planta- 
tions, which, stretching southward, terminate in a per- 
pendicular mass of rock washed by the sea, by which, 
and by the headlands on the south-east, the harbour is 
securely sheltered from the winds. To the north-west 
of the harbour, the surface again rises into a hill finely 
wooded, adding greatly to the beauty of the scenery, 
and commanding, on the right, a view of the island of 
Inchcolm, with the picturesque ruins of the abbey, and, 
on the left of it, the town of Burntisland, with the 
coasts of Lothian, the city of Edinburgh, and the Pent- 
land hills in the distance. 

The soil on the north side of the ridge of hills, which 
has a considerable elevation above the sea, is cold and 
sterile, but on the south side more genial and fertile ; 
and generally a rich black loam, in some parts alter- 
nated with sand. The chief crops are wheat, oats, 
barley, beans, potatoes, and turnips; the system of 
agriculture is much improved, and the farm-buildings 
are substantial and commodious. The substratum 
abounds with coal, of which an extensive mine on the 
lands of Donibristle, belonging to the Earl of Moray, 
is in operation, about two miles and a half from the 
village ; and coal is also wrought on Cottlehill. Free- 
stone of a white colour, and of compact texture, was 
formerly quarried to a great extent, and much of it sent 
to Edinburgh and Glasgow for ornamental buildings ; 
and on the lands of the Earl of Morton is a quarry pro- 
ducing stone admirably fitted for piers and other pur- 
poses where great durability is requisite : large blocks 
from this quarry were used in the construction of 
Granton Pier. The annual value of real property in 
the parish is £5581. 

Aberdour House, the seat of the Earl of Morton, is a 
spacious mansion on the west bank of the Dour, opposite 
to the ancient castle, and surrounded with pleasure- 
grounds richly wooded, and tastefully laid out. Hillside 
is a stately mansion commanding views of the Firth of 
Forth, the opposite coasts, and the adjacent scenery ; 
and Whitehill Cottage and Cottlehill House are also 
finely situated. The village of Aberdour is divided into 
two portions called Easter and Wester, by the river 
Dour, over which is a handsome bridge ; and to the 
south of the western portion is the village of Newtown, 
consisting of Sea-side-place and Manse-street. The 
beauty of the surrounding scenery, the numerous retired 
walks in the neighbourhood, and the fine sandy beach, 
have rendered these villages places of favourite resort 
Vol. I.— 25 



during the summer months, for bathing ; and for the 
accommodation of the numerous visiters, lodging-houses 
are extensively provided. Steamers ply twice a day 
from Edinburgh, during summer, and pinnaces daily 
from Leith harbour, throughout the year. The manu- 
facture of coarse linen was formerly carried on exten- 
sively by hand-loom weavers ; but it has greatly de- 
creased. On the Dour, about a mile from the old village, 
is an iron forge, in which spades, shovels, and other 
implements are made, and of which the great hammer 
is worked by water power. There are also a brick-work, 
and some saw-mills of recent establishment. Consider- 
able quantities of coal are shipped from the harbour, for 
exportation ; and several foreign vessels arrive weekly 
for freights of coal from the mines. Between the har- 
bour and Burntisland is an oyster-bed belonging to the 
Earl of Morton, which is leased to the fishermen of 
Newhaven. A fair is held on the 20th of June, chiefly 
for pleasure. 

Ecclesiastically the parish is in the presbytery of 
Dunfermline and synod of Fife. The minister's stipend 
is £207. 14. 6., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £13 
per annum ; patron, the Earl of Morton. The church, 
erected in 1/90, and repaired in 1826, is a plain build- 
ing. There is a place of worship for members of the 
Free Church. The parochial school is attended by 
about 100 children ; the master has a salary of £34. 4. 4., 
with a house and garden, and the fees average £30 per 
annum. An hospital was founded in Wester Aber- 
dour by Anne Countess of Moray, who endowed it for 
four aged widows, of whom three are appointed by the 
family, and one by the clerk of the signet ; each of the 
widows has a separate apartment, with an allowance 
of coal and candles, and £5 per annum in money. On 
the summit of a hill on the farm of Dalachy, was a cairn, 
on the removal of which, during agricultural improve- 
ments, were found a stone coffin containing a human 
skeleton, several earthen vessels containing human bones, 
a spear-head of copper, and various other relics. The 
field adjoining the garden of the old manse is called the 
" Sisters' land," from its having been anciently the site 
of a Franciscan nunnery. Aberdour gives the title of 
Baron to the Earl of Morton. 

ABERFELDY, a village, partly in the parish of 
Dull, and partly in that of Logierait, county of 
Perth, 65 miles (N. E.) from Kenmore ; containing 823 
inhabitants. This is a considerable and thriving village, 
situated on the southern bank of the river Tay, and on 
the great Highland road. It belongs solely to the 
Marquess of Breadalbane, but is held, with a few excep- 
tions, under building leases, of ninety-nine years' dura- 
tion. The village is surrounded with thick and luxuriant 
wood of hazel and birch ; and in its vicinity are the falls 
of Moness, remarkable for the beauty and grandeur of 
the scenery, and the majesty of their torrents, which 
rush furiously from precipice to precipice, with a tre- 
mendous and fearful roar ; the ascent is from the village, 
and is attained by pleasing and varied walks, with seats 
at intervals for the accommodation of the visiter. The 
Moness mineral water, which was accidentally dis- 
covered a few years ago, has been pronounced by conl- 
petent authority to be an excellent chalybeate. The 
river is crossed at Aberfeldy by a bridge, erected by 
General Wade. Some fairs are held at the village ; also 
a quarterly sheriff's court for small debts. In 1846 an 

E 



A BER 



ABE R 



act of parliament was passed "for making a raiUvay 
from the line of the Perth and Inverness railway to 
Aberfeldy, to be called the Strathtay and Breadalbane 
railway." There are places of worship for Independents 
and members of the Free Church ; a post office, a branch 
bank, and a savings' bank. The Evangelical Library, 
instituted in 1823, has nearly 400 volumes, and there is 
a literary society of recent formation, with a library in 
connexion with it. — See Dull. 

ABERFOYLE, a parish, in the county of Perth, 14 
miles (W. by S.) from Douue, and 20 (W. by N.) from 
Stirling ; containing 543 inhabitants. It derives its 
natne from the situation of the church, near the mouth 
of a rivulet called in Gaehc the Poll or Foile, which 
forms a confluence with the river Forth, at this place an 
inconsiderable stream. The lands originally formed 
part of the possessions of the ancient family of Graham, 
Earls of Menteith, and on failure of heirs male, about the 
end of the seventeenth century, became the property of 
the ancestors of the Duke of Montrose, the present sole 
proprietor. This parish, which is in the south-western 
portion of the county, forms the extreme precinct of the 
Highlands, in that direction, and extends for nearly 
fourteen miles from east to west, and from five to seven 
miles from north to south ; comprising the beautifully 
romantic vale of Aberfoyle, and part of the vale of the 
river Teith, which abound with all the varieties of 
Highland scenery. Between the vales are lofty moun- 
tains, forming a part of the Grampian range, and of 
which the highest are, Benvenue, having an elevation of 
2800, and Benchochan, of 2000 feet above the sea. 
From both these mountains, beneath which lies the 
celebrated scenery of the Trosachs, are obtained ex- 
tensive views of "the windings of the chase," and the 
most interesting parts of the surrounding country, 
described by Sir Walter Scott in his poem of the Lady 
of the Lake. 

In the parish of Aberfoyle are the Lochs Katrine, 
Ard, Chon, Auchray, and Dronky. Loch Katrine, which 
has a depth of about seventy fathoms, is about nine 
miles in length and one mile broad ; the lofty, and in 
some parts precipitous acclivities on its shores, are 
finely wooded nearly to their summits, and the lake is 
adorned with various rocky islets, which rise to a con- 
siderable height out of the water, and are tufted over 
with shrubs and trees, adding greatly to the beautiful 
scenery for which it is so eminently distinguished. 
Loch Ard, about four miles in length and one mile in 
breadth, is divided into two portions, the Upper and 
Lower Ard, connected by a channel 200 yards in length; 
it is in the vale of Aberfoyle, and is bounded on one 
side by the lofty mountain Ben Lomond, whose richly- 
wooded declivity extends to its margin. On a small 
island in the lake are the ruins of an ancient castle 
built by the Duke of Albany, uncle of James I. of Scot- 
land. Loch Chon, about two miles and a half in length 
and one mile in breadth, is in the same valley ; it is 
beautifully skirted on the north-east by luxuriant planta- 
tions, and on the south-west by the mountain of Ben 
Don, 1500 feet in height, the sides of which are covered 
with forests of aged birch and mountain-ash. Loch 
Auchray, near the Trosachs, and Loch Dronky, which is 
two miles long and about half a mile broad, are both 
finely situated, and embellished with rich plantations. 
Of the above lakes, Loch Katrine and Loch Auchray 
26 



separate the parish from the parish of Callander. Be- 
tween the mountains are several small valleys, about a 
mile in length and a quarter of a mile in width, formerly 
covered with heath, but which have been cleared, and 
brought into cultivation. The river Forth has its source 
at the western extremity of the parish, at a place called 
Skid N'uir, or "the ridge of yew-trees," issuing from a 
copious spring, and flowing through the Lochs Chon and 
Ard. About half a mile to the east of the latter, it re- 
ceives the waters of the Duchray, a stream rising near 
the summit of Ben Lomond, and which is also regarded 
as the source of the Forth, though the former is the 
larger of the two. 

The scenery of the Trosachs is approached from the 
head of Loch Auchray. At this point an inn is situated, 
the last human habitation on the route, and here tra- 
vellers usually quit their vehicles in order to walk the 
remainder of the distance ; the road will, however, 
accommodate a chaise to the verge of Loch Katrine. 
What is called the Trosachs is simply a concluding 
portion of the Teith valley, about a mile in extent, and 
adjoining to the bottom of Loch Katrine, just men- 
tioned. From the tumultuous confusion of little rocky 
eminences, of the most fantastic and extraordinary 
forms, which lie throughout the bottom of the vale, and 
are every where rendered shaggy with trees and shrubs, 
nature here wears an aspect of tangled and inextricable 
roughness : the hiUs, moreover, on each side of the con- 
tracted valley, rise to a great height, and are entirely 
covered by birches, hazels, oaks, hawthorns, and moun- 
tain-ashes. The author of the Lady of the Lake has 
described the Trosachs as "a wildering scene of moun- 
tains, rocks, and woods, thrown together in disorderly 
groups ;" and the meaning of the name in some measure, 
also, describes the character of the scenerj', the word 
Trosachs signifying a rough or bristled piece of terri- 
tory. At the termination of this tract, commences 
Loch Katrine. 

The arable lands bear but a very inconsiderable pro- 
portion to the pasture and woodlands. The upper, or 
highland, part of the parish, which is by far the greater, 
is divided principally into sheep-farms, upon which 
scarcely sufficient grain is raised to supply the occupiers 
and their shepherds ; the lower grounds are chiefly ara- 
ble, and in good cultivation, yielding grain of every 
kind, for the supply of the parish, and also for sending 
to the markets. In the lower portions the soil is fertile, 
producing not only grain, but turnips, with the various 
grasses, and excellent crops of rye and clover ; the farm- 
buildings, with very few exceptions, are commodious, 
and mostly of modern erection, and the lands are well 
drained. The sheep are of the black-faced breed, and 
great attention is paid to their improvement. The cattle 
on the upland farms are of the black Highland breed, 
and in addition to those reared on the lands, great 
numbers are pastured during the winter, for which many 
of the farms are well adapted by the shelter afforded by 
the woods ; the cattle on the lowland farms are chiefly 
of the AjTshire breed. The whole of the woods, from 
the head of Loch Chon to the loch of Monteith in the 
parish of Port of Monteith, are the property of the Duke 
of Montrose ; they consist of oak, ash, birch, mountain- 
ash, alder, hazel, and willow, and are divided into twenty- 
four portions, of which one is felled every year, as it 
attains a growth of twenty-four years, within which 



A B E R 



A B E R 



period the whole are cut down, and renewed, in succes- 
sion. On the west side of the mountains is limestone 
of very superior quality, of a blue colour, with veins of 
white, and susceptible of a high polish ; it is extensively 
wrought near the eastern extremity of the parish, for 
building, and for manure, solely by the tenants of the 
several farms. To the west of the limestone range is 
a mountain consisting almost entirely of slate, occurring 
in regular strata, in the quarries of which about twenty 
men are employed. The prevailing rocks are conglo- 
merate and trap, or whinstone ; but the want of water 
carriage, and the distance of the markets, operate ma- 
terially to diminish their value. The annual value of real 
property in the parish in £3600. 

The village is situated near the eastern extremity of 
the parish : the making of pyroligneous acid affords 
employment to a few persons. A post-office has been 
established as a branch of that of Doune ; and fairs are 
held in April, for cattle ; on the first Friday in August, 
for lambs ; and on the third Thursday in October, for 
hiring servants. The lakes and rivers abound with 
trout, pike, perch, and eels ; and char is also found in 
Loch Katrine. Ecclesiastically the parish is within the 
bounds of the presbytery of Dunblane and synod of 
Perth and Stirling. The minister's stipend is £158. 6. S., 
of which part is paid from the exchequer ; with a 
manse, and a glebe containing about nineteen acres of 
good land, partly arable and partly meadow : patron, 
the Duke of Montrose. Aberfoyle church, built in 1*74, 
and thoroughly repaired in 1839, is a plain structure, 
containing 250 sittings. Divine service is also per- 
formed occasionally, by the minister, in the schoolroom. 
The parochial school is well attended ; the master has a 
salary of £'2S, with a house and garden, and the fees 
average about £6 per annum. Near the manse are the 
remains of a Druidical circle, consisting of ten upright 
stones, with one of much larger dimensions in the 
centre. The Rev. James Richardson, whose son WiUiam 
was professor of humanity at Glasgow ; and the Rev. 
Patrick Graham, eminent for the variety and extent of 
his talents, and employed in revising an edition of the 
Sacred Scriptures in the Gaelic language; were ministers 
of the parish. 

ABERLADY, a parish, in the county of Hadding- 
ton, 4 miles (N. W.) from Haddington ; containing 
1050 inhabitants, of whom 537 are in the village. This 
place is situated on the Firth of Forth, and near the 
mouth of the small river Peffer, supposed to have been 
anciently called the Leddie, from which circumstance 
the name Aberlady is said to have been derived. A 
strong castle was built here in 1518, by Patrick Douglas, 
grandson of Sir Archibald Douglas of Kilspindy : he 
was treasurer of Scotland during the minority of 
James V., but sharing in the fate of the Douglases, he 
forfeited his estates, and died in exile. The parish is 
bounded on the north and north-west by the Firth, and 
comprises an area of about 4000 acres, chiefly under 
tillage, with very little permanent pasture, and only a 
small portion of woodland. Its surface is generally flat, 
but has a very gradual rise from the coast to the south 
and south-east ; and though attaining no considerable 
elevation even at the highest point, it still commands a 
richly-varied and extensive prospect over the Firth of 
Forth in its widest expanse, the Pentland hills, the city 
of Edinburgh with its castle, and the Grampian hills. 
37 



Near the coast the soil is light and sandy, in some parts 
clayey, and on the more elevated lands a rich and fertile 
loam. The system of agriculture is in an improved state ; 
tile-draining has been extensively practised, and on all 
the farms are threshing-mills, many of which are driven 
by steam. Comparatively little attention has been paid 
to the rearing of live stock ; but the number of sheep 
and cattle is increasing, and it is not improbable that 
in due time the farmers will be distinguished for im- 
provements in the breeds of stock. The chief substrata 
are limestone and whinstone, and coal is supposed to 
exist in some of the lands ; the limestone is not worked, 
but along the coast the whinstone is quarried extensively. 
Clay of good quality for bricks and tiles is found, and 
about twenty persons are employed in works for that 
purpose. The annual value of real property in the 
parish is £8151. 

BallencriefF, the seat of Lord Elibank, is a handsome 
mansion, in a richly-planted demesne, commanding some 
fine views of the surrounding country. Gosford, the 
seat of the Earl of Wemyss and March, upon which 
large sums have been expended, was anciently a pos- 
session of the noble family of Acheson, whose titles as 
Barons, Viscounts, and Earls Gosford have been chosen 
from this place, where was formerly a village that no 
longer exists. The mansion is beautifully situated, and 
contains an extensive and very choice collection of paint- 
ings, most of them by the old masters. Luifness is an 
ancient mansion, considerably enlarged and improved, 
but still retaining much of its original character ; the 
grounds are well planted, and laid out with exquisite 
taste. The village is pleasantly situated, near the influx 
of the PefFer into the Firth, and is neatly built ; a sub- 
scription library has been established, and there is also 
a parochial lending library. At this part of the coast 
is a small haven, where vessels of seventy tons may 
anchor at spring tides, but from which their return to 
the sea is difficult when the wind happens to be westerly : 
the haven is the port of Haddington, but the trade 
carried on is insignificant. Great facility of communi- 
cation is afforded by the North-British railway, which 
passes through the parish. 

At a remote period, there appears to have been an 
establishment of Culdees near the village, probably 
subordinate to the monastery of Dunkeld, on the 
erection of which place into a bishopric, David L con- 
ferred the lands of Aberlady and Kilspindy on the 
bishop, in whose possession they remained till the Re- 
formation. Gavin Douglas, Bishop of Dunkeld, granted 
these lands to Sir Archibald Douglas in 152'^, and in 
1589 they were resigned to the crown, and the church 
of Aberlady became a rectory, independent of the dio- 
cese ; the patronage remained with the Douglas family, 
from whom it passed to others, and ultimately to the 
Earl of Wemyss, the present patron. The parish is in 
the presbytery of Haddington and synod of Lothian and 
Tweeddale ; the stipend of the incumbent is £280. ] 1 . 11., 
with a manse, and a glebe valued at £27. 10. per annum. 
Aberlady church, rebuilt in 1773, is a neat and sub- 
stantial edifice, adapted for a congregation of 525 per- 
sons : four handsome silver cups, for the communion 
service, were presented by the Wedderburn family. The 
parochial school affords a liberal course of instruction ; 
the master has a salary of £34. 4. 4i., with £34 fees, 
and a house and garden. 

E2 



A B E R 



AB E R 



Till lately there were some remains of the castle of 
Kilspindy, already noticed, situated between the village 
and the sea-shore ; but they have now totally disappeared. 
On the margin of a small stream which separates the 
parish from that of Gladsmuir, are the ruins of Redhouse 
Castle, apparently a place of great strength, the erection 
of which is referred to the sixteenth century ; the lands 
belonged in the fifteenth century to the family of Laing, 
of which one was treasurer of Scotland in 1465, bishop 
of Glasgow in 1473, and high chancellor in 1483. The 
more ancient portion of the house of Luffness was for- 
merly inclosed within a fortification, raised to intercept 
the supplies sent by sea to the English garrison at Had- 
dington; the fortification was demolished in 1551, but 
the house was preserved. Near the site was once a con- 
vent of Carmelite friars, to whom David II. granted a 
charter ; and at Ballencrieff and Gosford were ancient 
hospitals, of which there are now no remains. Along 
the coast, stone coffins and human bones have been fre- 
quently dug up, supposed to have been those of persons 
slain in some conflict near the spot. 

ABERLEMNO, a parish, in the county of Forfar ; 
containing, with the chapelry of Auldbar, 1023 inhabit- 
ants : the hamlets of Kirl\town and Crosston of Aber- 
lemno are equidistant from the towns of Forfar and 
Brechin, being about 6 miles from each. Aberlerano is 
named from the small river Lemno, the word signifying 
■' the mouth of the Lemno." This stream, after flowing 
a few miles towards the south-west, and winding north- 
ward around the western extremity of the hill of Oath- 
law, runs to the east, and falls into the Esk, about a 
mile from its source. The parish is separated on the 
north, by the Esk, from Tannadice and Careston, and 
measures about six miles in length, and in some places 
five in breadth. It forms part of a hilly district situated 
towards the south of Strathmore, and the higher por- 
tions, which are bleak, are mostly covered with broom 
and heath, while the lower grounds are generally fertile, 
though in one district subject to inundations from the 
Esk. The hill of Turin is the highest eminence ; the 
others attain only a moderate elevation : it rises about 
800 feet above the level of the sea, commanding exten- 
sive prospects, and by the plantations of fir upon its 
slope contributing greatly to the improvement of the 
scenery. The lake of Balgavies, on the southern boun- 
dary, affords good pike and perch angling : it formerly 
yielded a large supply of marl for manuring the lands. 
The inhabitants, with the exception of a few engaged in 
weaving and in quarrying, follow agricultural pursuits; 
and the farmers pay much attention to the rearing of 
cattle, considerable numbers of which, and large quan- 
tities of potatoes, are sent to the London market. There 
are four meal and barley mills, driven by water ; and 
all the large farms have threshing-mills. Several quarries 
of fine slate stone of a greyish colour are in operation, 
supplying a good material for building, paving, and the 
roofing of houses. The annual value of real property 
in the parish is £6833. 

In this neighbourhood are various old castles and 
remains of strong places, including the houses of Auld- 
bar and Balgavies, both of which are surrounded with 
fine wood : the first of these consists of an ancient and 
a modern portion, and that of Balgavies is compara- 
tively modern, a single vault only of the more ancient 
structure remaining. The house of Carsegownie has 
28 



been lately partially stripped of its ancient feudal ap- 
pearance ; while the castle of Flemmington, a little to 
the east of the church, retains all the distinguishing 
features of the predatory era in which it was erected. 
The Auldbar turnpike-road, connecting the railway sta- 
tion of the same name with Brechin, passes through the 
parish, as does also the turnpike-road from Forfar to 
Montrose ; and there is a parish road from Forfar to 
Brechin, running in a north-eastern direction through 
the whole length of the district. Ecclesiastically the 
parish is in the presbytery of Forfar, synod of Angus 
and Mearns, and in the patronage of the Crown and the 
family of Smythe of Methven ; the minister's stipend is 
£228. 6. 6., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £15 
per annum. The present church was built upon the old 
foundation, from about three feet above the ground, in 
the year 1*22, and accommodates 450 persons with 
sittings. The parochial school affords instruction in the 
usual branches ; the master has a salary of £34. 4. 4., 
with fees producing between £12 and £14. There is a 
library of miscellaneous works. The most interesting 
relic of antiquity is the ruin of Melgund Castle, said to 
have been built by Cardinal Beaton, and still indicating 
by its extent and strength its former magnificence. On 
the summit of Turin hill are the remains of an ancient 
fort called Camp Castle, commanding most extensive 
views, and supposed to have been raised as a watch- 
tower. There are also numerous tumuli and cairns in 
the parish, and several obelisks or monumental stones, 
ornamented with various devices, one of the chief of 
which is in the churchyard, exhibiting on one side a 
cross in bold relief covered with flowers, and on the 
other a number of martial figures, thought to be memo- 
rials of important military achievements. The title of 
Viscount Melgund is borne by the Earl of Minto, who 
is proprietor of nearly half the parish. 

ABERLOUR, a parish, in the county of B.\nff, a 
few miles (W. N. W.) from Dufftown, and on the road 
from Elgin to Grantown ; containing, with the village 
of Charlestown, 1352 inhabitants. This parish, which 
was formerly called Skirdustan, signifying in the Gaelic 
tongue " the division of Dustan," its tutelary saint, de- 
rived its present name from its position at the mouth 
of a noisy burn which discharges itself into the river 
Spey. It is situated in the western part of the county, 
and extends nearly seven miles along the south bank of 
the Spey, from the hill of Carron on the west, to the 
mouth of the river Fiddich on the east. The surface is 
very uneven. Towards the southern part is an almost 
unbroken chain of mountains, consisting of the Blue 
Hill, the East and West Conval hills, the mountain of 
Benrinnes, and the broad hill of Cairnakay ; with part 
of the hill of Carron, on the border of the Spey, and 
separated from Benrinnes by a narrow valley. A deep 
and narrow pass called Glackharnis, of great length, and 
of uniform breadth at the bottom, separates the moun- 
tain of Benrinnes from the Conval hills, and is remark- 
able for the great height and regularity of its declivity 
on both sides. The mountain of Benrinnes, as its name 
implies, is precipitous in its ascent, and sharp on the 
summit. It has an elevation of 2756 feet above the sea, 
and of 1876 feet from its base, being the highest in the 
country for many miles around. From the summit are 
seen the Grampian hills to the south, the interesting 
valley and hills of Glenavon to the west, and to the 



AB E R 



A B E R 



north the mountains of Ross, Sutherland, and Caith- 
ness ; it embraces a fine view of the sea, along the coasts 
of Moray and Banffshire, and forms a conspicuous land- 
mark for mariners. The Conval hills are spherical ia 
form, and profusely covered with heath ; and between 
these and Benrinnes is the fine valley above mentioned, 
the south part of which, consisting of sloping land, and 
including the district of Edinvillie, is divided on the 
north-east, by a brook, from the lands of Allachie, and 
on the north, by the burn of Aberlour, from the district 
of Ruthrie. To the north-west of Ruthrie is the dis- 
trict of Kinnermony. The lands of Aberlour are watered 
by two rivulets, descending from the Blue hill, and 
■which unite to form the burn of AUachoy, separating the 
lands of Aberlour from the district of Drumfurrich. 

These several districts contain some good tracts of 
holm land, and form the principal arable grounds of the 
parish, of which, upon the whole, not more than one- 
half is under cultivation. The soil, near the river, is a 
rich deep loam, mixed with sand ; towards the hills a 
deep clay, lying on a substratum of rough gravel, and 
covered with a thin alluvial soil ; and towards the 
centre of the parish, a richer alluvial soil, resting on a 
bed of granite. In the neighbourhood of Glenrinnes, 
limestone is quarried for agricultural purposes, and, by 
many of the farmers, burnt upon their own lands. The 
principal crops are barley, oats, wheat, and peas ; and 
the barley produced here weighs more, per bushel, than 
that of the heavier soils of the adjoining parishes. The 
Morayshire breed of black-cattle is raised, and the 
sheep are of the hardy black-faced kind. Several of 
the farms are inclosed with fences of stone, and the 
farm-buildings generally are substantial and commo- 
dious. The annual value of real property in the parish 
is £3169. Here is the handsome seat of Aberlour, 
occupied by Alexander Grant, Esq., the chief resident 
proprietor : a column of the Tuscan order has lately 
been erected on the estate. There are several flourish- 
ing plantations of fir in the hilly districts, and of elm 
and ash near the river, the banks of which are in some 
places decorated with birch-trees of very luxuriant 
growth. 

The river Spey, from the rapidity of its current, and 
the narrowness of its channel, frequently overflows its 
banks, and damages the neighbouring lands. In 1829 
a very destructive flood occurred, the waters rising to 
the height of nearly twenty feet above the ordinary 
level, sweeping away the entire soil of several fields, 
with all their crops, and leaving upon others a deposit 
of sand and rough gravel, to the depth of several feet. 
A cottage and offices were carried away ; and the dry 
stone arches which formed the approach to the bridge 
of Craig-EUachie were entirely destroyed, only a few 
yards of masonry being left on which the end of the 
arch rested. This bridge consists of one metal arch, 
more than 160 feet in span, abutting on a solid rock on 
the north side of the river, and supported on the Aber- 
lour side by a strong pier of masonry, built on piles. 
It was erected in 181.5, at an expense of £8000, of which 
one-half was defrayed by government, and the other by 
subscription. The rivers Spey and Fiddich afford ex- 
cellent salmon and trout ; the fishing season commences 
in February, and closes in September. The parish also 
abounds with various kinds of game. On the burn of 
Aberlour, about a mile above its influx into the Spey, is 
29 



a fine cascade, called the Lynn of Ruthrie ; the water 
falls from a height of thirty feet, and, being broken in 
its descent by a projecting platform of granite rock, 
richly adorned with birch-trees and various shrubs, 
presents an interesting and highly picturesque appear- 
ance. Fairs are held annually in the village of Charles- 
town. 

For ecclesiastical purposes the parish is in the pres- 
bytery of Aberlour and synod of Moray : Lord Fife is 
patron, and the stipend of the incumbent is £287. 8. 2. 
The church, a well-arranged structure, erected in 1812, 
is situated to the north of Charlestown, at a distance of 
about 300 yards from the ruins of the old church near 
the influx of the burn of Aberlour into the Spey ; Mr. 
Grant has lately made an addition to the length of the 
edifice, and erected a handsome tower. In the valley 
of Glenrinnes is a missionary establishment, and a 
chapel of ease has been erected, the minister of which 
has a stipend of £60 per annum, royal bounty, with a 
manse, glebe, and other accommodations provided by 
the heritors. The parochial school affords instruction 
in the Latin language, arithmetic, elementary mathe- 
matics, &c. i the master has a salary of £34. 4. 4^. per 
annum, with a house and garden, and the school-fees 
average about £40. 

ABERLUTHNOTT, in the county of Kincardine. 
— See Marykirk. 

ABERNETHY, a parish, in the counties of Inver- 
ness and Elgin, .5 miles (S. W. by S.) from Grantown ; 
containing, with Kincardine, 1832 inhabitants, of whom 
1083 are in Abernethy proper. This parish, to which 
that of Kincardine was annexed about the time of the 
Reformation, derives its name from the position of the 
church near the influx of the river Nethy into the Spey: 
Kincardine, or Kinie-chairdin, implies the " clan of 
friends." The united parish is fifteen miles long and 
from ten to twelve broad, containing about 120,000 
acres, of which about 3000 are in tillage, 40,000 forest 
and plantation, and 77,000 uncultivated. It extends 
from the borders of Cromdale to Rothiemurchus, and 
the lower end of it falls within the county of Inverness : 
the surface is mountainous and woody, interspersed 
with corn-fields. The parish is bounded on the west, 
throughout its entire length, by the river Spey ; and the 
Nethy, when swollen, is of sufficient size to allow of the 
passage of floats of timber into the Spey. There are 
several lakes also, in Kincardine ; the chief is the oval 
basin in Glenmore forest, which is nearly two miles in 
diameter. The soil in some parts is deep raith, but 
frequently thin and dry, and in some places wet and 
cold ; wood is abundant, and about 7000 acres on one 
estate are under fir of natural growth. Some of the 
farms exhibit the appearance of superior husbandry, and 
have substantial and commodious buildings. Improve- 
ments have been carried on for a considerable time, to 
the advance of which, the plentiful supply of limestone 
in the parish, and of native fuel for preparing it, has 
greatly contributed : every farmer, however small his 
ground, has a lime-kiln in use. Parallel to the river 
Spey extends a range of mountains, a branch of the 
Grampians, which exhibits a great variety of rock : 
commencing with the well-known Cairngorm and Ben- 
Macdhui, its southern extremity, granite stretches to the 
north, for several miles ; then appears primary limestone, 
and this is succeeded by trap and micaceous schist. 



A B E R 



A BE R 



A regular " manufacture " of timber has been carried 
on in the Abernethy district, for more than sixty years. 
The Duke of Gordon, in 17S4, sold his fir- woods of 
Glenmore, in the barony of Kincardine, for £10,000, to 
an English company, who exhausted them ; and from 
the forest of Abernethy, belonging to the Earl of Sea- 
field, great quantities of timber are still forwarded yearly 
to Garmouth or Speyraouth, by large rafts in the river 
Spey : much of it has been formed into vessels of large 
burthen, at the former place, and considerable quantities 
sent to the royal dockyards in England. The trade was 
immense during the war, the annual value for many 
years averaging £15,000 : it is now considerably dimi- 
nished, although still employing a large number of the 
population. The annual value of real property in the 
parish is £3442. 

The parish is within the bounds of the presbytery of 
Abernethy and synod of Moray ; the Earl of Seafield is 
patron, and the stipend of the minister is £234. 2. 1., 
with a glebe of the annual value of £~. The church in 
the district of Abernethy, a commodious structure with 
seats for 600 persons, was erected eighty or ninety years 
since ; and that of Kincardine, a well-built edifice, seven 
miles distant from the manse, containing about 330 
sittings, was built in 1S04. There is a parochial school, 
in which Latin, mathematics, and the usual branches of 
education are taught ; the master has a salary of £25. 13., 
with £22 fees, &c., and a house. A Gaelic school at 
Kincardine is chiefly supported by £17 a year from the 
Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge. Several 
ancient remains are to be seen, particularly of Druidical 
circles ; and on rising ground near the church is an old 
building, of which no satisfactory account has ever been 
aflForded. The topaz called cairngorm is found in con- 
siderable numbers in the mountain of that name ; and 
at the end of Lochaven is an interesting natural curi- 
osity, in the form of a cave, commonly called Chlach- 
dhian, or " the sheltering stone," and which is sur- 
rounded by vast mountains. It is sufficient to contain 
a number of pers(ms, and people frequently take shelter 
in it for security from rain and wind, after hunting or 
fishing, and sometimes being driven by necessity. Some 
pine-trees of immense size are to be found throughout 
the forest : the trunk of one, at nine feet from the 
ground, is nineteen feet in circumference. 

ABERNETHY, a burgh and parish, partly in the 
district of Cupar, county of Fife, but chiefly in the 
county of Perth, 3 miles (\r. S. W.) from Newburgh ; 
containing, with the village of Aberdargie, 1920 inha- 
bitants, of whom 827 are in the town of Abernethy. 
This place, originally called Abernethyn, is supposed 
by some to have derived its name from the small stream 
of the Nethy, flowing through the centre of the parish, 
and so denominated from the old British term jieilli, or 
nid, implying a"turning"or" whirling stream", of which 
term nethii is a diminutive. But others are of opinion 
that the appellation has been received from Nectan or 
Nethan, one of the Pictish kings who dignified the place, 
and of whose kingdom it was the capital. The most 
ancient and credible of the Scottish historians agree in 
representing this locality as the metropolis of the Pictish 
nation, both in civil and religious matters ; but the 
particulars relating to the erection of the church are 
variously described. The Pictish Chronicle states the 
edifice to have been raised by Nethan, or Nectan, I., 
30 



about the year 456, as a sacrifice offered to God and St. 
Bridget, for the recovery of his kingdom ; whilst Fordua 
asserts, that St. Patrick himself introduced St. Bridget 
and her nine nuns into the religious establishment of 
Abernethy. Others, however, think that the church was 
founded and endowed towards the close of the sixth 
century, by King Gamard M'Dourmach, or in the 
beginning of the seventh century, by Nethan II., his 
immediate successor. The church was shortly after 
made the head of an episcopal see ; and here was the 
residence of the metropolitan of the Pictish kingdom, 
and probably of all Scotland, until the Picts were sub- 
dued by one of the Kenneths, and both the see and the 
residence of the bishop were transferred to St. Andrew's, 
the head of which was afterwards acknowledged as the 
national bishop. Abernethy was subsequently com- 
prehended in the bishopric of Dunblane, founded in the 
twelfth century, by King David I., out of the national 
bishopric of St. Andrew's. 

After the removal of the see from this place, the 
church became collegiate, and was in the possession of 
the Culdees, of whom but little is known with certainty, 
except that this parish was their principal seat, and 
that here they had a university for the education of 
youth, in which the whole of the sciences were taught, 
as far as they were then knowm. In the twelfth century, 
by a charter of King William the Lion and of Lawrence 
de Abernethy, the church and advowson of Abernethy, 
with its pertinents, were conveyed to the abbey of 
Arbroath ; and about the year 1240, the altarage of the 
church was given with certain lands to the Bishop of 
Dunblane, who in return, among other things, engaged 
to provide for the service of the church, to enrol it 
among his prebendal institutions, and to instal the abbot 
of Arbroath as a prebendary or canon, with a manse and 
privileges similar to those of the other canons. The 
ancient monastery, in 1273, became a priory of canons 
regular, and a cell of Inchaffray, all the Culdee institu- 
tions yielding to the increasing power of the Romish 
Church ; and this priory seems to have been afterwards 
converted into a provostry or college of secular priests, 
the church becoming a collegiate establishment. The 
church was valued at the Reformation at £273 per 
annum, and was afterwards a parsonage. 

The civil occupancy of the principal lands appears to 
have taken place at an early period. In the twelfth 
century, Orme, the son of Hugh, received the lands of 
Abernethy from King William the Lion, and from them 
both himself and his posterity took their name. Alex- 
ander de Abernethy, a descendant, swore fealty to 
Edward I. in 1292, and was appointed by Edward II., in 
1310, warden of the counties between the Forth and the 
Grampians. His lands are supposed to have been for- 
feited after the battle of Bannockburn, or to have been 
continued in the family only by the marriage of his 
daughters, the eldest of whom, Margaret, was united to 
John Stewart, Earl of Angus, who thus obtained the 
lordship of Abernethy, and whose grand-daughter, 
Margaret Stewart, married William, Earl of Douglas. 
Their son, George Douglas, on the resignation of his 
mother in 1389, became Earl of Angus. This family, in 
the earlier period of Scottish history, were numerous 
and powerful : during their more intimate connexion 
with the parish, they seem to have had a castle or place 
of residence here, which tradition says was near the 



AB E R 



ABER 



house of Carpow ; and some of the most illustrious of 
the Earls of Angus were interred in the parish. Ac- 
cording to some authors, it was at Abernethy that 
Malcolm Canmore did homage to William the Conqueror; 
but so many different opinions exist on the point as to 
render it altogether doubtful. 

This TOWN, which is of great antiquity, and, from the 
ruins discovered eastward of it, is supposed to have been 
once much more extensive, is situated near the con- 
fluence of the Tay and Earn rivers, on the south-eastern 
border of the county, and adjoining Fifeshire, in which 
county a small portion of it stands. The lands in the 
vicinity, and throughout the greater part of the parish, 
are interesting and beautiful, consisting of large tracts 
highly cultivated, forming on the north a portion of the 
rich vale of Strathearn, enlivened by the rivers ; on the 
south the lands are for the most part hilly, occupying 
about two-thirds of the whole area, and belonging to the 
picturesque range of the Ochils. About a mile to the 
east is the mansion of Carpow, a neat modern structure ; 
a little beyond it is a small stream which separates 
Abernethy from the parish of Newburgh, in Fifeshire, 
and to the west is the mansion of Ayton House, skirted 
by the Farg rivulet, which flows through the romantic 
scenery of Glenfarg, and joins the Earn at Colfargie. 
In the south-western district, about three-quarters of 
a mile from the town, rises Castle Law, a steep grassy 
elevation, 600 feet high, the summit of which is the seat 
of a vitrified fort. It commands a beautiful view of 
Strathearn and the Carse of Gowrie, with the interjacent 
Tay, where there is an island named Mugdrum, belonging 
to this parish, a mile in length, comprehending thirty- 
five acres of rich arable land, and which is thronged in 
autumn and winter with various kinds of water-fowl, 
and sometimes is visited by fine wild swans. 

The town contains a library, but no other institutions 
of interest. The Perth line of the Edinburgh, Perth, 
and Dundee railway company passes here, and has a 
station. A large portion of the inhabitants, both male 
and female, as well as of those residing in the villages of 
Aberdargie and Glenfoot, in the parish, are employed in 
weaving linen-yarn, for the manufacturers of Newburgh. 
The trade consists chiefly in the sale of grain and 
potatoes, the former being sent to the weekly market of 
Newburgh, and the potatoes taken to Ferryfield, on the 
estate of Carpow, where is a stone pier, and thence con- 
veyed to the London market. The Earl of Wemyss has 
fishings on the Earn, and there are others on the Earn 
and the Tay, belonging to the estate of Carpow. A 
brick and tile work is in operation j and a bleachfield 
has been formed at Clunie, in the eastern district, which 
has to some extent caused an increase in the population. 
Besides the above mentioned line of railway, the 
turnpike-road from Perth to Edinburgh passes through 
the parish : several good roads, also, are kept in repair 
by statute labour, one of them leading from Perth to 
Cupar, in which line a new bridge was erected over the 
Farg a few years since. There are two ferries, one at 
Gary, and the other at Ferryfield. Cattle-fairs are held 
on the 12th of February, the fourth Wednesday in 
May, and the second Thursday in November ; they are, 
however, in a very low state. 

Abernethy is a burgh of barony, held under Lord 
Douglas. It had a charter from Archibald, Earl of 
AjJgus, Lord of Abernethy, dated the 23rd of August, 
31 



14/6, in which mention is made of a royal charter of 
erection, in his favour, by King James II. By a charter 
of William, Earl of Angus, dated the 29th day of No- 
vember, 162S, the privileges were confirmed, and, among 
them, the right of fairs and markets, the customs of 
which were to be applied to the use of the burgh, unless 
they amounted to more than 100 raerks Scots yearly, 
when the surplus was to be accounted for to the superior. 
The practice of the burgh has fixed the number of bailies 
at two, and the councillors at fifteen, and by right of 
charter the burgesses elect their magistrates ; the fee 
for admission as a burgess, to a stranger, is 10s. 6(/., and 
to the son of a burgess, half that sum. The bailies for- 
merly exercised both a civil and criminal jurisdiction, to a 
small extent, but their authority has been lately chal- 
lenged ; they still, however, hold courts for petty 
offences, from which there is no appeal but to the court 
of justiciary or session. 

The PARISH comprises about 7030 acres, of which 
2568 acres are comprehended in the northern division, 
forming the lowest part of the vale of Strathearn, and 
the remainder consists of a portion of the Ochil hills. 
The soil of the former is deep rich clay, black earth, and 
sand ; and that of the latter, tilly, and resting on whin- 
stone, among which numerous valuable pebbles have at 
different times been found. All kinds of grain and 
green crops, of the first quality, are raised on the lower 
portion, where the lands are cultivated to the highest 
degree ; the hilly part contains 950 acres of permanent 
pasture, S50 acres in plantations, and 2660 arable, the 
last producing oats, barley, turnips, potatoes, &c. The 
whole farming of the parish is of the most approved 
kind. The rocks between the Tay and the Ochils con- 
sist principally of the old red sandstone, and the sub- 
strata of the Ochils chiefly comprise the clinkstone, 
amygdaloid, porphyry, and claystone varieties of the 
trap formation. Gneiss, primitive trap, and quartz are 
found in boulders, especially on the hills ; and quarries 
of the greenstone and clinkstone rocks are in operation, 
supplying a material for roads and coarse buildings. 
Zeolites of great beauty are found in Glenfarg, and 
agates, jaspers, &c., in many places ; there is limestone 
in Auchtermuchty, and in the Glenfarg quarry have been 
found scales of the ichthyolites. The annual value of 
real property in the parish is £9626. 

Ecclesiastically the parish is in the presbytery of Perth, 
synod of Perth and Stirling, and in the gift of the Earl 
of Mansfield ; the minister's stipend is £2.56. 5. 7., with 
a manse, and a glebe valued at £12 per annum. The 
church, built in 1S02, is a plain but commodious edifice, 
containing 600 sittings. There are places of worship be- 
longing to the Free Church and United Presbyterian 
Church, and another at Aberdargie connected with the 
United Presbyterian Church. The parochial school 
affords instruction in the usual branches ; the master has 
the maximum salary, and the fees, together with about 
£13. 13., chiefly arising from a bequest by Lord Stor- 
mont, of £200, in 1748, and another producing £1. 13., 
for teaching. On the top of a hill behind Pitlour, are 
the remains of an ancient fort called the " Roman camp," 
supposed by some antiquaries to have been occupied by 
the Roman army before the great battle with Galgacus. 
Many Roman antiquities have been discovered in the 
parish, leading to the supposition that this people had an 
important military station here ; and a Roman road is 



ABER 



ABOY 



said formerly to have existed, conducting to Ardoch, and 
another to Perth. lu the south-western extremity of 
the parish, in Fifeshire, is the ruin of Balvaird Castle, 
situated among the Ochils, the property of the Earl of 
Mansfield and his ancestors since the time of Robert 
II., and which conferred a title on Andrew Murray of 
Balvaird, who was settled minister of Abdie in 1618, 
knighted in 1633, and created Lord Balvaird in 1641. 
But the most interesting relic of former times, and that 
which has excited the greatest interest, is a round tower, 
to which there is nothing similar in Scotland, except at 
Brechin, and the origin of which is altogether involved 
in obscurity. It stands at the entrance of the church, 
near the site containing the old college and ecclesiastical 
estabhshment, and also the ancient church taken down 
in 1802; and has a clock, and an excellent bell which 
has been used from time immemorial for ecclesiastical 
purposes, and to a certain extent by the burgh for civil 
purposes. The building is seventy-four feet high, and 
forty-eight feet round outwardly at the base, and con- 
sists of sixty-four courses of hewn freestone, diminishing 
a little towards the summit, where there are four 
windows, equidistant, facing the four quarters of heaven, 
each five feet nine inches high, and two feet two inches 
wide. The walls, at the bottom, are three feet and a 
half thick ; and opposite to the north is a door, eight 
feet in height and three feet wide, arched overhead. 
The structure is flat at the top, having a large projecting 
moulding for the uppermost course of stones ; and, 
being entirely hollow, and without staircase, is ascended 
by scaling ladders attached to wooden platforms. The 
Rev. John Brown, for thirty-six years minister of the 
Associate Burgher congregation at Haddington, and 
author of the Setf-inlerpreting Bible and other theological 
works, was born at Carpow in 1*22. 

ABERNYTE, a parish, in the county of Perth, 
ten miles (W.) from Dundee; containing 280 inhabitants. 
The name of this place is of Gaelic origin, referring to 
the situation of the principal village near the confluence 
of two rivulets, one of which is supposed to have borne 
the appellation of Nyte. Very little is known concerning 
the transactions that anciently occurred here. A battle 
is said to have been fought in the parish between two 
powerful families, the Grays of Fowlis and the Boyds of 
Pitkindie, in which the latter were victorious ; and upon 
the top of a hill called Glenny-law are two cairns, thought 
to have been raised in consequence of this engagement. 
This parish, including Glenbran annexed to it quoad 
sacra, is about three miles in extreme length and two in 
breadth, and contains about 1*03 acres under cultivation, 
172 in good pasture, and about 341 in plantations, con- 
sisting chiefly of larch and Scotch fir. It is bounded on 
the north-west by the Sidlaw hills, the district lying 
among those hills that rise gradually from the Carse of 
Gowrie to the top of the ridge of Dunsinnan, the highest 
point of which in this parish, called King's Seat, is 1050 
feet above the sea. The most cultivated part of the 
parish is situated 300 feet above the level of the Tay, 
and about three miles only in a direct line from that 
river. The numerous hills and vales in the locality 
impart to the scenery a picturesque character, and fine 
prospects may be had from several of the heights ; there 
are many rivulets among the valleys, and at the head of 
a romantic dell is a beautiful cascade, the waters of which 
fall from a perpendicular height of almost forty feet. 
33 



In the lower parts, the arable land is in general of a 
light fertile soil, lying frequently on gravel, and some- 
times on clay, or on a mixture of both : in some parts 
the earth runs to a considerable depth. The portions 
of the higher grounds which are not planted, are covered 
with coarse grass or heath. All the usual white and 
green crops are produced, of good quality; the best 
system of agriculture is followed, and great advantages 
are said to have resulted from the consolidation of small 
farms. The use of bone-dust for turnip husbandry, and 
the practice of turning in the sheep to eat off the turnips, 
have proved of much benefit. The implements of hus- 
bandry are good, and the farm-houses and buildings 
have mostly been placed upon an excellent footing ; but 
the fences, which form an exception to the generally 
improved appearance of the parish, are deficient in ex- 
tent, and sometimes in very bad order. The rocks are 
sandstone, with amygdaloid containing agates or pebbles. 
The annual value of real property in the parish is £2041. 
For ecclesiastical purposes the parish is within the 
bounds of the presbytery of Dundee, synod of Angus 
and Mearns ; patron, the Crown. The stipend is nomi- 
nally £ 1 50, but has lately fallen short of this sum : there 
is a commodious manse, with a glebe of nearly seven 
arable acres, and three of pasture, and a large garden. 
The church, built in 1*36, and lately repaired, is situated 
at the lowest extremity of the parish. A tabernacle 
built about fifty years since, by Mr. Haldane, for a mis- 
sionary, is now occupied by a congregation of United 
Original Seceders. There is a parochial school, in which 
instruction is given in every branch of education ; the 
master has the maximum salary, with about £2* fees. 
Several Druidical circles yet remain ; and in the parish 
is also the " Long Man's Grave," a noted spot at the 
road-side, north-east of Dunsinnan Hill, of which the 
traditionary account states that one, guilty either of 
suicide or murder, was buried there. 

ABERTARFF. — See Boleskine and Abertarff. 

ABINGTON, a village, in the parish of Crawford- 
JOHN, Upper ward of the county of Lanark, 3 miles 
(N. by W.) from Crawford; containing 135 inhabitants. 
It is situated on the road between Glasgow and Carlisle, 
on the river Glengonnar ; and has a station of the Cale- 
donian railway on the other side of the river, in the 
parish of Crawford. In the vicinity are vestiges of gold- 
mines, said to have been explored in the reign of James 
VI., and with some success. A school here is aided by 
a heritor, with £6 per annum. — See Crawfordjohn. 

ABOYNE and GLENTANNER, a united parish, in 
the district of Kincardine O'Neil, county of Aber- 
deen, 5 miles (W. by S.) from Kincardine O'Neil ; con- 
taining, with the burgh of barony of Charlestown, 1138 
inhabitants. The Gaelic words A, signifying a " ford," 
and boinne or buinne, a "thin rippling water, " originated 
the appellation of the first of these places, on account of 
its proximity to a ford on the river Dee ; and the name 
Glentanner is said to be compounded of the Gaelic 
terms Glean-tan-ar, meaning " the glen of scanty arable 
land." The date of union is uncertain ; but previously 
to 1763, there was a church in each parish, the two being 
served by one parochial minister. Glentanner, before 
the union, formed a separate chapelry, and Aboyne was 
then united to TuUich, an intermediate chapel being 
situated at Braeroddach, equidistant from the churches 
of Aboyne and Tullich. Ou the south bank of the Dee, 



A B O Y 



A C H A 



and surrounded by a burying-ground, are still to be seen 
the remains of the old church of Glentanner, called, on 
account of its heather thatch, the " black chapel of the 
moor/' The portion of Aboyne on the north side of 
the Dee formed two baronies, the burgh of which, now 
named Charlestown, formerly Bunty, is near Aboyne 
Castle ; but the tolbooth was destroyed at the close of 
the last century, and all traces of the pot and gallows 
have nearly disappeared. The Knights Templars once 
had possessions here, given to them by the Bissets ; 
from that body they passed to the Erasers of Cowie, 
and from them to Lord Keith, whose daughter Eliza- 
beth, having married Sir John Gordon of Huntly, car- 
ried the lands and castle to the Gordons, with whom 
they have remained. 

The mam outline of the parish is irregular, rendering 
the statement of an accurate measurement difficult; 
besides which, there is a detached portion with a popu- 
lation of about sixty, situated on the left bank of the 
Feugh, about nine miles south-east from the church, and 
separated by the parish of Birse. The length from east 
to west, between extreme points, is supposed to be thir- 
teen miles, and the breadth twelve miles -, comprising 
37,000 acres, of which a small part is arable, and the 
remainder moorland, natural pastures, and in wood. 
This is a mountainous and woody district, watered by 
numerous rivulets, among which are the Tanner, the 
Feugh, the burn of Dinnet, and that of Dess, beautifully 
winding in different directions, but all in subordination 
to the stately and majestic Dee, which here pursues its 
course through the middle of the parish, Aboyne lying 
chiefly on the northern, and Glentanner on the southern, 
bank. The district is bounded on all sides either by 
rivers or mountains ; it is skirted on the west, south, 
and east by ranges of the Grampians. The climate is 
serene ; during heavy falls of snow, and the blowing of 
the keener winds, it is intensely cold, but it is considered 
salubrious, particularly about the banks of the Dee, and 
the Tanner. Invalids frequently resort hither in sum- 
mer, to enjoy a picturesque and romantic seclusion, and 
to drink the goats' whey for which the place is cele- 
brated ; while the heath-clad hills and Alpine forests, 
ascended by steep and craggy slopes, afford exercise for 
the more hardy, who, having reached the summits, are 
amply repaid for their fatigue by the fine views around 
them, embracing Aberdeen, Montrose, and many other 
objects of commanding interest. 

The SOIL near the rivers is a thin alluvial deposit, 
formed, in consequence of the rapidity of the currents, 
chiefly of sand and gravel ; but advancing towards the 
hills, the earth is stronger and of better quality, con- 
sisting of a black or clayey till. Extensive tracts of peat- 
moss are found on the higher grounds, to a large extent 
supplying the inhabitants with fuel. The only grain 
raised is oats and bear. The farms vary much in size, 
some being mere crofts, and others comprising more 
than 100 arable acres ; but the latter are few in number, 
and the average dimensions are from twenty to fifty 
acres. Between 5000 and 6000 sheep, chiefly of the 
Linton breed, are pastured upon the hills and moor- 
lands ; and the black-cattle, to the rearing of which 
much attention is paid, comprise the Aberdeenshire 
horned and the Buchan polled breeds, crossed notunfre- 
quently with the short-horned. The rocks mostly con- 
sist of granite, existing in various forms, according to 
Vol. I.— 33 



the proportions of its constituent parts; gneiss is also 
common, and ironstone, limestone, topaz, crystallized 
quartz, and fullers'-earth are found. "The annual value 
of real property in the parish is £4001. About 4.500 
acres of natural fir, a remnant of the ancient Caledonian 
forest, still remain in Glentanner ; and on the estate of 
Balnacraig, where stand the old mansion-house of the 
same name and the house of Carlogie, about 1400 acres 
are covered with Scotch fir, which is in a thriving state, 
like most of the other wood in the parish. There are 
also 2144 acces of plantations near Aboyne Castle, the 
ancient seat of the Earls of Aboyne ; consisting chiefly 
of Scotch fir, with many sprinklings of larch, oak, ash, 
beech, elm, and other varieties. The castle grounds are 
ornamented with an artificial lake of thirty-two acres, 
interspersed with wooded islets. The castle was partly 
rebuilt in 1671, by Charles, first Earl of Aboyne ; and the 
east wing was added in 1801, by his great-great-grandson, 
now Marquess of Huntly. This mansion is surrounded 
with beautifully-wooded hills commanding extensive and 
interesting views. 

The village of Charlestown has a daily mail to Aber- 
deen. The turnpike-road from that city terminates here, 
but the communication is continued by good commuta- 
tion roads, on each side of the Dee, to Ballatar and 
Braemar; there are also commutation roads leading 
hence in the direction of Tarland and other places, 
and the parliamentary road to Alford commences here. 
Numerous small bridges cross the different streams ; 
and at Aboyne, nearly opposite the church, is an elegant 
suspension bridge, erected in 1831, by the Earl of 
Aboyne, in place of a former one built in 1828, and 
swept away by the great flood in August in the fol- 
lowing year. In 1846 an act of parliament was passed 
for the construction of a railway from Charlestown of 
Aboyne, along the valley of the Dee, to Ferryhill, near 
Aberdeen. The trade in the sale of grain and cattle is 
principally carried on with Aberdeen ; and besides the 
cattle sold for this city, or forwarded by the steamers to 
the London market, large numbers in a lean state are 
sent to the south of Scotland or to England. Fairs are 
held at Candlemas, Michaelmas, Hallowmas, and in June 
and July, on a green between the village of Charlestown 
and the church. 

Ecclesiastically the parish is in the presbytery of Kin- 
cardine O'Neil, synod of Aberdeen, and in the patronage 
of the Marquess of Huntly. The minister's stipend is 
£158. 6. 8., part of which is received from the exche- 
quer ; with a manse, and a glebe of twenty acres of very 
poor land, assigned in lieu of the old glebes of the two 
parishes, when a central church was built for the united 
parish, in 1763 : the present handsome edifice, contain- 
ing 628 sittings, was erected in 1842, at an expense, 
exclusive of carriage, of £900. The parochial school 
affords instruction in the usual branches ; the master 
has a salary of £26, with £28 in fees, and a portion of 
Dick's bequest. The antiquities comprise Picts' houses, 
cairns, tumuli, and the remains of encampments, of the 
history of which nothing is known. Aboyne gives the 
inferior title of Earl to the Marquess of Huntly. 

ACHARACLE.— See Aharacle. 

ACHARN, a village, in the parish of Kenmore, 
county of Perth ; containing 42 inhabitants. It is a 
small place, of which the residents are entirely engaged 
in agriculture. The Acharn burn, a feeder of Loch Tay, 



AILS 



AI RD 



runs through the eastern portion of the parish. — See 
Kenmore. 

ACKERGILL, a village, in the parish of Wick, and 
county of Caithness. It was anciently called Aikrigill, 
and lies on the shore of Sinclair bay, and on the road 
between Staxigo and Keiss. The lands were formerly a 
possession of the Keiths, earls-raarischal, whose residence 
here was Ackergill Tower, a spacious rectangular struc- 
ture, the walls of svhich, thirteen feet in thiciiness, and 
crowned with battlements, are eighty-two feet in height ; 
it is in a state of entire preservation, and, from its anti- 
quity, has an impressive aspect. — See Wick. 

ADAMSROW, a village, in the parish of Newton, 
county of Edinburgh ; containing '249 inhabitants. 

AFTON-BRIDGEND, a village, in the parish of 
New Cumnock, district of Kyle, county of Ayr ; con- 
taining 261 inhabitants. This village is situated on the 
banks of the Afton, a small stream tributary to the river 
Nith, into which, flowing northward through Glen-Afton, 
it merges near New Cumnock. The Afton gives name 
to a barony, wherein is a lead-mine. The parochial 
church is between the villages of Afton-Bridgend and 
New Cumnock. 

AHARACLE, or Acharacle, a quoad sacra parish, 
in the parish of Ardnamurchan, partly in the district 
and county of Argyll, and partly in the county of 
Inverness; containing '2016 inhabitants. It is about 
twenty-four miles in extreme length and ten in breadth ; 
is formed, for the most part, of the eastern portion of 
Ardnamurchan ; and includes the islands of Shonaveg, 
Portavata, and Shona. The district is in the presbytery 
of Mull and synod of Argyll ; the stipend of the minister 
is £120, subject to a deduction for communion elements, 
and there is a manse, with a glebe valued at £'2. 10. per 
annum. The church, which stands at the west end of 
Loch Shiel, and about four miles distant from the nearest 
boundary of the district (the Western Ocean), was built 
in 1829, and contains 270 sittings. Another place of 
worship connected with the Establishment, is distant 
from the parochial church about eleven miles. A great 
portion of the population are Roman Catholics. A 
school has been built by Sir James M. Riddell, Bart., 
and endowed by government. 

AIGASH ISLE, in the parish of Kiltarlity, county 
of Inverness. This isle is formed by a division into 
two branches of the river Beauly ; it is of an oval figure, 
and about a mile and a half in circumference, com- 
prising an area of fifty acres. Aigash is chiefly whin- 
stone. It rises, in a slope, about a hundred feet above 
the level of the water ; and being covered with natural 
oak, birch, alder, and other trees, presents, with the 
surrounding rocks, a beautiful and picturesque appear- 
ance. The islet communicates with the main land by 
a bridge. 

AILSA, an island belonging to the parish of Dailly, 
in the district of Carrick, county of Ayr. This island 
lies in the Firth of Clyde, between the shores of Ayr- 
shire and Cantyre, from the former of which it is dis- 
tant eight miles. It is a rugged rock, about two miles 
in circumference at its base, rising precipitously from 
the sea to an elevation of 1 100 feet, and accessible only 
on the north-east side, where a small beach has been 
constructed. The rock is basaltic, and in several parts 
assumes the columnar formation : at a considerable 
height are the remains of ancient buildings, supposed 
34 



to have been originally a castle, with a chapel. A small 
portion of its surface affords a scanty pasturage ; but 
it is frequented merely by various aquatic birds, of which 
the most numerous are the solan geese ; and the only 
income arising from the island is derived from the 
sale of feathers, for the collection of which, during the 
season, a person resides on the spot. It was in 
contemplation, some time since, to make this island a 
fishing station, for the supply of Glasgow and Liverpool 
by the numerous steamers which pass this way, and 
the erection of some buildings for that purpose was 
commenced, but the idea was subsequently abandoned. 
The island gives the British titles of Marquess and 
Baron to the family of Kennedy, who are the owners of 
the property. It is mentioned by the poet Bums in his 
song of Duncan Gray. 

AIRD, a hamlet, in the parish of Inch, county of 
WiGTON ; containing 18 inhabitants. It is situated 
near the head of Loch Ryan bay, about a mile eastward 
of Stranraer, and the same distance south-west of the 
parochial church. 

AIRDRIE, a town of extent and importance, in the 
parish of New Monkland, Middle ward of the county 
of Lanark, 11 miles (E. by N.) from Glasgow, and 32 
(W. by S.) from Edinburgh; containing, in 1841, as 
many as 12,418 inhabitants, of whom 25.56 were in the 
then quoad sacra parish of East Airdrie, 3213 in that of 
West Airdrie, 4666 in that of South Airdrie, and 1983 
in that of High Church. This place stands on the prin- 
cipal line of road between Glasgow and Edinburgh, and 
occupies a slightly rising ground sloping westward, but 
presenting no marked or interesting features. Little 
more than a century ago, there was but a solitary farm- 
hamlet on the site of this large, well-built, manufacturing 
and commercial town. Within the last fifteen years, 
the place has increased in wealth and population to an 
extent unequalled by any other burgh in Scotland. It 
owes its rapid growth to the rich and extensive beds of 
ironstone and coal which surround it, and the conse- 
quent opening of iron-works and collieries in the neigh- 
bourhood ; whilst the situation of the town within a 
moderate distance of the western metropolis of Scotland, 
and other principal towns, has also given it a large 
share in the weaving orders of the Glasgow manufac- 
tures. In 1831, the population of the burgh amounted 
to about 6000, and of the whole parish of New Monk- 
land to 9S67 ; according to the census taken in 1841, 
the population of the burgh amounted to 12,418, and 
that of the whole parish to 20,511. Airdrie enjoys the 
benefit of both railway and canal communication. The 
streets are lighted with gas, and well paved ; the town 
is watched by a party of police, and there is a company 
called the Airdrie and Coatbridge water company. A 
market for grain is held every Thursday, and fairs are 
held on the last Tuesday of May, and third Tuesday of 
November. Branches are established of the National 
Bank, the Bank of Scotland, and the Western Bank of 
Scotland. 

The town was erected mto a free burgh of barony in 
1821, by the act 1st and 2nd of George IV., cap. 60; and 
by the general act 1st and 2nd of William IV., cap. 65, 
it was made a parliamentary burgh, to share with Fal- 
kirk, Hamilton, Lanark, and Linlithgow in the return 
of a member to the house of commons. In 1S49 an 
act was passed to extend and partly repeal the former 



AI R L 



A I R L 



of these statutes ; to provide for the municipal and 
police government of the burgh ; and the better paving, 
watching, lighting, and cleansing of the place. Airdrie 
is governed by a provost, three bailies, a treasurer, and 
seven councillors, assisted by a town-clerk and a pro- 
curator-fiscal. The town-hall is a neat edifice, com- 
prising also a police office, and a small prison for the 
temporary confinement of offenders previous to their 
committal to the Airdrie bridewell, a large and well- 
constructed building. There are, besides, different pub- 
lic halls connected with the trade of the town, and a 
theatre. Ecclesiastically this place is in the presbytery 
of Hamilton, and synod of Glasgow and Ayr : the East 
church, containing 631 sittings, was erected in 1797, 
and the West church, containing 1200 sittings, in 1835. 
There are two places of worship for members of the 
Free Church, two in conne,\ion with the United Presby- 
terian Synod, and places of worship for other denomina- 
tions. A town school is under the patronage of the 
magistrates of the burgh, and the managers of the East 
parish ; it is attended by about 120 pupils in summer, 
and SO in winter. Chalmers is of opinion that Airdrie 
is the Ardenjtii of the British triads, on the heights of 
which Rydderech the Bountiful, King of Strathclwyd, 
in 577 defeated Aidan the Perfidious, King of Cantyre, 
and slew Gwenddolan, the patron of Merlin, who was 
also engaged in the battle. Near Airdrie is a mineral 
well of a sulphureous quality, called Monkland Well. 

AIRLIE, a parish, in the county of Forfar, 4 miles 
(VV. S. W.) from Kirriemuir ; containing 868 inhabit- 
ants. The name of this place, written in ancient records 
ErroUy, EroUy, Irolly, and Airlie, is altogether of un- 
certain derivation : by some it is supposed to come 
from the Gaelic term Aird, signifying the " extremity 
of a ridge", which description is applicable to the loca- 
lity of Airlie Castle. The parish is situated at the west- 
ern extremity of the county, bordering on Perthshire, 
and measures in extreme length six miles, from east to 
west ; while the breadth varies from half a mile to four 
miles ; the whole comprising 8600 acres, of which 
6843 are cultivated, 1365 in wood, and 387 in pasture, 
waste, &c. The southern part of the district lies in the 
vale of Strathmore, from which the land rises towards 
the north in a succession of undulated ridges, forming 
a portion of the braes of Angus, and the southern Gram- 
pians. In this direction, the Isla pours its waters 
through a deep rocky gorge, out of the higher into the 
lower country ; and the ravine, separating at Airlie 
Castle into two channels, makes courses respectively 
for the Isla and Melgum streams. The scenery about 
this spot, which is highly picturesque, is to a great ex- 
tent indebted for its attractions to the romantic Den of 
Airlie, extending for above a mile from the confluence 
of the two streams. The pellucid stream of the Isla, 
sweeping in some places over a rocky channel, pursues 
its winding course among the thickly-wooded and pre- 
cipitous braes ; and the pleasing landscape in this part 
is completed by the interesting feature of the Kirktown, 
situated about one mile and a half south east from the 
castle, and less than a mile east of the river. All the 
streams are famed for their abundance of- fine, trout, and 
are the favourite resorts of anglers ; the Isla and Mel- 
gum are also much visited by salmon. In the Dean is 
found the fresh-water muscle, often mistaken for the 
pearl oyster so common in the South Esk ; and some 
35 



of the rivers are frequented by numerous migratory 
birds, some of them being of very rare species. The 
Den of Airlie is distinguished for its botany, containing 
some plants that are not to be found in any other place 
in Scotland. 

The SOIL runs through the several varieties of fine 
brown and black loam in most of the better portions of 
the district. There are also gravelly, sandy, and clayey 
tracts in different places, varying in quality from very 
fertile to unproductive : on the sand and gravel is a 
considerable tract of inferior soil which, if allowed to 
remain long in grass, becomes overspread with broom. 
In the northern part is a thin barren earth on a tilly 
subsoil. But though much of the land is either very 
poor or only of moderate fertility, there are some rich 
tracts in the parish, particularly a long and broad strip 
of deep alluvial loam, along the whole course of the 
Dean river. The agriculture of the parish has been 
greatly improved since the beginning of the present 
century, and deep and extensive drains have been con- 
structed ; furrow-draining, with tiles and stones, has 
been practised, and shell-marl is much used as manure. 
The number of sheep and cattle, and the superiority of 
the breeds, furnish a striking contrast to the state of 
the district in these respects about thirty or forty years 
since. Most of the thinner soils are now covered with 
flocks of native black-faced sheep, besides regular stocks 
of Leicesters in other parts ; and in addition to the An- 
gus, a very fine description of cattle is to be seen on seve- 
ral of the larger farms, which is often crossed with the 
Teeswater. Since the introduction of steam navigation, 
large numbers have been sent to London, exclusively of 
those sold at Edinburgh and Glasgow, and they obtain 
the highest prices. 

The strata consist entirely of the old red sandstone, 
with the exception of a trap-dike crossing the channel 
of the Isla, near Airlie Castle. The upper beds are in 
general too friable for use, crumbling almost as soon as 
they are exposed to the air ; but those at a considerable 
depth are of tenacious consistence, and, having several 
varieties of fine and coarse grain, are capable of being 
applied to many purposes. Most of the rocks are over- 
laid with debris, of different depth, and above are 
usually beds of sand and gravel. At Baikie is a bed of 
marl once covering forty acres, and extending from one 
to six or seven yards in depth, but which has been 
much employed for agricultural use : it lies under a sur- 
face of peat. Antlers of deer and horns of oxen have 
been found in the moss. Many plantations have been 
formed in the present century, comprising the usual 
kinds of trees ; but they are to a great extent in a pining 
state, especially the larch, numbers of which have been 
entirely destroyed by blight and canker. The annual 
value of real property in the parish is £7434. 

Airlie Castle, a plain modern residence, situated at the 
north-western point of the parish, on a lofty precipice, 
is the property of the family of Ogilvy, who became 
connected with the parish in 1458, when Sir John Ogilvy 
of Lintrathen, received a grant of the barony from 
King James II. The family were created Barons Ogilvy 
in 1491, and Earls of Airlie in 1639. One side only of 
the ancient castle remains, the rest having been burnt 
down by the Earl of Argyll, in the year 1640, during 
the absence of the Earl of Airlie, a zealous supporter of 
the royal cause, which event is celebrated in the popular 

F 2 



A I 11 T 



AI RT 



ballad entitled " Bonnie bouse ofAirlie". The present 
peer succeeded to the titles and property in 1849. Lin- 
dertis House is a handsome edifice of recent date, beau- 
tifully situated on the northern slope of Strathmore, 
and commanding fine views of an extensive range of 
country. A considerable number of the inhabitants of 
the parish are engaged in weaving coarse linens for 
Dundee houses. Several public roads, leading to some 
of the great thoroughfares, pass through the place; and 
the Midland Junction railway passes along the south- 
eastern border. Ecclesiastically the parish is in the 
presbytery of Meigle, synod of Angus and Mearns, and 
in the patronage of the Earl of Strathmore ; the minis- 
ter's stipend is £219. 1. o., with a manse, and a glebe of 
nine acres valued at £12 per annum. The church is a 
very neat edifice, built in 1781, and substantially re- 
paired in 1S44. A Free Church place of worship has 
been erected in the southern part of the parish, with a 
manse. The parochial schoolmaster has a salary of 
£34. 4. 4., with a house, and £13 fees. Near Cardean 
are the remains of a Roman camp, and also of the great 
Roman road which ran from this spot along the valley 
of Strathmore. 

AIRNTULLY, or Arntully, a village, in the pa- 
rish of KiNCLAVEN, county of Perth, 8 miles (N.) from 
Perth; containing 159 inhabitants. This place, of 
which the houses are scattered in every direction, was 
formerly of greater extent than it is at present ; and 
though it has of late years considerably decreased in 
size and population, it still exhibits a striking picture 
of the ancient villages of the kingdom. It is now 
chiefly inhabited by weavers for the linen manufacturers 
of Cupar-Angus, Blairgowrie, and Newburgh ; and at- 
tached to each of their cottages, is a portion of land 
sufficient to maintain a cow, and to yield meal and 
potatoes for the supply of their families. 

AIRTH, a parish, in the county of Stirling, 65 
miles (N.) from Falkirk ; containing, with the villages 
of Airth and Dunmore, 1493 inhabitants, of whom 561 
are in the village of Airth. The Gaelic term ard or 
ardhe, signifying "a hill", is supposed to have given the 
name to this place, the eminence called the Hill of Airth 
being a conspicuous figure, and forming a striking con- 
trast to the level district by which it is surrounded. 
The parish is situated on the shore of the Forth, which 
is its boundary on the north and east for about eight 
miles and a half ; and contains the three small landing- 
places or harbours of Newmiln, Airth, and Dunmore. 
Its length, from north to south, is six miles and a half, 
and its breadth three and a half; comprising 16,400 
acres of land, mostly in tillage. The small river Pow 
is the only water besides the Forth ; it rises in the 
parish of St. Ninian's, and after being crossed by several 
stone bridges, falls into the latter river near Kincardine 
ferry. The prevailing soil consists of alluvial deposits 
from the Forth ; and the layers of shells at a small 
depth from the surface, on the lower grounds, afford 
plain evidence that this portion of the parish formed 
originally a part of the bed of the river. Most kinds of 
grain and green crops are raised, averaging £100,000 in 
annual value ; and the general husbandry, which has 
been for some time advancing, is considered equal to 
that of the best cultivated districts. The rocks com- 
prise distinct varieties of sandstone, differing in colour, 
texture, and extent; and there are several quarries. 
36 



Argillaceous rock of the fire-proof species also exists 
here, on which rest beds of coal, belonging with their 
appropriate strata to the great coalfield of Scotland, but 
which are not at present worked, the pits formerly ia 
operation, near the village of Dunmore, having been 
closed since 1811 on account of their exhausted state. 
The annual value of real property in the parish is £12,4'20. 
The plantations are chiefly in the vicinity of the beau- 
tiful Hill of Airth, and Dunmore Park, the most promi- 
nent and striking portions of the parish. On the hill is 
situated Airth Castle, a very ancient building, with a 
new Gothic front, surmounted in the centre by a tower, 
the whole forming a picturesque object from every part 
of the surrounding country. In Dunmore Park is the 
mansion of the Earl of Dunmore, in the Elizabethan 
style, built about twenty-five years since, and standing 
upon an extensive lawn richly diversified with trees, and 
encompassed with grounds thickly planted, like those of 
the Castle, with larch, Scotch fir, birch, oak, and beech. 
About 185 acres of land, recovered from the sea, have 
been added to the Airth estate, and 150 acres to the 
estate of Dunmore, within the last fifty or sixty years : 
the land is secured by embankments of soil and turf^ 
defended by stone facings. Considerable tracts of moss, 
also, are annually recovered by the employment of what 
are called " moss lairds", who by hard labour are gradu- 
ally reducing the large extent of moss, amounting to 
between 300 and 400 acres, receiving for their work £24 
per acre. 

The parish is traversed by the Glasgow turnpike- 
road, and there is constant communication with Edin- 
burgh, by means of steam-boats plying on the Forth, 
throughout the whole year. Over the small river Pow, 
up which the tide flows for above a mile, is the Abbey- 
town bridge, situated on the road from Airth and Dun- 
more to Carron and Falkirk : it received this name 
from a town, as is supposed, to which it led in a direct 
line, and near which was an ancient abbey. There are 
two old ferries, called Kersie and Higgin's Neuek, the 
latter about a mile across, and the former half that dis- 
tance. The small harbours of Airth, Dunmore, and 
Newmiln are within the jurisdiction of the custom-house 
of Alloa, and there are four registered vessels belonging 
to the parish. An annual fair is held on the last Tues- 
day in July, chiefly for the hiring of servants as shearers. 
Ecclesiastically the parish is in the presbytery of Stirling, 
synod of Perth and Stirling, and in the patronage of the 
family of Graham of Airth ; the minister's stipend is 
£281. 12., with a manse, and a glebe of ten acres (in- 
cluding the site of the manse and garden) valued at £27 
per annum. The church, which is conveniently situated, 
was built in 1820, and is capable of accommodating 800 
persons. There is a place of worship for the United 
Presbyterian Synod. The parochial school affords in- 
struction in Latin, book-keeping, and the usual elemen- 
tary branches ; the master has a salary of £34, and £40 
fees. A school attached to the United Presbyterian 
place of worship is supported by subscription ; and near 
the north-west extremity of the parish is a school, built 
and maintained by the Countess of Dunmore. A dead- 
fund society was established in 1821, and the poor 
enjoy the benefit of several considerable bequests. The 
family of Murray, Earls of Dunmore, derive their title 
from their ancient seat of Dunmore, in the parish. — 
See Dunmore. 



A L FO 



A LL A 



AIRTHRIE, Stirling. — See Allan, Bridge of. 

AITHSTING. — See Sandsting and Aithsting. 

ALDHOUSE, a village, in the parish of East Kil- 
bride, Middle ward of the county of Lanark. , This 
place, which includes Crosshill, lies in about the centre 
of the parish, and contains a branch of the parochial 
school. — See Kilbride, East. 

ALEXANDRIA, for a time a quoad sacra parish, in 
the parish of Bonhill, county of Dumbarton ; con- 
taining 3397 inhabitants, of whom 3039 are in the 
village, 4 miles (N.) from Dumbarton. This village is 
on the west bank of the river Leven, and its population 
has of late years very considerably increased, owing to 
the establishment of bleach-fields and print-fields in the 
parish ; the persons employed here, in these works, are 
very numerous. Alexandria church is a handsome 
edifice, and contains about 1000 sittings ; the minister's 
stipend is £'206. 17. 4., with a manse, a glebe valued at 
£6. 13. 4. per annum, and a right to fuel on a moss, 
commuted for £4 worth of coal, and 13«. Sd. money. 
In the village is a place of worship for Independents. — 
See Bonhill. 

ALFORD, a parish, in the district of Alford, county 
of Aberdeen, 26 miles (W. N. W.) from Aberdeen; 
containing 1037 inhabitants. This place, the name of 
which is of uncertain derivation, is situated in the south- 
western portion of a district nearly in the centre of the 
county, called the How of Alford, a valley comprising 
also the parishes of Keig, Tough, and Tullynessle and 
Forbes, and entirely surrounded with mountains and 
hills. The only event of historical importance is the 
battle of Alford, which took place here on the 2nd of 
July, 164.5, and terminated in the entire defeat of the 
army of the Covenanters under General Baillie, by the 
royal forces under the command of the Marquess of 
Montrose, and in which Lord Gordon, the eldest son of 
the Marquess of Huntly, was killed. On the field of 
battle, the site of which is marked out by an upright 
stone, the body of a horseman in complete armour was 
found within the last century, by some men digging 
peat ; and cannon-balls, military weapons, coins, and 
other relies have been discovered near the spot. 

The parish is about seven miles in extreme length, 
and nearly three miles in breadth, comprising an area of 
8715 acres, of which 4/67 are arable, 1169 woodland 
and plantations, about 200 rich meadow, and the re- 
mainder mountain pasture, moss, and waste. In the 
north-eastern part the surface is almost level, but to the 
south and west are ranges of nearly contiguous hills of 
circular form, of which the bases have an elevation of 
420 and the summits of 800 feet, and which increase 
in height towards the mountain of Callievar, on the 
western boundary, which has an elevation of 1480 feet 
above the sea. The principal river is the Don ; it forms 
the northern boundary of the parish, and is here about 
120 feet wide, flowing from east to west, between verdant 
banks of great beauty. The river Leochel has its 
source in the parish of Leochel-Cushnie, is scarcely 
twenty-five feet in breadth, and flows into the Don ; the 
burn of Bents, a still smaller stream, skirts the parish 
on the east, and the burn of Buckie, the smallest, flows 
through the eastern portion of the parish. The Don 
and the Leochel abound with trout. There are also 
numerous springs of excellent water, and some slightly 
chalybeate. 
37 



The SOIL is mostly a dry friable loam, well adapted 
for turnips, and in some parts of great depth and fer- 
tility; the crops are oats, bear, potatoes, and turnips. 
The system of agriculture is in an improved state ; 
much waste land has been reclaimed ; the farm build- 
ings are in general substantial and commodious, and 
the lands are inclosed with stone dykes. Great atten- 
tion is paid to the improvement of live stock, for which 
the hills afford good pasture ; the sheep, with the excep- 
tion of a few of the black-faced, are usually of the Leices- 
tershire and Merino breeds, reared chiefly for their wool, 
and about 800 are generally fed in the pastures. The 
rearing of black-cattle, however, is the main dependence 
of the farmers, and of these about 2000 head are kept, 
chiefly of the Aberdeenshire polled breed, and a cross 
between it and the short-horned : a great number are 
now fed off annually for the London market, where they 
command the highest prices. The plantations are of 
larch, Scotch, and spruce firs, beech, elm, ash, moun- 
tain-ash, lime, plane, oak, willow, birch, and poplar. 
The rocks are principally of the primitive formation, 
chiefly micaceous schist, and granite, of which latter 
there are several varieties, some resembling the grey 
granite of Aberdeen, and others the red granite of Peter- 
head : many of the rocks are almost in a state of de- 
composition. The annual value of real property in the 
parish is £4627. Haughton, the seat of the principal 
landed proprietor, is an elegant mansion of dressed 
granite, beautifully situated on the bank of the Don, in 
a wide demesne tastefully laid out, and embellished with 
thriving plantations. Breda, another seat, and Kings- 
ford, recently built, are also handsome houses. 

The village consists for the most part of houses of 
neat appearance, to each of which is attached a portion 
of land, and extends for about three-quarters of a mile 
along the road to Aberdeen. A post-office has been es- 
tablished, and facility of communication is afforded by 
good roads, and by substantial bridges across the various 
streams, one of which, over the Don, an elegant struc- 
ture of granite, was erected in 1810, by the Parliamen- 
tary Commissioners, at a cost of £2000. In 1846 an 
act of parliament was passed authorizing the construc- 
tion of a railway from Alford to Kintore, nearly sixteen 
miles in length. Fairs are held for black-cattle, horses, 
and sheep, on the Tuesday before the second Wednes- 
day in June (N. S.), and the Friday after the second 
Thursday in September (O. S.) ; and markets for black- 
cattle and grain, on the first Monday in every month, 
from October till May. Ecclesiastically the parish is 
within the bounds of the presbytery of Alford and synod 
of Aberdeen : the minister's stipend is £206. 17. 4., 
with a manse, and a glebe valued at £6. 13. 4. per 
annum ; patron, the Crown. Alford church, erected in 
1804, and enlarged in 1826, is a neat structure contain- 
ing 550 sittings. The parochial school is attended by 
about eighty children ; the master has a salary of 
£34. 4. 4., augmented by the proceeds of bequests, &c., 
to £38, and the fees average about £15 annually. On 
the summit of a hill called Carnaveran (a name sup- 
posed to signify " the Cairn of Sorrow ") is a cairn in 
the form of a truncated cone, 120 feet in diameter at 
the base, in removing a portion of which were found 
several coffins of flat stones. 

ALLAN, BRIDGE OF, a village, in the parish of 
LoGiE, county of Stirling, 4 miles (N.) from Stirling; 



A L L O 



A LLO 



containing several hundred inhabitants. This village, 
which is pleasantly situated on the banks of the river 
Allan, formerly consisted only of a few irregular and 
detached cottages, and derived its chief importance from 
an ale and porter brewery that had been established 
here, towards the close of the last century. From its 
pro.viraity, however, to the mineral spring of Airthrie, 
and also to the well of Dunblane, the water of which, 
discovered in 1814, has been found to possess similar 
properties, but of milder operation, the village has 
rapidly increased in extent and population, and, on the 
failure of a project for conveying the water of the latter 
by pipes into the town of Dunblane, has, in that re- 
spect, attained precedence before Dunblane as a place of 
fashionable resort. An excellent inn for the accommo- 
dation of visiters, and numerous houses for the recep- 
tion of families residing here during the summer months, 
have been erected within the last few years ; and good 
shops, amply stored with articles of every kind, have 
been opened for their convenience. Here is also a 
station of the Scottish Central Railway. The environs 
abound with pleasing scenery, among which the grounds 
of Keir House form a conspicuous feature ; and are 
interspersed with handsome villas, inhabited by opulent 
famiUes. The river, near the village, rushes with im- 
petuosity along a deep glen richly wooded, forming an 
interesting and secluded retreat. Airthrie spring rises 
on the high grounds above the village, on the estate of 
Airthrie, and was discovered during the working of a 
copper-mine. The water is a saline aperient, similar to 
that of Cheltenham, but not so strong, containing as its 
chief ingredients common salt, muriate of lime, and 
sulphate of lime : it has been fast advancing in reputa- 
tion, especially for scorbutic complaints. The water of 
Dunblane well has been analysed by Dr. John Murray, 
an eminent physician, and found to contain, in one im- 
perial pint, '24 grains of muriate of soda ; of muriate of 
lime, 18 grains ; of sulphate of lime, 3'5 grains ; of car- 
bonate of lime, "5 grains; and of oxide of iron, '17 
grains. The woollen manufacture is carried on to a 
small extent, for which there is a mill at the hamlet of 
Keir : and there is also a paper manufactory. The 
members of the Free Church have a place of worship. 

ALLANTON, a village, in the parish of Edrom, 
county of Berwick, 1^: mile (S.) from Chirnside ; con- 
taining 26r inhabitants. This village, which is situated 
at the confluence of the rivers Whitadder and Black- 
adder, is neatly built, and inhabited chiefly by persons 
employed in the manufactories in the neighbourhood ; 
some of the houses are detached, and surrounded with 
pleasant gardens. A considerable traffic is carried on 
in coal, which is brought from the county of Northum- 
berland, and also from Eyemouth, to which place it is 
sent by sea from Newcastle. There is a daily delivery 
of letters in the village, by a branch from the post-office 
at Dunse. A place of worship in connexion with the 
Free Church has been erected. 

ALLOA, a burgh of barony, sea-port town, and 
parish, in the county of Clackmann.\x, 7 miles (E.) 
from Stirling ; containing, with the villages of Cambus, 
Coalyland, Holton-Square, and Tullibody, 79'21 inhabit- 
ants, of whom 5434 are in the burgh. This place, the 
name of wliich, in various documents written Aiileiiay 
and Alloway, is supposed to signify in the Gaelic 
language " the wav to the sea ", includes also the ancient 
38 



parish of Tullibody, memorable for the erection of its 
village, in 834, by Kenneth M'Alpine, on the plain 
where he encamped the main body of his army pre- 
viously to the victory which put an end to the Pictish 
dynasty in Scotland. In 1149, David I. erected, and 
annexed to the abbey of Cambuskenneth founded by 
him on the field where the battle took place, the church 
of Tullibody, which he endowed with land, and with 
some islands in the Firth of Forth, for the maintenance 
of the officiating priests. In 1.559, the French forces 
under General D'Oysel, who were stationed on the coast 
of Fife, on the appearance of the English fleet made a 
precipitate retreat to Stirling ; but being retarded in 
their progress by Kirkcaldy of Grange, who had broken 
down the bridge of Tullibody, they unroofed the church, 
and, converting the timbers into a temporary bridge, 
effected their escape across the Forth. The church, thus 
exposed to the injuries of the weather, soon fell into a 
state of dilapidation ; and the parish of Tullibody, about 
the time of the Reformation, became united to that of 
Alloa. In 1645, the Earl of Montrose, on the night 
before the battle of Kilsyth, encamped his forces in the 
woods of Tulhbody, and was hospitably entertained by 
the Earl of Mar in his castle of Alloa. 

The family of Erskine, ancestors of the Earls of Mar, 
were distinguished at an early period for their eminent 
services ; and John, the fifth earl, who became Regent 
of Scotland, was entrusted with the guardianship of 
!Mary, Queen of Scots, who, during her infancy, remained 
under his protection at Alloa Castle till 1548, when, by 
order of the estates of the kingdom, he conveyed her to 
the court of France. John, the sixth earl, was appointed 
guardian to the infant monarch, James VI., who spent 
many of his earlier years at AUoa, and also at Stirling. 
The castle of Alloa, anciently one of the residences of 
the Scottish kings, was in the thirteenth century given 
by David II. to Lord Erskine, in exchange for the 
estate of Strathgartney, in the county of Perth. Of the 
ancient edifice, one tower only is now remaining, eighty- 
nine feet in height, and the walls eleven feet in thickness ; 
the other portions of the buildings which constituted the 
family residence, were destroyed by an accidental fire in 
1800, and a splendid mansion has been since erected by 
the Earl of Mar. This is a spacious structure, of white 
freestone from a quarry in the park, beautifully situated 
on a gentle acclivity, within about '■200 yards of the old 
tower, and inclosing a quadrangular area ISO feet in 
length, and 120 feet in breadth. The principal front 
occupies the whole width of the area, forming an 
elegant specimen of the Grecian style ; and the in- 
terior contains numerous stately apartments, superbly 
decorated. Four entrance lodges, also, have been re- 
cently built ; but the whole of the arrangements are 
not yet completed. 

The TOWN is situated on the Firth of Forth, and, 
though irregularly built, consists of several good streets. 
John-street, planned by John, Earl of Mar, in the year 
1704, is about eighty feet in width, leading to the quay, 
and terminating in a gravel-walk, shaded by a row of 
lime-trees on each side, and forming a pleasant prome- 
nade. The old houses in the principal streets have been 
mostly taken down, and replaced with modern buildings 
of handsome appearance ; and many of the shops dis- 
play much elegance of style. The streets are well paved, 
and lighted with gas from works erected in 1S21, by a 



ALLO 



ALLO 



company of shareholders, at an expense of £3000 ; the 
inhabitants are also amply supplied with water, con- 
veyed into the town by pipes, from springs in the vici- 
nity. Considerable additions have been made to the 
town, which is rapidly extending towards the west ; 
and within the few last years numerous villas have 
been erected in that direction. The Clackmannanshire 
library, founded here in 1797, is supported by annual 
subscriptions of ten shillings each, and contains a col- 
lection of more than 1500 volumes ; there are also a 
reading and news room, an Odd-Fellows' hall, and an 
assembly-room. A mechanics' institution was esta- 
blished in 1826, which was for some time well supported, 
but of late has not been so warmly patronized : con- 
nected with it is a library of 470 volumes. 

The principal manufacture is that of woollens, 
which, though formerly of very limited extent, has lat- 
terly much increased, several additional mills having 
been erected on a large scale. There are at present six 
factories, four of which are worked by steam. The 
chief articles are yarns, plaiding, shawls, tartans, drug- 
gets, blankets, and cloth of various kinds, together 
affording employment to ^OO men, seventy-two women, 
and ninety children ; and connected with the factories, 
is an extensive establishment for the manufacture of 
machinery. The glass manufacture, for which works, 
commenced at an early period, were extended by a joint- 
stock company in 182.5, produces glass bottles equal to 
those of Newcastle in Northumberland. There are eight 
extensive breweries, five of which are in the town ; the ale 
produced is in high repute, and is sent in large quantities 
to London, and exported to the continent. North and 
South America, the East and West Indies, and other 
places. Large distilleries are conducted at Cambus and 
Carse Bridge. At that of Cambus, nearly 6000 gallons 
are produced weekly, consuming about 374 quarters of 
malt, and feeding 400 head of cattle ; there are sixty 
men employed in the establishment, and the amount of 
duty paid to government exceeds £50,000 per annum. 
The distillery at Carse Bridge is nearly equal in extent. 
Extensive tanneries are carried on at Tullibody, in which 
leather is made to the amount of £20,000 annually ; 
and there are also works for the manufacture of glue, 
belonging to the same company, and mills, driven by 
steam, for grinding bones for manure, together affording 
employment to about forty men. The iron-foundry, and 
works for the manufacture of steam-engines, are also 
very extensive, employing nearly 100 men. There are 
large potteries for white and coloured earthenware of 
every kind, and the manufacture of bricks and tiles 
occupies more than forty persons ; the fire-bricks made 
here are considered equal to those of Stourbridge, and 
adjoining the works is a commodious wharf for shipping 
the produce. Ship-building is also carried on ; vessels 
of 300 or 400 tons' burthen are frequently built, and in 
1845 a vessel of 800 tons was launched here for the 
foreign trade. Boat-building is pursued, and there is a 
dry-dock for repairing vessels ; the making of sails and 
ropes is also considerable, and there are numerous mills, 
driven by water and steam. 

The PORT includes the creeks of Kincardine and 
Stiriing, and is a bonding port. It carries on an exten- 
sive coasting, and a considerable foreign, trade, the 
latter chiefly with Holland and the Baltic. The prin- 
cipal exports are coal, pig-iron, woollen goods, glass, ale, 
39 



whisky, leather, bricks, and tiles ; the chief imports 
coastwise are grain, malt, wine, groceries, wool, and 
fullers'-earth, and, from foreign ports, timber, deals, 
hemp, oak-bark, and bones for manure. The amount of 
registered tonnage, including the creeks, is about 19,000 
tons, of which about 10,000 belong to Alloa; the num- 
ber of vessels that entered inwards in 1838 was 600, 
and the number that cleared outwards, 1250. Alloa 
harbour is accessible at high water to vessels of large 
burthen, and shipping may lie in safety at the quays, 
which are commodiously adapted to the loading and 
unloading of the cargoes, and on which is a custom- 
house. A steam-boat ferry is maintained across the 
Firth. It is a singular circumstance connected with 
the tides in this district, that there are wliat are called 
double or " leaky " tides, chiefly observed at high and 
low water, during spring-tides : when the tide has flowed 
apparently to its full height, it ebbs and flows down- 
wards, until it has sunk from a foot to fifteen inches 
perpendicularly ; the flowing then returns, and fre- 
quently overflows the first flowing, more than a foot in 
height. The market-days are Wednesday and Saturday, 
the latter being the principal. Fairs are held on the 
second Wednesday in Feb., May, August, and Novem- 
ber ; the August fair, which is the most numerously 
attended, is for hiring servants, and for general business, 
and the other three are for cattle. The post-office has a 
delivery twice a day ; and facihties of intercourse are 
afforded by the Stirling and Dunfermline railway, which 
passes by Alloa : the Stirling and Granton steamers, 
also, call here. Alloa was erected into a burgh of ba- 
rony in the reign of Robert Bruce, and is governed by 
a baron bailie, appointed by the Earl of Mar ; the courts 
of the sheriff and justices of peace have been transferred 
from Clackmannan to this town, and a county prison 
has been recently built here. 

The PARISH, which is bounded on the south by the 
Forth, and on the east partly by the Black Devon, is of 
very irregular form, comprising about 5000 acres, of 
which 4375 are arable, 514 woodland and plantations, 
and the remainder waste. Its surface, though not 
mountainous, is beautifully diversified with hills of 
moderate height, and fertile valleys. From the higher 
of the eminences, none of which exceed 400 feet in ele- 
vation above the Forth, are views of picturesque and 
romantic character ; a fine tract of rich carse land ex- 
tends along the banks of the Forth, and the scenery, 
enriched with wood, and interspersed with streams, is 
of very pleasing aspect. The river Devon flows through 
the south-western portion of the parish, into the Forth, 
at the village of Cambus, about two miles from Alloa ; 
and the Black Devon, after forming part of its eastern 
boundary, takes a western course, and flows through the 
parish into the Firth of Forth at Clackmannan. A 
large reservoir called Gartmorn Dam, 160 acres in 
extent, and thirty-seven feet in depth, was formed by 
John, Earl of Mar, about the year 1700, by throwing a 
dam-head across the Black Devon at Forest Mill ; the 
bed of that river was thus raised sixteen feet above its 
former level, and from it he carried an aqueduct of four 
miles in length, for the supply of this reservoir, which he 
constructed for driving the machinery of the Alloa 
colliery, and of several mills. 

The soil of the lower lands is richly fertile, but of the 
higher, thin and light, on a cold tilly bottom ; the prin- 



AL LO 



ALNE 



cipal crops are wheat, barley, beans, peas, and oats, with 
the various green crops. The system of husbandry has 
been much improved under the auspices of the Clack- 
mannanshire Agricultural Society ; the lands have been 
well drained and partially inclosed, and many of the 
farm-buildings are now of a superior description. The 
cattle are chiefly of the Ayrshire breed, with a few of the 
short-horned, though no great number are reared ; and 
a few sheep, of various kinds, are fed for the butcher. 
Very little of the ancient forests of Clackmannanshire is 
now remaining ; the principal woods are those of Tulli- 
body, in which are many stately trees of venerable 
growth. The plantations consist mostly of oak and 
other hard-wood trees, intermixed with firs ; they are 
regularly thinned, and are in a thriving state. The 
substrata are, sandstone of different colours, clayslate, 
limestone, and coal, which last occurs in seams varying 
from a few inches to nine feet in thickness. Of the 
sandstone two quarries are wrought, to a very moderate 
extent, one affording stone of white, and the other of 
a reddish, colour. The coal is extensively worked in 
three several fields, the Coalyland, the Carse Bridge, and 
the Sauchy, which extends into the parish of Clack- 
mannan ; the average quantity annually raised amounts 
to nearly 80,000 tons, which are conveyed to the harbour 
at Alloa. The annual value of real property in the 
parish is £21,951. Tullibody House, the seat of Lord 
Abercromby, and the birth-place of General Sir Ralph 
Abercromby, is pleasantly situated on the bank of the 
Fortii, in a richly-planted demesne abounding with fine 
old timber, and surrounded by thriving plantations. 
Shaw Park House, a seat of the Earl of Mansfield's, 
formerly the property of the Cathcart family, is a hand- 
some mansion on elevated ground, about two miles to 
the north of the Forth, and commanding a very exten- 
sive view embracing the windings of the river, with the 
castle of Stirling, and the mountains of Ben-Lomond, 
Ben-Ledi, and Tinto in Clydesdale. 

For ECCLESIASTICAL purposcs Alloa is within the 
bounds of the presbytery of Stirling and synod of 
Perth and Stirling ; patron, the Crown. The minister's 
stipend is about £300, with a manse, and a glebe valued 
at £63 per annum ; there is also an assistant minister, 
who receives the interest of two bequests, one of £800, 
and the other of £500. The parish church, erected by 
the heritors and feuars, in 1819, on a site given by the 
late John Francis, Earl of Mar, is a handsome structure 
in the later English style, with a square embattled tower 
surmounted by a lofty spire, together '207 feet in height, 
and contains 1561 sittings : the steeple of the old church 
is still remaining, and near it is the mausoleum of the 
Erskine family. The ancient church of Tullibody, which 
had been in disuse from the time of the Reformation, 
was restored about fifteen years since, and again ap- 
propriated to the purposes of divine worship. There are 
also places of worship for members of the Free Church, 
the United Presbyterian Church, Independents, Wes- 
leyans, and Swedenborgians ; and an episcopal chapel, 
erected in 1840 from a design by Mr. Angus. The 
parochial school is well conducted ; the master has a 
salary of £34. 4. 4., with an allowance of £16 in lieu of 
house and garden, and the fees average £25 per annum. 
The Alloa academy was erected in 1824, by subscription, 
and for some few years a salary was received by the 
rector, whose present income is derived solely from the 
40 



fees, of which a portion is paid to an assistant ; the 
course of studies is extensive, and the fees vary from 5«. 
to lis. 6d. per quarter. 

In repairing the road, in 1828, about twenty sepul- 
chral urns of Roman pottery were found, containing 
burnt bones, placed in an inverted position, on a flag- 
stone ; also two stone coffins, about three feet in length, 
in each of which was a pair of bracelets of pure gold, 
highly polished, but without ornament : one of the two 
pairs was purchased from the workmen by Mr. Drum- 
mond Hay, and deposited in the Antiquarian Museum, 
Edinburgh. Several Roman coins have been discovered 
in different parts of the parish ; and a few years since, 
a brass coin was dug up, having the letters S.C. on the 
one side, and on the other the legend " Augustus Tri- 
bunus ". About a mile eastward from the town is an 
ancient upright stone called the Cross, near which, 
about forty or fifty years since, human bones were 
found, and a coffin of flagstones, three feet in length, on 
which were cut two small figures of the cross. 

ALMOND-BANK, a village, in the parish of Meth- 
VEN, county of Perth ; containing 245 inhabitants. 
The population is engaged principally in the works situ- 
ated on the river Almond ; and a portion finds employ- 
ment in a hand-l^oom weaving establishment at Wood- 
end, in the vicinity of the village. There is a flourishing 
unendowed school here, the teacher of which is nomi- 
nated by the patron of the parish, who, with some other 
persons, makes a contribution for his support. In 
digging a trench in the neighbourhood, the skull of an 
animal was discovered, supposed to be of the ox tribe, 
which existed wild in Scotland some centuries ago ; it 
measured, from between the centre of the horns to the 
nose, two feet four inches, and the horns were sixteen 
inches round in their thickest part. The curiosity fell 
to the possession of the late Lord Lynedoch. 

ALNESS, a parish, in the county of Ross and Cro- 
marty, 9 miles (N. E. by N.) from Dingwall; contain- 
ing 1269 inhabitants, of whom 202 are in the village. 
This parish, which takes its name from two Gaehc 
words signifying a " burn " or small river, and a " point ", 
is about twenty miles in extreme length, and five in 
average breadth. It is bounded on the north by Kin- 
cardine parish ; on the south by the Cromarty Firth, 
which is here two miles broad ; on the east by the 
parish of Rosskeen, from which it is separated by the 
river of Alness ; and on the west by Kiltearn, from 
which it is separated by the river Auldgrande. The 
surface, towards the Firth, is for the most part flat, but 
in the northern part mountainous and wild ; the climate 
is dry and salubrious, and the general appearance of the 
parish is pleasing, it being well-wooded, and presenting 
an agreeable variety of moor and well-cultivated land. 
In the northern quarter are two fresh-water lochs, 
abounding in black trout : one of them, called Loch 
Mary or Gildermary, is distinguished for its great depth, 
and the lofty and abrupt mountain scenery in its vici- 
nity; the other, Loch Glass, is situated in a glen of that 
name. The salmon and salmon-trout taken in the Firth 
and the rivers are of very superior quality, and would be 
numerous were it not for the illegal depredations com- 
mitted during the interdicted season. The chief rock 
in the parish is the old red sandstone ; immense boulders 
of granite and gneiss are to be seen in different places, 
especially in the moorland districts, and some iron-ore 



A L\' A 



ALVA 



has also been discovered, about five miles from the 
Firth, imbedded in a gneiss rock. The only village is 
Alness, which is nearly equally divided betvi-een this 
and the neighbouring parish of Rosskeen, by the river 
of Alness ; in the Rosskeen portion a market is held for 
the sale of cattle, monthly. The annual value of real 
property in the parish is £4'260. 

Ecclesiastically the parish is within the bounds of 
the presbytery of Dingwall and synod of Ross ; the 
Marchioness of Stafford is patron, and the minister's 
stipend is £230. 19. 11., with a manse, and a glebe 
valued at £12 per annum. The church, which was 
built in 1780, is in good condition, and will hold 800 
people. A Free Church place of worship has been 
erected. The parochial school affords instruction in 
every branch of education ; the master has a salary 
of £34, with £'20 fees. There is also a school supported 
by the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge, 
the teacher of which has a salary of £15, and land 
valued at £5 per annum, with the school-fees. Another 
is maintained by the funds raised under the auspices of 
the General Assembly ; its master receives a salary of 
£20, and has a house, and a small piece of ground 
granted by the proprietor, Hugh A. J. Munro, Esq., of 
Novar. At Multivie, in the parish, two cairns were 
opened some years since, and found to contain human 
bones of a remarkably large size. 

ALTIVAIG, a small island, in the parish of Kil- 
MUIR, county of Inverness. This is one of several 
islets extending from Aird point, southward, to Ru-na- 
Braddan, on the north-eastern coast of the Isle of Skye. 
Altivaig is about two miles in circumference, and very 
fertile ; the soil is appropriated to the pasturage of 
sheep. Here is a harbour with good ground for anchor- 
age, but from being open to the North Sea, it is judged 
to be unsafe. 

ALVA, a parish, in the county of Stirling, 7 miles 
(N. E.byE.) from Stirling; containing 2216 inhabitants, 
of whom 2092 are in the village. The name of this 
place, the orthography of which has successively passed 
through the different forms of Alueth, and Alvath or 
Alveth, to that of Alva, is of Gaelic origin, and is sup- 
posed to be derived from the term Ailbheach, signifying 
"rocky": it was probably applied to this spot as de- 
scriptive of the general character of its hills. The parish 
is locally situated in Clackmannanshire, and formerly 
belonged to that county, by which it is bounded on all 
sides except the north, where it touches Perthshire. 
After the beginning of the seventeenth century, it was an- 
nexed to the county of Stirling, though four miles distant 
from its nearest point, and to that county it has since 
been united in all respects, till associated for political 
purposes, under the Reform act, to its ancient shire. It 
comprises about 4120 acres, of which S67 are arable, 
3072 natural pasture, including 140 or 150 acres of cul- 
tivated grass, and 181 are wood. The lands, on the 
north, consist principally of the Alva hills, which con- 
stitute the most interesting and beautiful portion of the 
Ochil range, forming here a rich mineral district, tra- 
versed in all directions by large flocks of sheep, and 
ornamented with numerous cascades. At the base of 
these lofty elevations commences a valley, a part of 
which, stretching towards the south, covers the rest of 
the parish, and is replete with richly diversified and 
highly picturesque scenery, embracing the river Devon, 
Vol. I.— 41 



which runs along the boundary of the parish in this 
direction, and, like most of the burns, contains abun- 
dance of excellent trout. The most lofty of the Ochils, 
Bencloch or Beucleugh, rises 2420 feet above the Devon, 
and is situated at the north-eastern extremity of the 
parish, commanding from its summit, not only fine 
views of local scenery, but, in the distant prospect, the 
whole Grampian range, with part of thirteen counties, 
and their villages and towns. 

The SOIL has several varieties. That in the vicinity 
of the Devon, which overflows its banks two or three 
times in the year, is a rich, sandy, alluvial earth of great 
depth, forming what is termed haugh land. Next to 
this, northward, is a strong clay, after which follows a 
tract of moss, from 50 to 100 yards broad, and in 
some parts seven feet deep ; and the remaining portion 
of the arable ground, extending to the hills, is a rich 
hazel mould, mixed occasionally with gravel and small 
stones. The system of agriculture is in a highly im- 
proved state ; the crops consist of wheat, oats, barley, 
peas, beans, clover, potatoes, and turnips, and a small 
portion of ground is annually planted with woad for 
dyeing. The hills belong to the trap formation, and 
contain heavy spar, onyx, and, among many other peb- 
bles, that called the Ochil eye, which is said to be pecu- 
liar to this range. The chief celebrity of the parish, 
however, as a mineralogical district, has arisen from its 
treasure of silver ore, which was discovered and worked 
between the years I7IO and 1715 by Sir John Erskine, 
who is said to have derived from it £4000 per week, 
and an aggregate of £40,000 or £50,000, the material 
being so pure as to afford 12 oz. of silver from 14 oz. of 
ore. Attempts to obtain the precious metal were after- 
wards renewed, in 1759, by a liranch of the same family, 
who had purchased the barony. Veins were then dis- 
covered of lead, copper, iron, and cobalt ; but the silver 
was found in such small portions, that the pursuit was 
abandoned, whilst the cobalt, being so plentiful, and of 
such good quality, was worked extensively, and has 
since proved a source of considerable wealth to the dif- 
ferent proprietors. 

The woods and plantations are extensive and beau- 
tiful ; they form a prominent feature in the scenery, and 
invest this place with a peculiar sylvan appearance, 
especially when contrasted with the surrounding coun- 
try. Woodhill, elevated 1620 feet above the lowest 
ground, is shrouded with almost every description of 
rich foliage, for more than two-thirds of the ascent ; the 
plantations around the base comprising oak, elm, ash, 
beech, and larch, with various species of pine, planted 
by Sir John Erskine. The plantations on the east and 
west sides of the hill were planted by Lord Alva, and 
subsequent proprietors of the mansion of Alva, which 
stands on a projecting part of the eminence, and com- 
mands very extensive prospects. The old mansion of 
the Stirlings of Calder in Clydesdale, who possessed 
originally these estates, and afterwards of the Erskines, 
was enlarged and modernised in 1820 ; it is surrounded 
by elegantly laid-out grounds, interspersed with stately 
ash-trees and several venerable oaks, and the road to 
the village church, about a mile distant, is through an 
avenue of richly verdant foliage. 

The village, which is of considerable extent, and of 
very irregular form, having been built at different pe- 
riods, and increased by cottages and houses erected on 

G 



ALVA 



ALVA 



ground leased under Sir John Erskine and Lord Alva, 
has been doubled in size within the last fifty or sixty 
years. It has been known for its manufacture of serges 
ever since the latter part of the seventeenth century. A 
woollen-mill was first established in ISOl : the number 
of mills has now increased to eight, besides many 
smaller works, and the present articles wrought are, 
plaidings, blanketings, and coarse stuffs ; those of che- 
quered cassimeres, carpets, shawls, and trowser-cloths 
having more recently been added. The quantity of 
wool annually consumed is about 480,000 pounds, chiefly 
from the Cheviot sheep ; and in the manufacture of 
these articles, which are sold at Stirling, Perth, and 
Edinburgh, but chiefly at Glasgow, about 560 persons 
are employed. The annual value of real property in the 
parish is £4853. 

Alva is in the presbytery of Stirling, synod of Perth 
and Stirling, and in the patronage of James Johnstone, 
Esq. ; the minister's stipend is £15'. 5. 4., with a 
manse, and a glebe, valued at £^7 per annum. The 
church was formerly mensal, and belonged to the bishop- 
ric of Dunkeld ; the present edifice was built in 1632, by 
Alexander Bruce, then proprietor of Alva, and was en- 
tirely rebuilt in 1S15, at the expense of James Raymond 
Johnstone, Esq., with seats for 586 persons. The cups 
for the communion service were made from the silver 
found in the parish, and presented by Lord Alva, in 
1767. The parochial school is situated in the village ; 
the master has a salary of £29. IS. 10., and £28 fees. 
The only antiquities are several large stones supposed 
to be Druidical. The hawk used formerly in sporting, 
of the species /a/co peregrinus, is a native of this parish, 
and has nestled, from time immemorial, in a lofty per- 
pendicular rock called Craigleith : from this place, Mary, 
Queen of Scots, procured falcons, after her arrival from 
France ; and a short time since, a pair of these birds 
were sent by the proprietor of Alva to the Duke of 
St. Alban's, king's falconer in England. 

AL"VAH, a parish, in the county of Banff, 3 miles 
(W. S. W.) from Banff; containing 1407 inhabitants. 
The origin of the name of this place, which in different 
records is variously spelled, is altogether involved in 
obscurity ; but authentic sources of information still 
remain, throwing light on the apportionment of its 
lands, in early times, to several distinguished families. 
In 1314, a charter was granted by Marjory, relict of 
John, Earl of Atholl and Lord Strath-Alveth, conveying 
the patronage of the kirk, with considerable property 
here, to the abbot of Cupar. This parish, from which 
that of Forglen was disjoined prior to the middle of the 
seventeenth century, is situated near the north-eastern 
extremity of the county, separated from the Moray 
Firth by only a small intervening portion of the parish 
of Banff, and bounded on the east by the shire of Aber- 
deen, where the line of division is very nearly formed 
by the course of the river Doveron. It comprises 1 1,133 
acres, of which 6955 are cultivated, 3428 waste and 
pasture, and 750 wood. The parish exhibits through- 
out an uneven and rugged surface, occasionally marked 
by lofty elevations, among which the Hills of Alvah and 
Maunderlea are the most conspicuous, the former rising 
578, and the latter 733, feet above the sea. The scenery 
in the western and south-western portions is wild and 
dreary, taking its character chiefly from the numerous 
eminences connected with the Hill of Maunderlea, which 
42 



stretches in a northern direction from the parish of 
Marnoch. In the other parts it possesses great pic- 
turesque beauty, being ornamented by the silvery mean- 
derings of the Doveron, and by the lofty and majestic 
Hill of Alvah, which, rising from the midst of rich and 
well cultivated lands surrounding its base, displays a 
profusion of sj^lvan beauty on its sloping sides, and 
from its tabular summit commands diversified views in 
several directions. The Doveron, being in one place 
impeded by a rocky barrier stretching from east to west, 
takes a curve for about a mile, when, meeting with an 
outlet through a chasm, whose precipitous sides are 
united by a massive arch erected in 1772 by the late 
Earl of Fife, it resumes its former direction, and passes 
through some very bold and romantic scenery. The 
sides of the rocky chasm, after expanding themselves, 
form a lofty acclivity on each side of the intermediate 
basin, and, rising like the walls of a majestic amphi- 
theatre about 100 feet above the stream, exhibit a gro- 
tesque and imposing assemblage of shrubs, trees, and 
mosses. 

The SOIL in the eastern part of the parish, through 
which the river takes its course, consists of an alluvial 
loam of considerable depth, incumbent upon blue clay 
containing admixtures of clay-slate. In the remaining 
portion of the lower grounds, the earth rests upon a 
coarse diluvial clay, mixed in some places with ferru- 
ginous sand, shingles, and occasionally boulders. On 
the higher grounds, the soil has a subsoil frequently of a 
very sandy nature, much interspersed with shingles, and 
pieces of greywacke slate and other rocks. The average 
value of the produce is £19,800 per annum, of which 
upwards of £10,000 are derived from oats, and the 
remainder from turnips, potatoes, hay, and pasture, and 
a small quantity of bear and barley. The cattle are of 
the Aberdeenshire breed, or approximating very closely 
to it ; but within the last few years, the Teeswater, or 
short-horned, have been introduced upon several of the 
best farms, where they thrive well, and are often used 
for a cross with the native cow. Within the present 
century, considerably more than 2000 acres of waste 
have been improved, a large portion of which was 
covered with furze and heath ; and fenny or boggy 
grounds have also been reclaimed to a great extent, by 
draining. Lime is employed as a stimulant for the 
land, and bone-dust manure has been recently applied 
in soils adapted to it, with great advantage. The rocks 
consist principally of clay-slate and greywacke. Of 
these the latter is succumbent, and interlined with thin 
veins of quartz : the line of bearing, with a trifling 
variation, is from north-east to south-west, dipping to 
the north-west. The angle of elevation of the clay-slate 
varies, increasing from the low grounds, where the rock 
is almost horizontal, till it arrives at nearly a perpendi- 
cular towards the top of the Hill of Alvah. The planta- 
tions, including about 300 acres formed in the course of 
the present century, for the most part consist of Scotch 
fir and larch, among which are trees of beech, ash, oak, 
elm, plane, &c. The annual value of real property in 
the parish is £4870. 

The chief mansion is the House of Montblairy, built 
in 1791, and since repaired and considerably enlarged : 
it is situated on the west side of the Doveron, on a 
sloping bank, in the midst of thriving and beautiful 
plantations ; and contains a fine gallery of portraits of 



A LV E 



AL VI 



illustrious persons. Dunlugas, about half a mile distant, 
on the opposite bank of the river, was erected in 1793, 
and is a spacious structure, ornamented with a lawn in 
front, stretching to the margin of the river, and embel- 
lished with several lofty trees ; the background, with its 
thriving plantations of sable firs, furnishing a striking 
contrast to the surrounding scenery. In the parish of 
Alvah are six meal-mills, a malt-mill, a lint-mill, and 
thirty-one threshing-mills, the last of which have all been 
erected during the last thirty or forty years. A distillery, 
built about twenty years since, on the estate of Mont- 
blairy, at an expense of £4000, was in full operation, and 
capable of producing 40,000 gallons of spirits annually ; 
but the speculation having become unprofitable, it was 
given up a few years ago. Ecclesiastically the parish is 
in the presbytery of TurriBF, synod of Aberdeen, and in 
the patronage of Sir Robert Abercromby, Bart. ; the 
stipend of the minister is about £180, and there is a 
manse, built in 1*64, and repaired in 1S15, with a glebe 
containing between six and seven acres, valued at about 
£■25 per annum. The church is a plain edifice, erected 
in 1792. There is a parochial school, the master of 
which gives instruction in Latin, occasionally in Greek 
and French, and in all the ordinary branches of educa- 
tion i he has a salary of £30, in addition to the fees, 
with a house, and a portion of the Dick bequest. 

The antiquities are few and unimportant, consisting 
chiefly of several cairns and Druidical circles, not of 
sufficient consideration to merit notice. The ruins of 
the ancient castle, which stood near Montblairy, and is 
supposed to have been built by one of the Stewarts, 
Earls of Buchan, are no longer visible ; and those of the 
old chapel near the same spot, have been removed of late 
years. On the estate of Sandlaw, and in several other 
places, large trees have been found, at a great depth 
below the surface; and memorials of the ancient culti- 
vation of the soil may be traced over about 1000 acres of 
land, at present the poorest in the district. Alvah is 
celebrated for its fine springs, the principal of which, 
called Comes-well, and mentioned by that name in a 
charter more than 500 years ago, discharges twenty-seven 
gallons per minute of water almost as clear as that pro- 
duced by distillaflon. There are also several chalybeates, 
the most famed of which are, the Red Gill well at Brown- 
side Hill, and a spring on the hill-head of Montblairy. 
Dr. George Chapman, author of a treatise on education, 
was born here in 1723 ; and Major-Gen. Andrew Hay, 
who fell at Bayonne, in the fifty- second year of his age, 
on the 14th of April, 1814, and to whose memory a mo- 
nument was erected in St. Paul's Cathedral at the public 
expense, was at one time resident proprietor of the estate 
of Montblairy, in the parish. 

ALVES, a parish, in the county of Elgin, 5 miles 
(W.) from Elgin, on the road to Inverness ; containing, 
with the small hamlets of Coltfield and Crook, 913 inha- 
bitants. This parish, which is about five miles long, 
and of nearly the same breadth, contains about 12,000 
acres. It is bounded on the north by the parish of 
Duffus, the Moray Firth, and part of Kinloss ; by the 
hill of Pluscarden on the south ; by the parish of New 
Spynie on the east ; and by Kinloss and Rafford on the 
west. The surface is agreeably diversified, consisting of 
pasture and arable land, with a considerable quantity of 
land covered with plantation, and scarcely any waste. 
With the exception of the Knock of Alves, a small 
43 



conical hill in the east end of the parish, the hill of Plus- 
carden is the only part that deserves the name of hill ; 
the rest of the parish consists of a gently undulating 
surface, every portion of which may be brought under til- 
lage. The Knock of Alves is entirely covered with wood : 
on its summit is a tower called York Tower, erected some 
years ago by the proprietor in honour of the late Duke 
of York, and commanding an extensive view of the sur- 
rounding country. What was formerly a waste common 
of several thousand acres was divided a short time since 
among the three adjoining proprietors, and is now a 
thriving plantation : besides containing this young plan- 
tation, about 100 acres in the parish are covered with 
Scotch fir. 

In general the soil is a deep rich loam, upon a clay 
bottom, though in some places it is of a lighter quality. 
The pasture and arable land is portioned into twenty-five 
large farms, which are cultivated in the best manner ; all 
kinds of produce are raised, and a great part of the grain 
is shipped at Burgh-Head, or Findhorn, and sold in the 
London market. The cattle are usually of a mixed 
breed between the Aberdeenshire and the Highland, with 
a few of the polled from Buchan. Great improvements 
have been carried on for some years past in draining, 
inclosing, the recovery of mosses, and the erection of 
good farm-houses and offices : in this parish the stone 
inclosures are very extensive, probably more so than in 
any other parish in the north of Scotland. The rocks 
consist of freestone, of which quarries are regularly 
worked ; there is a quarry supplying mill-stones, and in 
several places a considerable depth of peat-moss occurs. 
The annual value of real property in the parish is £5708. 
There are two mansion-houses ; Milton-Brodie, at the 
west end of the parish, an ancient edifice, to which a 
handsome front has been recently added, greatly im- 
proving its appearance ; and the house of Newton, at 
the east end, a plain building, with a pleasing lawn be- 
fore it. The population are agricultural, and their houses 
are for the most part in groups. The chief fuel formerly 
in use was peat, but the cutting of it has been prohibited, 
and at present the fuel used is principally English coal, 
cargoes of which are imported from Sunderland, and 
landed at Burgh-Head and Findhorn. 

For ecclesiastical purposes Alves is within the bounds 
of the presbytery of Elgin and synod of Moray. The Earl 
of Moray is patron ; and the minister's stipend is about 
£208, exclusively of an allowance of £8 for a grass-glebe : 
there are also a good manse, lately built, and having con- 
venient offices and garden ; and a glebe of four acres of 
land, worth £9 a year. Alves church, built in 1769, is a 
long narrow edifice containing sittings for 590 persons. 
There is a place of worship in connexion with the Free 
Church. The parochial school affords instruction in 
Latin, Greek, aud the mathematics, in addition to the 
ordinary branches of education, and the master has a 
salary of £34. 4., with fees, a house and garden, and, if 
found qualified, a share of the Dick bequest. Another 
school is maintained by subscription, and the teacher of 
a female school in the Crook receives a small salary from 
the heritors. A parochial library is supported, which 
contains about 200 volumes. 

ALVIE, a parish, in the district of Badenoch, 
county of Inverness, 9 miles (N. E.) from Kingussie ; 
containing, with part of the former quoad sacra parish of 
Insh, 972 inhabitants, of whom seventy-three are in the 

G 2 



A L V 1 



AL YT 



village of Lynchat. Alvie is supposed to have derived 
its name, signifying the " isle of swans", from the situ- 
ation of its ancient church on a peninsula in the north- 
west extremity of the parish, formed by Loch Alvie, 
which from time immemorial has been frequented by 
numbers of swans. The parish extends for nearly twenty 
miles in length, from north to south, including the out- 
line of the hills which terminate in the Grampian range j 
and varies from two to six miles in breadth, from east 
to west. It is calculated to comprise about eighty-four 
square miles, or .53,600 acres, of which 257-1 are arable, 
1S4'2 meadow and pasture, and the remainder, exclu- 
sively of some large tracts of wood and plantations, moor- 
land and svaste. The surface is generally high : that 
portion of the strath of Badenoch which is within the 
parish has an elevation of nearly 650 feet ; while of the 
numerous hills and mountains, the Grampians, forming 
the southern boundary of the parish, rise to the height 
of 4500 feet above the sea, and those on the north-west 
boundary, though of inferior elevation, attain a very con- 
siderable height. The river Spey, which rises in the 
braes of Badenoch, near Lochaber, flows through the 
parish in a direction nearly from west to east ; and the 
small river Feshie falls into the Spey near the church : 
salmon are sometimes taken in the Spey. Loch Alvie is 
about a mile in length, and half a mile in breadth ; the 
average depth is about eleven fathoms : the surrounding 
scenery is pleasingly picturesque. 

The SOIL is generally light and gravelly, with the 
exception of the meadow-lands on the banks of the Spey, 
which are luxuriantly rich ; the chief crops are oats, 
barley, wheat, potatoes, and turnips, with the various 
grasses. The system of husbandry has been gradually 
improving, and on some of the larger farms is in a very 
advanced state ; on the smaller farms it has made com- 
paratively little progress. There are very few inclosures, 
and the farm-buildings are of inferior order. Little 
attention is paid to the rearing of live stock ; the sheep 
are commonly of the black-faced, and the cattle of the 
Highland black breed. The hills and mountains are 
composed chiefly of gneiss, intersected with veins of 
granite and red porphyry : the granite occurs in two 
varieties ; the white, which is preferred for building, 
and more easily dressed, and the red, which is harder 
and more durable. Limestone is quarried on the lands 
of Dunachton ; and veins of lead are found in the gneiss 
at Tyncaim, and the burn of Raitts, on the lands of 
Belleville. The annual value of real property in the 
parish is £4'260. 

The principal seats are Belleville and Kinrara. The 
former is a spacious and elegant mansion, built after a 
design of the architect Adams, by James IMacpherson, 
translator of Ossian's poems : it is beautifully situated in 
a picturesque demesne, embellished with stately timber 
and thriving plantations ; and within a cluster of larches 
is an obelisk of marble, erected to the memory of Mr. 
Macpherson, on which is his bust, finely sculptured. 
Kinrara, a handsome mansion in the cottage style, built 
by a Duchess of Gordon, and in which she resided dur- 
ing the summer months till her decease in IS 12, occupies 
a highly romantic and sequestered spot, about two miles 
from the church of Alvie. In the grounds is a monu- 
ment of granite, erected by her husband the fourth duke 
to the memory of the deceased, whose remains were 
brought from London, and interred, at her own request, 
44 



in a spot which she had selected. Oa Tor Alvie, to the 
north-west of the cottage, is a monument erected by the 
fifth and last duke, to the officers of the 4'2nd and 
92nd regiments who fell in the battle of Waterloo. At 
Lynviulg, about half a mile from the church, is a branch 
post-office ; and facility of communication is afforded by 
the turnpike-road from Edinburgh to Inverness, which 
passes through the whole length of the parish. 

Ecclesiastically the parish is within the bounds of 
the presbytery of Abernethy and synod of Moray : the 
minister's stipend is £158. 4. 6., with a manse, and a 
glebe valued at £5 per annum ; patron, the Duke of 
Richmond. The church, situated on the shore of Loch 
Alvie, is a plain structure, built in 1798, and repaired in 
1832, and contains 500 sittings. The parochial school 
is well conducted ; the master has a salary of £28. 18. 9., 
with a house, an allowance of £2. 2. in lieu of garden, 
and fees averaging about £20 per annum. Another 
school, the master of which has a salary of £20, with 
£10 fees, is supported by the General Assembly. At 
Delfour, about a mile west of the church, are the re- 
mains of a Druidical temple, consisting of two concentric 
circles of upright stones, of which the inner circle is 
twenty-five feet, and the outer, formed of larger stones, 
is fifty-five feet in diameter ; near this work is an obelisk 
eight feet six inches in height, and both are situated in 
the middle of a field which is under arable cultivation. 
At Raitts are the remains of an artificial cavern, anciently 
the haunt of banditti. 

ALYTH, a parish, partly in the county of Forfar, 
but chiefly in that of Perth, 17 miles (N. W.) from 
Dundee ; containing 2910 inhabitants, of whom 190 are 
in the county of Forfar, and 1S46 in the village or town, 
which is a burgh of barony. This place appears to have 
derived its name, signifying in the Gaelic language an 
" ascent", from the gradually sloping eminence on which 
its ancient church, and the older portion of the village, 
are built. The most ancient document where its name 
occurs is a charter of Alexander II., in 1232, granting 
the lands of BarafF, in the parish, to Nessus de Ramsay, 
ancestor of Sir James Ramsay, Bart., the present propri- 
etor of that estate ; the remainder of the lands belonged 
to the Lyndesays, Earls of Crawford, ft)r many genera- 
tions, till the year 1630, when they were purchased by 
the Ogilvy family. During the wars of the Covenanters, 
the army of the INIarquess of Montrose was frequently 
stationed in the immediate neighbourhood ; and during 
the siege of Dundee by General Monk, a meeting of the 
principal inhabitants, held in the village, to deliberate on 
the best means of defence, was surprised by a detach- 
ment of the English, who took many of the members 
prisoners. 

The parish is bounded on the south-east by the river 
Isla, and is about fifteen miles in length, and from one 
mile to six miles in breadth, comprising 34,160 acres, of 
which about 8100 are arable, 1070 woodland and planta- 
tions, and the remainder meadow and pasture land. Its 
surface is diversified with ranges of hills, of which those 
of Alyth, Loyall, and Barry divide it into two unequal 
districts : the southern is in the valley of Strathmore, 
and the northern includes the forest of Alyth, and the 
Blacklunans, which last are in the county of Forfar. 
The height of the lands varies from 130 to nearly I7OO 
feet, ascending from the Isla to the summit of Mount 
Blair; the hill of Kingseat has an elevation of 1178 



A L YT 



A N A B 



feet, and the hills of Alyth, Loyall, and Barry rise about 
700 feet above the sea. The principal rivers are, the 
IsJa ; the Ericht, a tributary of the Isla; and the burn 
of Alyth, which rises in the forest of that name, and falls 
into the Isla at Inverquiech, about two miles east of the 
village. Salmon occasionally ascend the Isla, and trout 
are found in most of the streams, and in some, pike. 

The SOIL is greatly diversified. On the level lands 
Dear the river, it is a deep rich black loam ; in the 
Blacklunans district, a lighter, but fertile, loam, much 
encumbered with stones and rock ; on the sides of the 
hills, a fine sharp gravelly soil, well adapted for oats, 
turnips, and potatoes ; and in many parts, peat moss, 
and moor, of which a considerable portion might be 
brought into cultivation. The lands have been drained 
and inclosed, and much waste has been reclaimed ; the 
farm-buildings, and the houses of the cotters, are sub- 
stantial, and the lands near the Isla, which were exposed 
to frequent inundation, have been protected by embank- 
ments. The hills afford good pasture for sheep, of 
which from 2000 to 3000 are reared in the parish, all 
of the black-faced breed ; the cattle, on the uplands, are 
of the native Angus breed, and on the lower farms a 
cross between the Angus and the Teeswater. In general 
the rocks are trap and conglomerate ; and the principal 
substrata are, mica, and clay-slate, sandstone of the old 
red formation, with some small beds of a light-grey 
colour, and a yellowish compact limestone, well adapted 
for building. The natural wood, of which but little 
remains, is birch, hazel, and alder ; and the plantations, 
the greater part of which are of recent date, are larch, 
Scotch, and spruce firs, interspersed with various kinds 
of hard-wood ; but the larches are not in a thriving 
state. The annual value of real property in the parish is 
£10,396. Bamff House is a handsome mansion of great 
antiquity, with many modern additions and improve- 
ments, pleasantly situated about three miles from the vil- 
lage, in grounds commanding some fine views. Balhary, 
another seat, is a modern, substantial, and spacious 
mansion, built on a rising ground on the bank of the 
Isla ; and Jordanstone is also a handsome residence. 

The VILLAGE stands on the burn of Alyth, and con- 
sists of several streets of good houses, of which those in 
the older part of it are of great antiquity : the inha- 
bitants are well supplied with water. There are three 
bridges of stone over the burn, the handsomest of which 
was lately built by Sir James Ramsay to improve the 
approach to Bamff House : one of the bridges is of con- 
siderable antiquity, bearing the arms of Lord Gray, who 
held property in the parish three centuries ago. Most 
of the population are employed in weaving coarse linen 
for the manufacturers of Dundee, producing annually 
more than 10,000 webs, of 150 yards each ; there is a 
fulling-mill in the village, and also at Inverquiech. 
Alyth was erected into a burgh of barony in the reign 
of James HI.-, a baronial court is held on the first 
Tuesday in every month, under a baron bailie appointed 
by the Earl of Airlie, who is superior of the burgh ; and 
a system of police has also been established. Fairs for 
sheep and cattle are held on the Tuesday after the 
second Thursday in March ; the second Tuesday, and 
the 25th, of June ; the last Tuesday in July ; the Tues- 
day before the 10th of October ; the first Tuesday and 
Wednesday, and the Tuesday after the Uth, of Novem- 
ber ; and the second Tuesday in December ; all O. S. 



A post-office under that of Meigle, and a branch of the 
Western Bank, have been established here ; and facility 
of communication is maintained by good roads, kept in 
repair by statute labour. 

For ecclesiastical purposes the parish is within the 
bounds of the presbytery of Meigle and synod of Angus 
and Mearus : the minister's stipend averages about 
£235, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £14 per 
annum; patron, the Crown. The church, situated in 
the village, is a handsome and spacious structure in the 
Norman style, built in 1839, from a design by Mr. 
Hamilton of Edinburgh, and contains 1290 sittings. 
There are places of worship for members of the Free 
Church and the United Presbyterian Church, and a small 
Episcopal chapel. The parochial school was erected in 
1835; the master has a salary of £34. 4.4., with a 
house, and an allowance in lieu of a garden, and the 
fees average £20 per annum. Five boys and five girls 
are instructed and clothed from a rent-charge of £30 
on the Ballindoch estate. On Barry Hill are some re- 
mains of a Pictish encampment, and of a narrow bridge 
over the fosse by which it was surrounded ; and to the 
south of the hill, on the low grounds, are several upright 
stones supposed to commemorate some warlike exploit. 
Stone coffins containing human bones have been dug 
up near these places. At the influx of the burn of Alyth 
into the river Isla, are the ruins of the ancient castle of 
Inverquiech ; and at Corb, on the south-west of the 
forest of Alyth, are the remains of a castle, probably a 
hunting-seat of the Earls of Crawford. The parish gives 
the title of Baron Alyth to the Earl of Airlie. 

AMISFIELD, a village, in the parish of Tinwald, 
county of Dumfries, 5 miles (N. E.) from. Dumfries ; 
containing 140 inhabitants. This place, anciently Ems- 
field, was erected into a burgh of barony by Charles I., 
with a weekly market and fairs ; at present, it consists 
merely of a few old thatched houses, which the pro- 
prietors are allowing to go to decay. Amisfield Castle, 
long the seat of the ancient family of Charteris, stands 
west of the high road from Dumfries to Edinburgh, and 
is a quadrangular building, having a high tower of pic- 
turesque appearance on the south-west, and a more 
modern erection, now the dwelling-house, on the east. 
Near the village are distinct vestiges of a Roman fort. 
— See Tinwald. 

AMULRIE, a village and district, in the parish of 
Dull, county of Perth, U miles (N. by E.) from Crieff; 
containing 406 inhabitants. It is situated on the road 
between Crieff and Aberfeldy, and is watered by the 
small river Bran, which flows hence in a north-eastern 
direction, and falls into the Tay at Inver, opposite to 
Dunkeld. Here is a sub post-office ; and an excellent 
inn, much frequented by visiters to the neighbouring 
lake of Freuchie, is distant about a mile and a quarter 
westward of the village. Fairs for cattle and sheep are 
held on the first Tuesday and Wednesday in May, and 
the Friday before the first Wednesday in November. 
There is a chapel in connexion with the Established 
Church, under the patronage of the Committee of the 
General Assembly : the minister has a stipend, paid 
from the royal bounty, of £65, including £5 for com- 
munion elements ; with a house and garden, a few acres 
of land, and fuel. 

ANABICH, an island, in the parish of Harris, 
county of Inverness ; containing 41 inhabitants. 



A NC R 



AND E 



ANCRUM, a parish, in the district of Jedburgh, 
county of Roxburgh, 4 railes (N. W. by N.) from Jed- 
burgh : containing 1407 inhabitants, of whom 499 are 
in the village. The name of this place, anciently Jlite- 
crumb, is derived from the situation of its village on a 
bend of the river Alne, now the Ale. There were for- 
merly two villages distinguished by the appellations of 
Over and Nether Ancrum, of the former of which no- 
thing now remains. The principal event of historical im- 
portance is the battle of Ancrum Moor, which originated 
in an attempt made in 1545, by Sir Ralph Evers and 
Sir Bryan Layton, to possess themselves of the lands of 
the Merse and Teviotdale, which had been conferred 
upon them by a grant of Henry VIII., King of England. 
The Earl of Angus, who had considerable property in 
that district, determined to resist the attempt, and a 
battle between his forces and those of the English took 
place on a moor about a mile and a half north of the 
village, in which the latter were defeated with great loss. 
In this conflict, both the villages of Ancrum were burnt 
to the ground ; the village of Nether Ancrum was soon 
afterwards rebuilt, but of the other nothing remains but 
the ruins of one or two dilapidated houses. 

The PARISH comprises about S400 acres, of which 
one-half is arable, S'20 acres in woods and plantations, 
and the remainder meadow and pasture. Its surface is 
pleasingly undulated, rising in some parts into consi- 
derable eminences, and presenting a continued variety 
of level plains and sloping heights. The Teviot forms 
the southern boundary of the parish, and the river Ale 
traverses it from east to west ; the banks of the latter 
are highly picturesque in several parts of its course, 
presenting in some points precipitous masses of bare 
rugged rock, and in others overhung by rocks richly 
wooded. Both the rivers abound with excellent trout, 
and are much frequented by anglers. The soil is greatly 
varied : on the banks of the Teviot it is luxuriantly rich, 
and of great depth ; in other parts of less fertility, and 
in some almost sterile. The chief crops are oats, wheat, 
barley, potatoes, turnips, peas, and beans. The system 
of agriculture is in an improved state ; draining has 
been carried on to a considerable extent, and much of 
the inferior land has been rendered productive. Much 
attention is paid to the rearing of live stock, for which 
the pastures are well adapted ; the sheep are mostly of 
the Leicestershire breed, and a cross between that and 
the Cheviot, and the cattle are all of the short-horned 
kind. The woods contain many stately trees, and the 
plantations are e.xtensive and well managed. The prin- 
cipal substrata are red and white freestone, which are 
both of good quality, and extensively wrought for the 
supply of the surrounding district. The annual value 
of real property in the parish is £8893. Ancrum 
House, the seat of Sir William Scott, Bart., is a spacious 
and venerable mansion, in an extensive and richly- 
wooded park stocked with deer. Chesters is a hand- 
some modern mansion, romantically situated at the 
mouth of a deep and thickly-wooded dell, on the bank of 
the Teviot ; and Kirklands, in the later style of English 
architecture, is beautifully situated on a wooded height 
on the bank of the Ale, forming a strikingly picturesque 
object in the landscape. The village is on the south 
bank of the Teviot. Facility of communication is main- 
tained with Jedburgh and other market-towns in the 
vicinity, by good roads ; the turnpike-road from Edin- 
46 



burgh to Newcastle passes along the eastern boundary 
of the parish for several miles, and the Hawick railway 
intersects the western part of the parish. 

Ecclesiastically, Ancrum is in the presbytery of Jed- 
burgh and synod of Merse and Teviotdale : the stipend 
of the incumbent is about £224, with a manse, and a 
glebe valued at £30 per annum ; patron. Sir William 
Scott. The church, which anciently belonged to the 
see of Glasgow, having been annexed to it on the 
dissolution of the abbey of Lindisfarn, was rebuilt in 
1762, and is a neat and substantial edifice, adapted for 
about 520 persons. The parochial school is well 
attended ; the master has a salary of £34. 4. 4., with 
£2S. 15. fees, and a good house and garden. Till very 
lately, there were considerable remains of what were 
called the Maltan W'alls, which inclosed an area of about 
an acre and a half. The spot is supposed to have been 
the site of a commandery of the Knights of Malta, or St. 
John of Jerusalem, said to have been established here 
in the reign of David I. ; and in the adjacent field, 
numerous human bones, and frequently entire skeletons, 
have been discovered by the plough. W^ithin the area 
of the walls were various vaults and subterraneous 
passages, apparently the foundations of the ancient 
building ; but even those portions of the outer wall 
which alone were left standing have disappeared, and 
little but the site is now left. On the hill behind 
Ancrum House are the remains of a circular fort, with a 
triple intrenchment. In the parish are numerous caves, 
formed as places of retreat in times of danger, one of 
which, on the glebe, was the favourite resort of the poet 
Thomson, and still bears his name. A monument has 
been raised over the tomb of Lilliard, a Scotch female 
who fell in the battle of Ancrum Moor, covered with 
wounds, while fighting with desperate valour, and who 
was buried on the spot where she fell. The place confers 
the title of Earl on the Marquess of Lothian. 

ANDERSTON, a burgh, and for a time a quoad 
sacra parish, consisting of part of Barony parish, in the 
suburbs of the city of Glasgow, county of Lanark, 
1 mile (W.) from Glasgow ; containing 3*59 inhabit- 
ants. This place derives its name from its founder, 
Mr. John Anderston, of Stobcross, who in 1725 formed 
the plan of a village, and divided the lands of one of his 
most unproductive farms into building lots, thus laying 
the foundation of a very considerable suburb to the 
city. It is on the north side of the river Clyde, and 
though of irregular form, and less modern in appear- 
ance than others of the suburban districts, it contains 
manj' well-built and handsome houses ; the lands to 
the north are chiefly garden-ground, and on the banks 
of the river are several pleasing villas, inhabited by 
some of the most opulent merchants of Glasgow. A 
considerable part of the population are employed in the 
cotton manufacture, in iron-foundries, and the production 
of machinery ; many are mariners belonging to the port, 
and there are shops of various kinds for the supply of 
the inhabitants. 

Anderston was erected into a burgh of barony, by 
royal charter, in 1824; the district includes parts of 
the lands of Stobcross, Gushet, Parsonscroft, and Ran- 
kenshaugh, and is wholly within the parliamentary 
boundary of the city of Glasgow. The government is 
vested in a provost, three bailies, a treasurer, and 
eleven councillors, annually elected by the burgesses ; 



A N D R 



A ND R 



the bailies and treasurers from the councillors, and the 
provost from the burgesses generally. The magistrates 
exercise civil jurisdiction in pleas not exceeding forty 
shillings in amount, and criminal jurisdiction in all 
cases within the Police act : courts for the former are 
held weekly, or every alternate week, and for the latter 
four times in the week ; in both of which, the town- 
clerk acts as assessor. The burgesses pay a fee of £2. 2. 
on admission. The corporation have power to hold a 
weekly market and two annual fairs : the fairs were 
formerly held, but they have been discontinued. An- 
derston quoad sacra parish was formed in 1834, and, 
like every similar division, was subsequently abolished : 
the minister's stipend is £300, derived from the seat- 
rents, of which £S0 are secured by bond. The church 
was originally built as a chapel of ease, in 1799, at a 
cost of £2500, raised by voluntary subscription, and has 
been since repaired ; it is a neat structure, and con- 
tains 1246 sittings. A school for this parish and the 
former quoad sacra parish of St. Mark, was erected 
at an expense of £1700, of which £850 were subscribed 
by the two parishes, and the remainder granted by the 
treasury ; it is a spacious building, containing three 
schools, attended by 600 children paying very moderate 
fees. There is also a Free church. St. John's episcopal 
church, at Anderston, was commenced in September, 
1849. 

ANDRE-W'S, ST., a city, 
the seat of a university, and 
anciently the metropolitan 
see of Scotland, in the district 
of St. Andrew's, county of 
Fife, 42 miles (N. N. E.) 
from Edinburgh ; contain- 
ing, with the villages of 
Boarhills, Grange, Kincaple, 
and Strathkinness, 6017 in- 
habitants, of whom 3959 are 
in the city. This place, 
which is of remote antiquity, 
formed part of the territories of the Pictish kings, of 
whom Hergustus, whose capital was at Abernethy, had a 
palace or hunting-seat near the site of the present town, 
at that time a forest frequented by wild boars, and 
thence, as well as from its situation on a promontory 
overlooking the bay, called Mucross, a name still re- 
tained in that of the present village of Boarhills. The 
origin of the town is ascribed by tradition to St. Regu- 
lus, abbot of the monastery of Patrae, in the Grecian 
province of Achaia, who about the year 370, attended 
by a company of his brethren, sailed from Patrae, bear- 
ing with him a portion of the relics of the Apostle St. 
Andrew, which had been deposited there ; and was 
driven by a storm into the bay of this place, where with 
dithculty, after the loss of their ship, the crew escaped 
to land, with the sacred relics they had preserved. Her- 
gustus, the Pictish monarch, informed of the arrival of 
these strangers, came to visit them in person, and, pleased 
with the simplicity and sanctity of their manners, became 
a convert to Christianity ; granted them his palace, with 
the adjoining lands for a settlement : and after the 
subsequent erection of a church, changed the name 
Mucross into Kilrymont, or " the church of the King's 
Mount". St. Regvdus lived for thirty years afterwards 
at this place, under the patronage of Hergustus, dis- 
47 




Seal and Arms. 



seminating the doctrines of the Christian faith through- 
out this part of the country, and was buried in the 
church over which he had so long presided. After the 
subjugation of the Pictish dominion, and the establish- 
ment of the Scottish monarchy, by Kenneth McAlpine, 
that king transferred the seat of government from 
Abernethy to this place, to which, in honour of the 
Apostle, he gave the name of St. Andrew's, by which it 
has ever since been designated ; and on the division of 
the country into dioceses, in the reign of Malcolm HI., 
St. Andrew's became the metropolitan see of the king- 
dom. In 1120, an Augustine priory was founded here, 
by Robert, Bishop of St. Andrew's, who also, in 1140, 
obtained from David I. a charter erecting the town into 
a royal burgh. To this important priory the nomina- 
tion of the bishop was transferred, partially at first, but 
completely in 1273, from the Culdees, whose chapel 
of St. Regains served as the diocesan church before the 
cathedral was erected. In 1 159, Bishop Arnold com- 
menced the erection of the cathedral, which was con- 
tinued under his successors for more than a century and 
a half, and ultimately completed by Bishop Lamberton, 
a zealous adherent of Bruce. According to the uniform 
practice of the period, the eastern portion was first 
finished, and at once used for the performance of divine 
service; the transepts and nave were next proceeded 
with, and the whole was consecrated by Bishop Lam- 
berton in 1318, in the presence of King Robert I. and 
the chief persons in the kingdom. In 1200, Bishop 
Roger built the castle of St. Andrew's, which was for 
many years the residence of the prelates of the see ; and 
in 1374 Bishop Wishart founded a Dominican priory. 

After the battle of Falkirk, in 1298, Edward I. of 
England summoned the Scottish parliament to meet at 
St. Andrew's, and compelled every member, with the 
exception only of Sir 'William Wallace, to swear fealty 
to his government. A few years subsequently, the same 
parliament assembled here to take the oath of allegiance 
to Robert Bruce. Edward III. of England, in 1336, 
placed a garrison in the castle, which, in the year fol- 
lowing, was reduced by the Earls of March and Fife ; and 
in 1401, David, Duke of Rothesay, brother of James I., 
on a false charge of treason was imprisoned in the castle 
by his uncle, the Duke of Albany, and afterwards re- 
moved to Falkland, where he was starved to death. 
The university of St. Andrew's was founded in 1410, by 
Bishop Wardlaw, and in the following year was incor- 
porated by charter, conferring all the powers and privi- 
leges enjoyed by foreign universities. James I., after 
regaining his liberty, visited the establishment, bestow- 
ing on its members many marks of his favour, and in 
1431 granted them a charter of exemption from all 
taxes, tolls, or services, in every part of the kingdom. 
Bishop Kennedy, nephew of James I., in 1455, founded 
the college of St. Salvator, chiefly for theological studies 
and the liberal arts ; the foundation charter was con- 
firmed by Pope Nicholas V., and the institution was 
subsequently endowed with numerous royal grants. In 
1471, the bishops of St. Andrew's were dignified with 
the title of archbishops, and the metropolitan see was 
elevated to the primacy of the kingdom. In 1512, 
John Hepburn, prior of the Augustinian monastery, 
founded the college of St. Leonard, and endowed it 
from the revenues of the hospital which had been built 
for the reception of pilgrims visiting the shrine of St. 



AND R 



A NDR 



Andrew, and out of his own private property, chiefly for 
the education of the brethren of the convent. During 
the numerous religious persecutions which preceded the 
Reformation, George Buchanan, afterwards preceptor of 
James VI., was imprisoned in the castle of St. Andrew's, 
for writing against the Franciscan friars, but contrived 
to make his escape through one of the windows, and 
fled into England. In 1537, Archbishop James Beaton, 
uncle and predecessor of Cardinal David Beaton, ob- 
tained a bull from Paul III. authorizing the foundation 
of a college to be dedicated to St. Mary, on the site of 
the ancient pedagogium ; he endowed the institution 
with certain tithes, and soon after the commencement of 
the building, his successor the cardinal undertook the 
completion. Cardinal Beaton, however, had only re- 
moved the fabric of the pedagogy, when his death also 
put a stop to further progress : the next archbishop, 
Hamilton, finished the erection, and in virtue of a bull 
from Pope Julius III., in 1552, endowed it out of his 
episcopal revenues, for the maintenance of four pro- 
fessors and a number of bursars and servants. The 
establishment was remodelled in 1579) hy Archbishop 
Adamson and George Buchanan, and since that time 
has been confined to the study of theology. In 1546, 
Cardinal Beaton was assassinated in the castle, and his 
dead body suspended for a time on the wall, from the 
same window whence he had witnessed the martyrdom 
of Wishart. In 1559, after a sermon preached by John 
Knox the reformer, the populace immediately com- 
menced the destruction of the venerable cathedral of 
St. Andrew's, which in a few hours they reduced to a 
heap of ruins ; and they afterwards plundered and de- 
stroyed other religious establishments of the city. 

The history of St. Andrew's presents many features 
of interest, connected with the progress of the Reforma- 
tion in Scotland, as might naturally be expected from 
the city being a stronghold of the Church whose cor- 
ruptions made the great change necessary. The first 
martyr to reformed opinions in Scotland was John 
Resby, an Englishman, w'ho, having become a convert to 
the doctrines of Wycliffe, Huss, and Jerome of Prague, 
preached those doctrines within the diocese of St. An- 
drew's, and was apprehended by command of Bishop 
Wardlaw. Resby suffered at Perth, where he had been 
signally successful as a reformed preacher ; and a quar- 
ter of a century afterwards, in 143'2, Paul Crow, a native 
of Bohemia, and a disciple of Huss and Jerome, was 
condemned to the stake at St. Andrew's, in which city 
he had settled as a physician, and had been exceedingly 
zealous in propagating reformed truth. Another martyr 
connected with St. Andrew's was the famous Patrick 
Hamilton, abbot of Fern, and nephew of the Earl of 
Arran, who suffered in 1527, during tlie archiepiscopate 
of James Beaton, at the early age of twenty-three. 
About four years after this martyrdom, which took 
place in front of St. Salvator's college, Henry Forrest, a 
young man, a native of Linlithgow, invested with a 
small order in the Church, was incarcerated by the same 
archbishop, and condemned to suffer at the stake as a 
heretic, the sentence being carried into effect at the 
north gate of the cathedral, that the people of Angus, 
seeing the flames, might forbear to embrace doctrines 
whose profession was attended with consequences so 
dreadful. Soon afterwards, two persons of the names 
of Gourlay and Straiton were consigned to the flames 
48 



in the city, charged with denying the supremacy of the 
pope, and propagating the doctrines of protestantism. 
The next martyr was the celebrated George IVishart, 
for the purpose of whose martyrdom, says Spottiswood, 
" a scaffold was erected on the east front of the castle, 
towards the abbey, with a great tree in the midst of it, 
in manner of a gibbet, unto which the prisoner was to 
be tied ; and right against it was all the munition of the 
castle planted, if, perhaps, any should press by violence 
to take him away. The fore tower was hung with 
tapestry, and rich cushions laid, for the ease of the 
cardinal (Beaton) and prelates who were to behold that 
spectacle. " Wishart suffered in 1545, urging the people 
to cling to the good word of God, and the true gospel 
of Christ. The spot where the martyrdom took place 
is at the foot of North Castle- street. In the spring of 
1558 suffered the last martyr of St. Andrew's in the 
cause of the Reformation, IValter Mill, an aged priest of 
the parish of Lunan, near Montrose, who was detected 
by Archbishop Hamilton, and condemned to suffer in 
front of the principal entrance to the rathedral. Being 
upwards of eighty years of age, he was unable to walk 
without help to the place of execution ; and though 
some of the previous martyrdoms had presented fea- 
tures of extreme barbarity, yet the cruelty of perse- 
cuting so venerable a man was especially conspicuous, 
rousing the indignation of the people that witnessed the 
melancholy scene. Within the last few years, a monu- 
ment in memory of those who suffered at St. Andrew's 
by fire, in the cause of truth, has been erected at the 
west end of the Scores, at the top of the declivity to- 
wards the Links. 

In 1583, James VI., escaping from the thraldom in 
which he was held by Gowrie, Glencairn, and others, 
shut himself up in the castle, by connivance of the 
governor, and was joined here by a number of his loyal 
subjects. After his accession to the English throne, 
he assembled here a meeting of the prelates and prin- 
cipal clergy, to deliberate on the future interests of the 
Church. In 1645, the Scottish parliament met in the 
lower room of what is now the university librar)', and 
passed sentence of death upon Sir Robert Spottiswood, 
son of the late archbishop, and three other royalists, 
who had been taken prisoners at the battle of Philip- 
haugh, and who were publicly executed in the principal 
street of the city. In 1679, Archbishop Sharpe was 
murdered at Magus Muir, within four miles of the city, 
by a party of Covenanters, of whom five, that were 
afterwards taken prisoners at the battle of Bothwell 
Bridge, were executed on the spot where the murder 
was committed, and their bodies hung in chains. Pre- 
viously to the Reformation, the city was a place of con- 
siderable commercial importance, and the resort of 
numerous merchants from France, Holland, and other 
trading ports ; and according to Martine, at the Senzie 
fair, held within the priory in the month of April, and 
which lasted fifteen days, its harbour was filled with 
two or three hundred vessels from Flanders, Holland, 
France, and other parts of the commercial world. But 
after the Reformation, and the consequent suppression of 
its ecclesiastical supremacy, its trade and shipping fell 
into rapid decay. In 1655, it was so reduced that a 
petition was addressed by the magistrates and council 
to General Monk, praying to be relieved from an assess- 
ment, on the ground of " the total decay of shipping 



A ND R 



ANDR 



and sea trade, and the removal of the most eminent in- 
habitants"; and in 1656, there was only one vessel, of 
twenty tons' burthen, belonging to the port. The chief 
support of the inhabitants, after the Reformation, was 
derived from its university ; and although its trade has 
in some degree revived, yet the city has never regained 
its original commercial importance. An elaborate 
History of St. Andrew's, abounding in interesting eccle- 
siastical information, has been written by the Rev. 
Charles John Lyon, M.A., the episcopal clergyman in 
the city. 

The TOWN is beautifully situated on the bay of St. 
Andrew's in the German Ocean, and mainly consists of 
three spacious and nearly parallel streets, of which the 
principal is South-street, at whose western extremity is 
Argyle Port, the only remnant of the ancient fortifica- 
tions of the city j it is still in good preservation, and 
over the arched gateway are the city arras. On the 
north of South-street is Market-street, to the north of 
which is North-street ; and still further to the north, 
and bordering upon the bay, is said to have been Swal- 
low-street, formerly the principal residence of the mer- 
chants, but which, if it ever existed, has long since disap- 
peared, and the site been converted into a public walk 
called the Scores. The three streets are intersected at 
right angles by various smaller streets ; and a new 
street called Bell-street has been formed, connecting 
North with Market street, and which has since been 
extended to South-street. The houses are generally 
well built, and of handsome appearance, and many of 
them are spacious ; the streets are paved, and lighted 
with gas, and the inhabitants are supplied with excel- 
lent water, though in insufficient quantity. A literary, 
scientific, and antiquarian society was instituted in 
1838 ; the mechanics have established a public library 
and reading-room, and there is a library and reading- 
room supported by annual subscriptions of one guinea. 
The sea-beach is well adapted for bathing ; and near 
the castle, on an eminence overlooking the sea, a 
building has been erected containing every requisite 
accommodation of hot and cold baths. On the ex- 
tensive links to the west of the town, the ancient game 
of golf is pursued by the inhabitants, as their principal 
recreation ; a club for that purpose was established in 
1754, which consists of about 400 members, and holds 
two meetings in the year, and to such an extent is this 
amusement generally followed, that not less than .5000 
balls are annually used by the players. The Union 
Club consists of 230 members ; every member must 
belong to the golf club, and must pay the annual sub- 
scription of ten shillings, with £"2 entrance fee : in the 
building rented by the club is an excellent reading-room, 
supported by the members resident in the city. The 
environs of the town possess much beauty and variety 
of scenery, and the numerous remains of its ancient 
ecclesiastical structures, and its colleges and public 
buildings, give to it a venerable and interesting appear- 
ance. Its salubrity of climate, the easy access to it by 
the St. Andrew's branch of the Edinburgh, Perth, and 
Dundee railway, and the remarkable facilities it affords 
for education, also render it a desirable residence. It 
is especially adapted as a place of retirement from the 
fatigues of military life or of commerce, and visiters 
come to it from very considerable distances on account 
of the advantages it presents for bathing. 
Vol. I.— 49 



Within the last few years, St. Andrew's has attracted 
public notice for the spirited improvements that have 
been carried into effect by its authorities. These im- 
provements may be dated from the year 1842, when 
Major Hugh Lyon Playfair, of St. Leonard's, was elected 
chief magistrate of the burgh : through the energy and 
public spirit of that gentleman, the town has been im- 
proved in a variety of respects, and now presents a 
more worthy remnant of its bygone splendour. The 
condition of the streets first claimed attention ; they 
have been mostly repaired, and provided with suitable 
foot pavement, projections have been removed, and the 
public convenience and comfort has been generally 
studied. Bell-street has been extended, as already ob- 
served, to South-street ; other lines of building have 
been raised, and the structure of Argyle or West Port, 
by which South-street is entered from the west, has 
been completely renovated. It was mainly through the 
active zeal of the provost, that the Madras Infant School 
was built in 1S44, and that further grants were obtained 
from government in 1844 and 1847, for the completion 
of the new buildings of the United College. On the 
removal of the infant school to its present convenient 
and healthful position, he converted the building behind 
the parish church, in which the school had previously 
been taught, into a spacious city hall, supplying a de- 
sideratum for the accommodation of public meetings, 
long felt to exist. It may be noticed as a gratifying 
feature in the various improvements, that they have all 
been carried out with the utmost regard to the preserva- 
tion of the ancient architectural remains, which have, 
moreover, been so freed from every thing unseemly, 
that the ruins of the city are now more worthy than 
ever of the inspection of the visiter. Provost Playfair 
has also displayed a warm interest in the moral and 
spiritual improvement of the labouring classes, especially 
of the long-neglected fisher population. Such is a brief 
account of what has been done on behalf of the ancient 
and once metropolitan city of St. Andrew's within the 
last few years, chiefly through the perseverance of its 
active provost. But for carrying out these improve- 
ments, the public are also specially indebted to the dis- 
tinguished liberality of the citizens and the members of 
the corporation, as without the contributions of the 
former, and frank co-operation of the latter, the greater 
number of these works of reform could not have been 
effected. An account of the recent changes will be 
found in the History of St. Andrew's by the Rev. Charles 
Roger, published in 1849, from which some particulars 
have been derived for this article. 

The UNIVERSITY, which 
consists of St. Mary's or the 
New College, and the United 
Colleges of St. Salvator and 
St. Leonard, i s under the con- 
trol of a chancellor, chosen 
by the senatus academicus ; 
two principals appointed by 
the crown, one for St. Mary's, 
with an average stipend of 
£313, and one for St. Sal- 
vator's and St. Leonard's, 
with an average income of 
£338 ; and a rector, elected by the professors and stu- 
dents. The principal of St. Mary's is also primarius 

li 




Seal of the University. 



AND R 



AND R 



professor of divinity in his college, taking the depart- 
ment of systematic theology : his total income is above 
stated. The professorships of ecclesiastical history, 
biblical criticism, and oriental languages, in St. Mary's, 
and the professorship of mathematics in the United 
College, are in the patronage of the Crown, and are 
valued respectively at £354, £306, £'279, and £386, per 
annum. The professorships in the United College in its 
own gift, are, the Greek, valued at £418; logic, £338; 
moral philosophy, £322 ; and natural philosophy, £313 : 
that of medicine, £3)6, is in the patronage of the uni- 
versity. The professorship of humanity, also in the 
United College, valued at £422, is in the gift of the Mar- 
quess of Titchfield ; the professorship of civil history, 
valued at £230, is in the patronage of the Marquess of 
Ailsa ; and the lectureship of chemistry, founded from a 
bequest by Dr. Gray, and to which the first appointment 
was made in 1840, is valued at £70, and is in the pa- 
tronage of the Earl of Leven. The senatus academicus 
consists of the principals and professors of both colleges, 
and the rector of the university presides at its meetings. 
, By this body alone are degrees conferred, the several 
faculties recommending the candidates. 

The College of St. Mary is confined to the study 
of theology. The students neither wear gowns, nor 
pay any fees, but previously to their admission, must 
have passed through the ordinary routine of classical 
and philosophical studies in some of the Scottish col- 
leges ; the session commences on the 1st of December, 
and closes on the 31st of March. In the gift of this 
college are twenty bursaries, among which are, one of 
£18, two of £15 each, ten between £15 and £10, three 
of £10, and one of £7. Of these twenty bursaries the 
greater number have been merged into a common fund, 
which, at the close of the session, is divided among 
those students who are not otherwise provided with 
bursaries, according to their respective circumstances 
and merits. The college has also the patronage of 
several incumbencies. The buildings, which have been 
restored, and partly rebuilt, by government, occupy two 
sides of a quadrangle : on the west side are the lecture- 
rooms and dining-hall, and on the north the principal's 
official house, and also the university library, containing 
more than 50,000 volumes, open to the use of both 
colleges. The structure of the library is very spacious, 
comprising four large halls. Its front towards the 
street is ornamented with a series of shields, containing 
the armorial bearings of the several chancellors of the 
university, from its I'oundation to the present time. 

The Colleges of St. Salvator and St. Leonard were 
united by act of parliament, in 1747, and placed under 
the superintendence of one principal. The students 
wear gowns of scarlet frieze, and pay a fee of £3. 3. to 
each of the professors whose lectures they attend ; the 
session commences on the first Tuesday in October, and 
closes on the last Friday in April. In the gift of the 
college are sixty-four bursaries, of the aggregate value 
of £840. Eight are in the patronage of the Madras 
school ; seven in that of the university and united 
college ; three, of about £90 each, in the patronage of 
Sir Alexander Ramsay, Bart., for candidates of the 
names of Ramsay, Durham, Carnegie, and Lindsay ; 
and the remainder arc open to general competition. 
The college has also the patronage of the livings of 
Dunino, Kemback, Kilmany, Cults, and Forteviot. The 
50 



buildings have been completely renovated and much en- 
larged, by government, at an expense of about £18,600. 
They form a spacious quadrangle, containing the apart- 
ments in which the professors deliver their lectures ; a 
hall ; a venerable chapel, in which is the splendid tomb 
of the founder of St. Salvator's, Bishop Kennedy, with 
an inscription almost entirely obliterated; a museum 
connected with the literary, scientific, and antiquarian 
society of St. Andrew's; and other accommodation. 
The chapel, which was formerly much larger, and had a 
beautifully groined roof, since removed from an un- 
founded apprehension of insecurity, is now used as the 
parish church of St. Leonard. In the tomb of Bishop 
Kennedy were found, in 1683, an exquisitely wrought 
silver mace, now appropriated to the use of the college, 
and five others merely plated, of which two are preserved 
in the college of St. Mary, and one each were presented 
to the universities of Aberdeen, Glasgow, and Edinburgh. 
The college also possesses three silver arrows which 
were annually awarded as prizes to a company of archers, 
from the year 1618 to 1751, and, after being held by 
the winners for one year, were returned with silver 
medals attached to them ; to one are appended thirty- 
nine medals, weighing together 166 ounces, and to 
another thirty, weighing fifty-five ounces. 

Of the college of St. Leonard, now in ruins, all that 
remains is the roofless chapel, the hall, and some other 
buildings which form dwellings. In the chapel are the 
supposed monument of the founder, Prior Hepburn ; the 
monument of Robert Stewart, Earl of March, bishop- 
elect of Caithness, and commendator of the priory of St. 
Andrew's ; the tomb of John Wynram the reformer ; 
and a mural monument to Robert Wilkie, for twenty- 
one years principal of the college. The hall contained 
the refectory and dormitories of the students ; and on 
one of the walls is the inscription " Erexit Gul. Guild. 
S.S.T.D.," with the date " 1650". 

Among the many distinguished men who have studied, 
or held office, in the university of St. Andrew's, may be 
mentioned Sir David Lindsay, of the Mount, one of the 
most celebrated Scottish poets. John Knox, who entered 
as a student in 1524, early devoted himself to the 
Protestant cause, and about 1542, as a regent in the 
university, inculcated doctrines contrary to the tenets of 
the Church, for which he was compelled to seek per- 
sonal security by flight. After being driven from place 
to place, he at length found an asylum for a time, in 
1 547, in the castle of St. Andrew's, then in the possession 
of Cardinal Beaton's assassins. It was while resident 
here that he first publicly preached the Gospel. Some 
years later, he preached at St. Andrew's the sermon al- 
ready referred to as leading to the destruction of the chief 
ecclesiastical buildings in the city. He was successively 
appointed minister of the congregations at Edinburgh 
and St. Andrew's ; and after the troubles of the period 
had terminated in the public recognition of the Reformed 
faith, he was statedly fixed as minister in the former 
city. In 15*0, on account of his health, Knox retired 
to St. Andrew-'s, where he remained till within a few 
weeks of his last illness and death : he died at Edinburgh 
on the 24th November, 1572. Other eminent men who 
studied or taught in the university were, George Buchanan, 
the historian ; Andrew Melville ; Samuel Rutherford, 
anthor of the well-known " Letters " ; Archbishop 
Sharpe ; Dr. Adam Fergicson, author of the " History of 



A ND R 



A ND R 



the Roman Republic " ; Dr. James Plaijfair, author of a 
complete System of Chronology ; Dr. Thomas Chalmers, 
the distinguished preacher and theological writer ; Lord 
Campbell, lord chief-justice of the court of Queen's 
Bench ; &c., &c. 

The Madras College, situated in South-street, was 
founded by the late Rev. Dr. Andrew Bell, who in 1S31 
conveyed, for that and other purposes, to the provost of 
St. Andrew's, the two ministers of the parish, and the 
professor of Greek in the university, £60,000 three per 
cent, reduced annuities, and £60,000 three per cent, 
consols. Of these funds, five-twelfths were to be trans- 
ferred by them to the provost, magistrates, and town 
council of Edinburgh, of Glasgow, Leith, Aberdeen, and 
Inverness, for the foundation of schools on the Madras 
system ; one-twelfth to the trustees of the Royal Naval 
School, for a similar purpose ; and one-twelfth to the 
provost and council of St. Andrew's, Dr. Bell's native 
place, for the formation of a permanent fund for the 
moral and religious improvement of the city. The re- 
maining five shares were to be vested in the same 
trustees, substituting only the sheriff depute of Fife for 
the professor of Greek, after the death of the present 
professor, for the erection and endowment of a college to 
be called the Madras College of St. Andrew's, and for 
the establishment of eight bursaries in the United College, 
tenable by such as have been three years in the Madras 
College. Buildings were soon after erected, in the 
Elizabethan style, from a design by Mr. Burn, architect, 
of Edinburgh, inclosing a spacious quadrangular area, 
and containing the requisite class-rooms for the school, 
and two handsome residences for the English and 
classical masters. The college is under the visitation of 
the lord-lieutenant of the county, the lord justice clerk 
of Scotland, and the bishop of Edinburgh. It is con- 
ducted on the Madras system, by a classical master and 
an assistant, and an English master, who has also an 
assistant, the former having a salary of £50, and the 
latter of £'2.5, from the funds of the college, in addition 
to their fees ; by masters of arithmetic, writing, and the 
modern languages, each of whom has a salary of £50, 
in addition to their fees ; and by masters of the mathe- 
matics, geography, drawing, and church music. The 
total number of the pupils is about 900, including those 
of the English and grammar schools of the city, which 
have been incorporated with this institution ; and about 
150 children of the poorer citizens, also, receive a gra- 
tuitous education in the establishment. In another 
part of the town is the Madras infant school, erected in 
1844, partly out of the Bell fund, and partly by means 
of a government grant. 

The only manufactures in the town are, that of golf 
balls, of which about 10,000 are annually made; and 
the weaving of linen for the manufacturers of Dundee. 
The TRADE of the port is very inconsiderable. Some 
vessels occasionally Ijring cargoes of timber from Nor- 
way and the Baltic, but when drawing more than four- 
teen feet of water, they are obliged to discharge part of 
their lading before they can enter the harbour. The 
number of vessels belonging to the port is eleven, of the 
aggregate burthen of 566 tons. In 184S, upwards of 
200 vessels arrived in the harbour ; and the revenues 
arising from shore-dues, levied by authority of the 
magistrates, have averaged, during the last few years, 
about £175 per annum. The harbour is formed chiefly 
51 



by the Kinness rivulet, and is difficult of access ; it was 
deepened in 1836, has since been improved by the 
erection of a new quay on the west side, and at spring 
tides can receive vessels of 300 tons. The estuary of 
the river Eden, on the northern confines of the parish, 
is navigable when the tide is nearly full. There are four- 
teen boats employed in the fisheries off the coast : the 
fish usually taken are, haddock, cod, ling, skate, halibut, 
and flounders, the produce of which, after supplying 
the home markets, is sent to Cupar ; and during the 
season, the greater part of the boats are employed in the 
herring-fishery off the coast of Caithness. In the Eden, 
as far as the tide extends, is a salmon-fishery ; but the 
produce is inconsiderable. The corn-market is held 
weekly on Monday, and is well supplied : a weekly 
market is also held for poultry, butter, eggs, and pro- 
visions of all kinds. There are fairs on the second 
Thursday in April, the 1st of August, and the 30th of 
November (all O. S.) : the first, anciently called the 
Senzie Fair, was formerly resorted to by merchants from 
various foreign ports ; the August fair is generally very 
large, and is much resorted to for the hiring of farm- 
servants, as well as for general business. The post-office 
has a good delivery ; and communication is maintained by 
good roads, and by the St. Andrew's branch of the Edin- 
burgh, Perth, and Dundee railway. There are branches 
in the city of the Bank of Scotland, the Clydesdale Bank- 
ing Company, and the Edinburgh and Leith Bank. 

The city received its first 
charter of incorporation from 
David I. in 1140, erecting it 
into a ROYAL burgh. Under 
this charter, confirmed by 
Malcolm IV. in 1153, the 
government is vested in a 
provost, four bailies, a dean of j: 
guild, a treasurer, and twenty- 
two councillors. There are 
seven incorporated guilds, 
viz., the smiths, wrights, 
bakers, shoemakers, tailors, 
weavers, and butchers, into one of which an individual 
must be admitted, previously to his becoming a burgess 
qualified to carry on trade ; the fees vary from £45 to 
£15 for strangers, from £20 to £12 for apprentices, 
and from £2. 10. to £1 for sons of freemen. The ma- 
gistrates exercise both civil and criminal jurisdiction 
within the burgh, the former to any amount, but the 
latter confined chiefly to petty offences. They ac- 
cordingly hold courts for the recovery of small debts on 
the first Monday in every month, and a bailie-court twice 
a week : in the former, the number of cases has greatly 
diminished since the establishment of the sheriff's small- 
debt court. A dean-of-guild court is held occasionally. 
This city, with the burghs of Anstruther Easter and 
Wester, Crail, Cupar, Kilrenny, and Pittenweem, returns 
a member to the imperial parliament; the number of 
qualified voters in St. Andrew's is about 280. The 
town-hall, an ancient building situated in Market-street, 
has been enlarged and repaired ; and the gaol, which is 
chiefly for the temporary confinement of petty delin- 
quents, is under good regulations. 

The PARISH is bounded on the east by the German 
Ocean, and is about ten miles in length and two miles in 
extreme breadth, comprising 10,300 acres, of which 

H2 




Second Seal of the Burgh. 



ANDR 



AND R 



9840 are arable, 345 woodland and plantations, and the 
remainder meadow, pasture, and waste. Its surface is 
generally level, except towards the east, where the hills 
of Balrymont have an elevation of 370 feet, and towards 
the west, in which direction the hill of Clatto rises to 
the height of 548 feet above the sea. The coast is about 
six miles in extent, and is bounded in some parts with 
rocks, of which the Maiden rock and those of Kinkell 
and Buddo are the most conspicuous. About a mile 
from the town is the cave of Kinkell, about eighty feet 
in length and twenty-five feet wide ; the roof, apparently 
of one entire stone, is about eleven feet in height, but 
inclining so much towards the east as to form an angle 
with the floor, which on the west side, about forty feet 
from the entrance, is covered with plants whose growth 
is promoted by water constantly trickling from the roof. 
The principal river is the Eden, over which is an ancient 
bridge of six arches, called the Gair or Guard bridge, 
built by Bishop Wardlaw, and wide enough only for one 
carriage to pass. There are also two small rivulets, of 
which the larger, after a course of nearly five miles, 
having turned several corn-mills, flows into the harbour, 
cm the south-east ; and the other falls into the sea at 
the north-west of the city. The soil is mostly fertile, 
and the lands are generally better adapted for tillage than 
for pasture, producing abundant crops of grain of all 
kinds ; the system of agriculture is improved, and many 
acres of land near the mouth of the Eden have been 
protected from inundation by embankment. The 
cattle, which were all of the Fifeshire breed, have been 
mixed with various others of recent introduction ; and 
the sheep, the number of which has been for some time 
gradually increasing, are principally of the Highland and 
Cheviot breeds. The chief substrata are, sandstone, in 
which are found thin seams of coal ; slate clay ; and 
clay ironstone : the sandstone is of a grey colour, very 
durable, and of good quality for building. The planta- 
tions are mainly around the houses of the landed pro- 
prietors, and in a thriving state ; they mostly consist of 
ash, oak, elm, beech, plane, and larch, with some Scotch 
firs, which are chiefly on the poorer soils. The annual 
value of real property in the parish is £'26,834. 

For ECCLESIASTICAL purposcs the parish is within the 
bounds of the presbytery of St. Andrew's and synod of 
Fife. The living is collegiate, consisting of two charges, 
of which the first is in the patronage of the Crown, and 
the second in that of the Magistrates and Council of the 
city. The minister of the first charge has a stipend of 
£439. 9. 4., with a glebe valued at £'23 per annum ; and 
the minister of the second charge has £171- 18. 2., with 
a manse, and a glebe valued at £16. 15. per annum. 
They officiate in the parish church and St. Mary's 
church, in the morning and afternoon alternately. The 
parish church, originally erected by Bishop Turgot, 
about the commencement of the twelfth century, an- 
ciently contained numerous chapels, which were sup- 
pressed at the Reformation : after the destruction of 
the cathedral, it was substituted as the cathedral of the 
archbishops of St. Andrew's. It was rebuilt in 1798, is 
a spacious structure with a tower and spire, and con- 
tains about 2200 sittings. In the great aisle is a 
splendid monument of white marble, erected to the 
memory of Archbishop Sharpe, by his son. Sir William 
Sharpe, in 1679. An episcopal chapel was built in 1825, 
at a cost of £1400 ; there are also places of worship for 
52 



members of the Free Church, the United Presbyterian 
Synod, Independents, and Baptists. 

Among the monuments of antiquity with which the 
city and its environs abound, are the remains of the 
church of St. Regulus, which is supposed by some to be 
the original structure erected by Hergustus, King of the 
Piets, on his conversion to Christianity. Others refer 
the remains to the seventh or eighth century, but they 
are rather to be assigned to the twelfth, when the build- 
ing is on good grounds supposed to have been raised by 
the zeal of Bishop Robert. They stand thirty-five yards 
south-east of the cathedral, and consist chiefly of the tower, 
108 feet high and twenty feet square at the base, formerly 
(though not, perhaps, originally) surmounted by a spire ; 
and the eastern portion of the church, thirty- one feet in 
length and twenty-five feet wide, having two windows 
on the north and two on the south side. Since the 
decay of the spire, the tower has been roofed with a 
platform of lead, to which there is an ascent by a spiral 
staircase within. On the east face of the tower are 
traces of its having been joined by three several roofs 
of different heights, with which the adjoining church 
was covered either at its erection or at three various 
times ; and from the summit is obtained an extensive 
prospect over the bay and the adjacent country. The 
ancient Cathedral, completed in 1318, was a magnificent 
cruciform structure, 375 feet in length, 180 feet across 
the transepts, and seventy-two feet in mean breadth, 
with a lofty central tower, of which nothing now 
remains but the bases of the columns whereon it was 
supported. It had also two turrets at the western, two 
at the eastern, extremity, and one at the end of the 
south transept, each 100 feet in height. Of this splendid 
structure, which was destroyed at the Reformation, only 
the eastern gable with its turrets, one of the turrets at 
the west, and portions of the walls, are now remaining ; 
the style of architecture is partly Norman, and partly of 
the early and later English, which latter is more pro- 
minent in the western portion of the building, from the 
greater richness of detail. The interior has been cleared, 
by order of Her Majesty's exchequer, from the accumu- 
lated heaps of rubbish with which it was for years 
obscured ; and such repairs have been made as were 
requisite for the preservation of the remains. Within 
the area of the cathedral precincts, which occupy a 
space of about eighteen acres, are also some portions of 
the famous Priory, or Augustine monastery, founded 
by Robert, Bishop of St. Andrew's, and other monastic 
buildings, in a state of irretrievable decay. The whole 
of the ecclesiastical remains above described were in- 
closed by a wall erected by Prior Hepburn, part of which 
is now destroyed : it is almost a mile in length, about 
twenty feet in height, and four feet thick, defended by 
thirteen turrets at irregular distances, and having three 
gateways. 

To the north-west of the Cathedral, on an eminence 
overlooking the sea, are the remains of the Castle, rebuilt 
by Bishop Trail about the close of the fourteenth century. 
After the murder of Cardinal Beaton in 1546, it was 
besieged and destroyed, but was subsequently rebuilt 
by Archbishop Hamilton, and continued to be the resi- 
dence of the prelates till the death of Adamson in 1591, 
after which period it was suffered to fall into decay. 
The only remains are part of the south side of the qua- 
drangle, with a handsome square tower, and a few other 



A ND R 



A ND R 



fragments. The ancient convent of Franciscan friars 
was demolished at the Reformation, and the site is now 
occupied by a part of Bell-street ; and the Dominican 
convent founded in 12*4 shared the same fate, with 
the exception of its chapel, a beautiful specimen of the 
early English style, within the grounds of Madras 
College, and for the preservation of which Dr. Bell, the 
founder, made due provision. On an eminence to the 
west of the harbour are the ruins of the Kirkheuch, a 
collegiate establishment for a provost and ten preben- 
daries, originally a Culdee college, said by Fordun to have 
been erected by Constantine II. in the ninth century, 
and of which Constantine III., after resigning his crown, 
became abbot. — See Leonard's, St. 

ANDREW'S, ST.,a parish, in thecounty of Orkney ; 
containing, exclusively of the former quoad sacra parish 
of Deerness, 9-6 inhabitants. This parish is situated on 
the eastern coast of the mainland, and is bounded on 
the north by the Firth of Shapinshay ; on the east by 
Deer Sound, which separates it from Deerness ; and 
on the west by the bay of Inganess. It is about six 
miles in extreme length and two in average breadth, 
and is connected with the peninsula of Deerness by a 
narrow isthmus less than a quarter of a mile in length. 
The coast is so singularly indented with bays and inlets 
from the sea, that the form of the parish cannot be well 
defined or its extent accurately ascertained ; it is gene- 
rally estimated at thirteen square miles, and the length 
of the line of coast at about eighteen miles. The surface, 
though generally low, is intersected by three nearly 
parallel and equidistant ridges of inconsiderable height, 
and diversified with hills of gentle acclivity, the highest 
of which has an elevation of 350 feet above the sea, 
and, towards the north-east, terminates in precipitous 
rocks, of strikingly romantic appearance. In one of 
these is a remarkable cavern, sixty feet in length and 
about thirty feet wide, communicating with the sea by 
a passage, through which a boat may pass at certain 
times of the tide. Deer Sound forms an excellent 
roadstead for vessels in boisterous weather ; it is about 
four miles long and two miles broad, has a depth of six 
or seven fathoms at the entrance, with a sandy bottom, 
and affords good anchorage for vessels of any size. 
Inganess bay, on the north-west coast, about two miles 
and a half in length and more than a mile in breadth, 
varies in depth from three to twelve fathoms, and affords 
good anchorage and shelter from all winds. Neither of 
these bays, however, is at present much frequented. 

The SOIL is extremely various in different parts of the 
parish, consisting of sand, loam, clay, and moss, alter- 
nating, and frequently found in combination. The num- 
ber of acres under tillage is about 2'200 ; the chief crops 
are oats and bear, with a small proportion of potatoes 
and turnips. The farming is in a very unimproved 
state ; some attempts have been made to drain the lands, 
but very little progress has hitherto been effected in the 
general system of agriculture. Little attention has been 
paid to the improvement of the breeds of live stock : the 
horses most in use are of the Norwegian kind called 
the Garron, strong and hardy, but seldom exceeding 
fourteen hands in height ; the black-cattle are small, 
thin, and ill-conditioned, from the scantiness of the 
pastures ; and the sheep, inferior to those of the Shet- 
land breed, are also of a coarser texture of wool, though 
the wool is of a much finer quality than that of the 
53 



sheep of the southern counties. The farm-buildings 
are generally of stones and clay, roofed with thatch ; 
and the few inclosures that are to be seen, are made by 
mounds of turf. The rocks are argillaceous sandstone 
and flag, apparently of the old red sandstone formation, 
alternated with trap ; and traces of calc-spar and pyrites 
of iron are found occasionally : slates of inferior quality, 
and also freestone, are obtained in some parts. 

The manufacture of kelp, formerly carried on here to 
a great extent, has of late greatly diminished ; and that 
of straw-plat, which was also extensive, has been almost 
discontinued. Fairs for cattle are held at Candlemas, 
Midsummer, and Martinmas. The fish generally found 
off the coast are, cod, haddocks, flounders, skate, thorn- 
backs, and coal-fish ; and crabs, lobsters, cockles, and 
other shell-fish are found on the shores ; but no regular 
fishery of these has been established. The herring- 
fishery was commenced in 1833, and is carried on to a 
very considerable extent; curing-houses have been 
erected, and there is every prospect of the formation 
of an extensive and lucrative herring station at this 
place. Communication with Kirkwall, and with other 
parts of the mainland, is maintained by good roads, of 
which that to Kirkwall is one of the best in the county. 
Ecclesiastically the parish is within the bounds of the 
presbytery of Kirkwall and synod of Orkney : the 
minister's stipend is about £208, with a manse, and 
a glebe valued at £14 per annum ; patron, the Earl 
of Zetland. The church, built in 1801, and enlarged 
in 1827, is a neat structure, conveniently situated, and 
containing 400 sittings. A Free Church place of worship 
has been erected here. The parochial school affords 
the general course of instruction; the master has a 
salary of £27, with a house and garden, and the fees 
average £9. There are some slight vestiges of ancient 
chapels ; and on the point of Inganess are traces of an 
old circular fort of stones and earth, commanding the 
entrance of Deer Sound. Several tumuli also remain, 
one of which, on the glebe land, is about 140 yards in 
circumference at the base, and twelve feet high ; another, 
nearly in the centre of the parish, is ninety yards in 
circumference and sixteen feet high, and a third, of 
much larger dimensions, is situated on the isthmus at 
the southern extremity of the parish. 

ANDREW'S (ST.) LHANBRYDE, a parish, in the 
county of Elgin, 3 miles (E.) from Elgin ; containing 
11*6 inhabitants, of whom 174 are in the village of 
Lhanbryde. The parish of St. Andrew's was anciently 
called the barony of Kill-ma-Lemnock. Lhanbryde, 
signifying in Gaelic " the church of St. Bridget," was 
united to it in 1*82, in addition to two other chapels 
that had been joined before the Reformation. The whole 
is three miles broad, from east to west, and about four 
long, from south to north ; exclusively of the Teindland, 
which is detached one mile distant on the south, and 
although generally considered as belonging to this parish, 
pertains to that of Elgin. St. Andrew's Lhanbryde 
contains about 5000 acres, of which four-fifths are 
under cultivation, and 650 acres are woodland. It is 
intersected by the great north road and the river Lossie. 
The isolated tract just named was originally the moor 
where the cattle were collected for drawing part of the 
teinds of both parishes, before they were converted into 
money ; from which circumstance it derives its name. 
The surface has in general the appearance of a plain, 



A ND R 



ANNA 



iQ which a series of low hills rise, apparently connected 
together, and all covered with corn, grass, or wood. In 
the spring season, the district is subject to a succession 
of storms, some of which are of the most violent, 
piercing, and blighting nature, equally injurious to 
vegetation and to animal life. There are three lakes 
on the confines of the parish : the largest of them, 
called Spynie, consisting of shallow water covering a 
deep rich mould, offered a temptation to reclaim it by 
drainage, which, a few years since, was prosecuted at an 
expense of nearly £10,000; but the operation has not 
yet fully succeeded. These lakes abound with trout, 
eels, and pike, and are visited by a great variety of wild 
ducks, and sometimes by wild geese and swans. The 
river Lossie, which, entering the parish at the north- 
west corner, divides it there from the town of Elgin, is 
subject to great floodings, and the grounds on its banks 
frequently suffer injury. Salmon, pike, trout, &c., are 
found in it, though not in any considerable quantity. 

The SOIL in general is sandy, yet fertile where the 
land is low and damp ; for, in this part of the county, 
the farmer has mostly to complain of drought, by which 
he loses much every summer. All kinds of grain are 
produced, in a larger quantity than is necessary for 
domestic use ; as well as the ordinary green crops and 
grasses : most of the farms are of considerable size, and 
occupied by gentlemen of skill, and with adequate 
capital. The whole extent of the parish is incumbent 
upon a bed of limestone belonging to the calciferous 
sandstone of the old red formation. About a mile 
eastward of the manse, a small section made by the 
burn of Lhanbryde exposes a bed of the inferior oolite 
kind ; and two miles north-west of the manse there 
appear, at Linksfield, Pitgaveny, &c., insulated patches 
of the Purbeck beds of the wealden, or fresh-water 
deposit, rarely met with in Scotland. Limestone is 
burnt for agricultural and building purposes, and the 
wealden clays and marls are applied to fertilizing the 
light sandy soil in the neighbourhood. Pitgaveny House 
is a handsome residence, with grounds tastefully laid 
out. There is a manufacture of malt in the parish ; 
and a cast-iron foundry, and a manufactory of woollen 
stuffs, are carried on, the latter of which employs about 
forty-five hands. A fair is held at Lhanbryde on the 
fourth Tuesday in October, for cattle, farming imple- 
ments, and similar commodities. The annual value of 
real property in the parish is £4104. 

For ecclesiastical purposes the parish is in the pres- 
bytery of Elgin and synod of Moray ; the patronage is 
vested in the Crown and the Earl of Moray alternately, 
and the minister's stipend is £"206. \9., with a manse. 
The church is a commodious building, and will hold 
between 400 and 500 persons. There is a parochial 
school, the master of which has a salary of £34. 14., 
with a house and garden, and about £1'2 fees, teaching 
the classics, mathematics, French, and Gaelic, together 
with the ordinary branches of education. About half 
a mile south of the manse is a small square fort of 
great antiquity, called the Tower of Coxton, which 
appears to have been of considerable strength. The 
neighbourhood affords numerous interesting specimens 
of fossils : many of the distinguishing fossils of the infe- 
rior oolite have been found in the bed exposed by the 
Lhanbryde burn ; at Linksfield a great variety also occurs, 
^nd of the greatest number and interest, in a dark- 
54 




Seal and Arms. 



coloured shale bed containing slabs of highly crystal- 
lized limestone. 

ANGUS. — See Forfarshire. 
ANNAN, a royal burgh, 
and a parish, in the county 
of Dumfries, 15 miles (E. 
S. E.) from Dumfries, and 79 , 
(S.) from Edinburgh ; contain- 
ing, with part of Brydekirk 
quoad sacra district, 54* 1 in- 
habitants, of whom 4409 are 
in the burgh. This place, 
which is of remote antiquity, * 
and supposed to have been 
a Roman station of some im- 
portance, was, after the de- 
parture of the Romans from Britain, occupied by the 
ancient inhabitants till their expulsion by the Northum- 
brian Saxons. After the dissolution of the Saxon hep- 
tarchy, the surrounding territories were annexed to the 
kingdom of Scotland, in the reign of Malcolm Canmore ; 
and the lands were subsequently granted to Robert de 
Bruce, Lord of Annandale, who built a castle for the 
defence of the town, in which he occasionally resided. 
From its proximity to the English border, the town was 
frequently plundered during the Border warfare, and 
sometimes burnt ; and it suffered greatly in the wars 
consequent on the disputed succession to the Scottish 
throne, in the reign of Edward L of England. In 1298 
the town and church were burnt by the English, but 
they were subsequently restored by Robert Bruce, who 
in 1306 ascended the throne of Scotland; and in 1332, 
Edward Baliol, after his coronation at Scone, repaired 
to the castle of Annan, whither he summoned the 
nobility of Scotland to pay him homage. During his 
continuance here, Archibald Douglas, the firm adherent 
of the Bruces, having collected a force of 1000 cavalry 
at Moffat, advanced to Annan during the night, and 
surprised and defeated his guards. Baliol was then 
induced to make his escape from the castle, and, hastily 
mounting a horse with neither saddle nor bridle, with 
considerable difficulty reached Carlisle, without a single 
attendant. 

In 1547, the town was plundered and burnt by the 
English under Wharton, accompanied by the Earl of 
Lennox ; on which occasion, as the castle was at that 
time dismantled, the inhabitants fortified the church, 
and for some time successfully resisted the invaders. 
In the two following years, the town and the surround- 
ing district were continually infested by the predatory 
incursions of the English borderers, against whose 
attacks the governor. Maxwell, levied a tax of £4000 
for repairing the castle, and placing it in a state of de- 
fence. During the regency of Mary of Guise, on the 
arrival of a large body of French soldiers in the river 
Clyde, the greater number of them were stationed in this 
town, for the protection of the neighbourhood ; and in 
1570 the castle was again destroyed by the English 
forces, under the Earl of Sussex. It was afterwards 
restored, and continued to be kept up as a border for- 
tress, till the union of the two crowns by the accession 
of James VI. At this time, the town was reduced to 
such a state of destitution that the inhabitants, unable 
to build a church, obtained from that monarch a grant 
of the castle for a place of public worship j and during 



ANNA 



ANNA 



the wars in the reign of Charles I. the town suffered so 
severely that, by way of compensation, the parliament, 
after the restoration of Charles II., granted to the cor- 
poration the privilege of collecting customs and other 
duties for their relief. The Highland army, on their 
retreat before the Duke of Cumberland, in the rebellion 
of 1745, encamped here on the night of the 2Sth of 
December, after having lost great numbers of their men, 
who were drowned while attempting to cross the rivers 
Esk and Eden. 

The TOWN is pleasantly situated on the eastern bank 
of the river Annan, two miles from its influx into Solway 
Firth. It consists of several spacious and regularly- 
formed streets, intersecting each other at right angles ; 
and is connected with the country on the opposite bank 
of the river, by an elegant stone bridge of three arches 
of sixty-five feet span, erected in 1S24, at an expense of 
£8000. From the beauty of the scenery in the environs, 
and the facilities of sea-bathing afforded by the Firth, 
Annan is a favourite place of residence. The houses are 
well built, and of handsome appearance, and in the im- 
mediate vicinity are numerous villas and mansions ; the 
streets are paved and lighted, and the inhabitants amply 
supplied with good water. A public library is supported 
by subscription. The spinning of cotton-yarn, which 
was introduced here in 1785, is still carried on, and 
affords employment to about 140 persons; the fac- 
tory, in which the most improved machinery is era- 
ployed, has been enlarged, and the quantity of yarn 
produced averages 4000 pounds per week. The usual 
handicraft trades requisite for the supply of the neigh- 
bourhood are pursued ; and there are numerous shops, 
amply stocked with various kinds of merchandise. A 
market is held on Thursday; and fairs, chiefly for hiring 
servants, are held annually on the first Thursdays in 
May and August, and the third Thursday in October. 
Facilities of inland communication are afforded by good 
roads, of which the turnpike-road from Dumfries to 
Carlisle passes through the town, and by cross-roads 
connected with the roads to Edinburgh and Glasgow. 
Great facility of intercourse is also presented by the 
Glasgow, Dumfries, and Carlisle railway, which here 
crosses the river Annan, and has a station. 

The trade of the port partly consists in the importa- 
tion of timber, deals, lath-wood, and tar, from America 
and the Baltic, in which two vessels are employed ; 
and about thirty vessels are engaged in the coasting- 
trade. The exports are chiefly grain for the Glasgow 
and Liverpool markets, and timber and freestone for 
various English ports. By the steamers that frequent 
the port, grain, wool, live stock, bacon, and hams, are 
sent to Liverpool and the adjacent towns of Lancashire, 
from which they bring manufactured goods ; and the 
other imports are mostly coal, slates, salt, herrings, 
grain, and iron, from Glasgow and places on the Eng- 
lish and Irish coasts. The number of vessels registered 
as belonging to the port, is thirty-four, of the aggregate 
burthen of 1639 tons. The port, which is under the 
custom-house of Dumfries, and is formed by an inlet 
from the river, has been much improved by the embank- 
ment of Hall meadow, on the Newby estate, by the 
proprietor, John Irving, Esq., at a cost of £3000, which 
has rendered the channel of sufficient depth for the 
safe anchorage of vessels of considerable burthen. Two 
piers have been erected by the proprietors of the 
65 



steamers frequenting the port, to which a road has bee^ 
formed from the burgh, by subscription, at a cost of 
£640 ; and a commodious inn with good stabling has 
been built near the jetties, within the embankment. 

The ancient records of the burgh having been de- 
stroyed during the frequent devastations of the town, a 
charter confirming all previous privileges, and reciting 
a charter of James V. in 1538, by which it had been 
erected into a royal burgh, was granted by James VI. 
in the year I6l2. Under this the government of the 
town is in the control of a provost, two bailies, and a 
number of councillors. There are no incorporated 
guilds, neither have the burgesses any exclusive privi- 
leges in trade ; the magistrates issue tickets of admission 
to the freedom of a burgess, without any fee. Courts 
are held both for civil and criminal cases ; but in neither 
do the magistrates exercise jurisdiction to any consider- 
able extent. The burgh is associated with Dumfries, 
Kirkcudbright, Lochmaben, and Sanquhar, in returning 
a member to the imperial parliament : the number of 
the constituency, parliamentary or municipal, is about 
170. A new prison or lock-up house, containing three 
cells, was erected some years ago in lieu of the old 
prison, which is dilapidated. 

The PARISH is about eight miles in extreme length, 
and varies from two and a half to four miles in breadth, 
comprising an area of 11,100 acres, of which about 1000 
are woodland and plantations, and the remainder arable, 
meadow, and pasture. The surface is generally level, 
with a slight inclination towards the south, and is inter- 
sected by three nearly parallel ridges of moderate height. 
Of these, the western ridge terminates in a conical hill 
called Woodcock-air, which has an elevation of 320 feet, 
and is completely covered with wood ; and on the coast 
are the Annan and Barnkirk hills, the former of which 
has an elevation of 256, and the latter of 120 feet above 
the sea. On the banks of the river, the soil is a rich 
alluvial deposit ; to the west, a clayey loam, alternated 
with gravel ; towards the east, a poor though deep loam ; 
and in the northern districts, mostly light, with tracts of 
moor and moss. The chief crops are grain of all kinds, 
and the most improved system of husbandry is generally 
in use ; the farm-buildings are substantial and well 
arranged. A large open common, of nearly 2000 acres, 
has been divided among the burgesses, and is now in- 
closed and cultivated. The pastures are rich : the cattle 
are of the Galloway breed, with a few of the Ayrshire 
and short-horned; there are few sheep reared, but by 
most of the farmers a considerable number of pigs are 
fed. Salmon, grilse, and trout are found in the Annan, 
and in the Firth ; and in the former are three fisheries, 
one the property of the burgh : the fish taken are, 
sparling, cod, haddock, sturgeon, turbot, soles, and 
skate. The annual value of real property in the parish 
is £13,297, including £5163 for the burgh. The 
principal substrata are, fine sandstone well adapted for 
building, limestone, and ironstone : several attempts 
have been made to discover coal, which arc supposed to 
have failed only from the borings not having been made 
to a sufficient depth. Mount Annan, the seat of the 
late Lieut. -Gen. Dirom, is a handsome mansion, situated 
on an eminence on the eastern bank of the Annan, about 
two miles from the town, commanding a fine view of 
the Firth and the northern counties of England ; the 
grounds are tastefully embellished, and the scenery is 



ANNA 



ANST 



picturesque. Warmanbie, on the east bank of the 
Annan, about half a mile to the south of Mount Annan, 
is an elegant mansion, erected within the last few years, 
and surrounded with pleasure-grounds ; and Northfield 
House, on the same river, three-quarters of a mile from 
Annan, is also a handsome mansion, lately enlarged. 

For ECCLESIASTICAL purposes the parish is within 
the bounds of the presbytery of Annan and synod of 
Dumfries : the minister's stipend is about £'250, with a 
manse, and a glebe valued at £30 per annum ; patron, 
J. J. Hope Johnstone, Esq., of Annandale. The church, 
erected in 1790, is a handsome structure with a spire, 
and contains 1190 sittings. A second church, situated 
on the south of the town, a very handsome building 
affording accommodation to 950 persons, was erected at 
a cost of £1400, and opened in August 1S42 : the 
stipend of the minister is about £"0. There are also 
places of worship for Episcopalians, the United Presby- 
terian Synod, members of the Free Church, Independ- 
ents, and Roman Catholics. The parochial school is 
attended by nearly 100 children ; the master has a 
salary of £31. 16. 6., with a house and garden, and the 
fees average about £40 per annum. The Annan 
academy, a building containing commodious class- 
rooms, was erected and endowed with the funds arising 
to the burgh from the division of the common land. It 
is under the direction of two masters, and is attended 
by 140 pupils. The masters have a salary of £54 each, 
and are obliged to employ an assistant teacher, who is 
paid from the fees ; the fees amount to about £160, and 
are equally divided between the masters, after paying 
the assistant. A sum of £5 is annually given from the 
endowment, for prizes. 

The only remains of the castle of Annan are, a small 
portion of one of the walls, incorporated in the town- 
hall, and a stone built into a wall of a small house, with 
this inscription, " Robert de Brus, Comte de Carrick, et 
seiniour de Val de Annand, 1300". About two miles 
from the town, and to the north of the Carlisle road, 
was a rude monument to the memory of the Scots who 
fell in a battle with the English, in which the latter were 
defeated with great slaughter ; among the English slain 
in the conflict were Sir INIarmaduke Langdale, Sir 
Philip Musgrave, and Lord Howard, whose remains 
were interred in the churchyard of Dornock. Close to 
the spot is a well in which the Scots washed their 
swords after the battle, and which has since been called 
the " Sword Well." Near the site of the castle is an 
artificial mound, supposed to have been a spot for 
administering justice during the times of the Saxons ; 
and further up the river is an elevated bank called 
Galabank, the place of execution. On Battle Hill was 
lately discovered a mineral spring of great strength, 
which has not yet been analysed. The celebrated Dr. 
Thomas Blacklock ; Hugh Clapperton, the African tra- 
veller ; and the late Rev. Edward Irving, minister of 
the Scottish church in Regent-square, London, were 
connected with this place. Dr. Blacklock, who was 
born at Annan in 1721, though early deprived of sight, 
was not deterred from prosecuting his studies for the 
Church, which he pursued for ten years at the university 
of E<linburgh. His acquirements in the Latin, Greek, 
and French languages were very considerable ; his know- 
ledge of the sciences intimate ; and his attainments in 
poetry remarkable, considering his disadvantages. 
56 











ANSTRUTHER EAST- 
ER, a burgh, sea-port, and 
parish, in the district of St. 
Andrew's, county of Fife, 
9 miles (S. S. E.) from St. 
Andrew's, and 351 (N. E. 
by X.) from Edinburgh ; 
containing 997 inhabitants. 
This place, which is of great 
antiquity, was in the reign 
of Malcolm IV. the property 
of William de Candela, Lord 
of Anstruther, whose sons 
assumed the name of their patrimonial inheritance, and 
whose descendants are the present proprietors. It ap- 
pears to have derived its early importance from its 
favourable situation on the Firth of Forth, and the se- 
curity of its harbour, in which, on the dispersion of the 
Spanish armada, the captain of one of the vessels found 
an asylum from the storm. The town is separated from 
the parish of Anstruther Wester by a small rivulet called 
the Dreel burn, over which is a bridge ; and consists of 
a long narrow street, on the road from the East Neuck 
of Fife to Kirkcaldy and Burntisland, extending along 
the margin of the Firth. It was first lighted with gas 
in 1841. 

The trade appears to have been formerly very consider- 
able ; a custom-house was erected here in 1710, and iu 
1827 the jurisdiction of the port was extended to St. 
Andrew's, Crail, Pittenweem, St. Monan's, and Elie. The 
amount of duties once averaged £1500 yearly; ship- 
building was carried on to a considerable extent, but after 
gradually declining for several years, it was at length en- 
tirely discontinued. The chief manufacture now pursued 
is that of leather. The trade consists principally in the 
fisheries, in curing and exporting the fish, in the exporta- 
tion of grain and other agricultural produce of the sur- 
rounding district, and in the importation of variousarticles 
of merchandise for the supply of the neighbourhood. 
Barrels are made for the package of herrings taken oflF 
the coast, and more than 40,000 barrels of them are 
annually sent from this port, properly cured, for export- 
ation. There is also a large brewery. The number of 
vessels belonging to the port is nine, of the aggregate 
burthen of 964 tons ; a steam-packet plies twice a week, 
and a sailing-packet once a week, between this place and 
Leith, and the Edinburgh and Dundee steamers touch 
at the port. The harbour is safe, and easy of access ; 
it is protected from the south-easterly winds by a natural 
breakwater, and an extensive and commodious quay. 
The custom-house, though an independent establishment, 
has, since the decline of the trade, communicated with 
that of Kirkcaldy. The market for corn and other pro- 
duce is held on Saturday. There are two banks. 

Anstruther Easter was incorporated by charter of 
James VI., under which the government was vested in 
three bailies, a treasurer, and fifteen councillors, assisted 
by a town-clerk and other officers. The bailies and 
treasurer are elected by the council, who are chosen by 
the registered £10 electors, under the provisions of the 
Burgh Reform act. The bailies are justices of the peace 
within the royalty of the burgh, which is co-extensive 
with the parish, and exercise both civil and criminal 
jurisdiction; since 1820, however, few cases have been 
tried in the civil court, and in the criminal court only 



A N ST 



A N WO 



twelve cases, chiefly petty misdemeanors : the town-clerk, 
who is appointed by the magistrates and council, is 
assessor in the bailies' court. By act of the 2nd and 
3rd of William IV., this burgh, together with Cupar, St. 
Andrew's, Anstruther Wester, Pittenweem, Crail, and 
Kilrenny, returns one member to the imperial parlia- 
ment ; the right of election is vested in the £10 voters, 
and St. Andrew's is the returning burgh. The town- 
hall is a neat building. 

The parish is situated at the head of a small bay in 
the Firth, and comprises about nine acres of land, for- 
merly included within the parish of Kilrenny, from 
which Anstruther Easter was separated in the year 1636. 
The annual value of real property in the parish is £1 II. 5. 
The incumbency is in the presbytery of St. Andrew's 
and synod of Fife : the minister's stipend is £1 90, inclu- 
sive of a glebe, with a manse built by the celebrated 
James Melville ; patron. Sir Wyndham Carmichael An- 
struther, Bart. The church, built by subscription in 
1634, and to which a spire was added about ten years 
after, was repaired in 1834, and is well adapted for 700 
persons. There are places of worship for Baptists, 
Independents, members of the Free Church, and the 
United Presbyterian Synod. The burgh school is attended 
by about ninety scholars ; the master has a salary of 
£5. 6. 8., and about £6.5 from fees, with a house rent- 
free. There are several friendly societies, one of which, 
called the "Sea Box Society", established in 1618, and 
incorporated by royal charter in 1784, has an income of 
£300, for the benefit of decayed ship-masters and seamen 
belonging to the port. The late distinguished Dr. 
Chalmers, and the late Professor Tennant of the univer- 
sity of St. Andrew's, were born here ; the former died in 
1847, and the latter in 1848. 

ANSTRUTHER WES- 
TER, a royal burgh, and a 
parish, in the district of St. 
Andrew's, county of Fife ; 
adjoining Anstruther Easter, 
and containing 449 inhabit- 
ants, of whom 339 are in the 
burgh. This place, the name 
of which in the Celtic lan- 
guage is supposed to be de- 
scriptive of the low marshy 
Burfh Seal ground on which the church 

" was built, is situated on the 

Firth of Forth, about six miles to the west of Fifeness. 
The people of Anstruther Wester, who, during the wars 
consequent on the attempt to establish episcopacy, 
were zealously devoted to the Presbyterian form of wor- 
ship, joined the Covenanters ; and many of them fell in 
the battle of Kilsyth. The town suffered much in 16*0 
by an inundation of the sea, which greatly injured the 
harbour, and undermined the foundations of many of 
the houses. A second inundation, tciwards the end of 
the same century, swept away the houses in the principal 
street, and destroyed nearly one-third of the town. 

The TOWN is separated from Anstruther Easter by the 
Dreel burn, over which a bridge was erected, at the joint 
expense of the two burghs, in 1801. It has been much 
benefited by the widening of the principal street, and 
the houses in that, and also in the other streets, have 
been considerably improved in their appearance. The 
streets are paved and macadamised, and the town is well 
Vol. I.— .57 




lighted, and supplied with water. Anstruther Wester 
was erected into a royal burgh by charter of James VI., 
in 1.587, and the government is vested in a provost, two 
bailies, a treasurer, and eleven councillors, elected an- 
nually ; the old council choosing the new council, and 
the latter electing the provost, bailies, and treasurer. 
The magistrates hold a court ; but few cases of civil ac- 
tions have been brought before them for some years ; 
and their jurisdiction in criminal cases seldom extends 
beyond petty offences, in deciding on which they are 
assisted by the town-clerli, who acts as assessor. The 
town-hall is a commodious building. This burgh is 
associated with Pittenweem, Anstruther Easter, Kilrenny, 
and others, in returning a member to the imperial par- 
liament. 

The PARISH is bounded on the south by the sea. It 
is about two miles in length, and of irregular form, 
comprising not more than 600 acres, of which, with the 
exception of a few acres of common pasture, the whole 
is arable. The soil, near the sea, is in some parts a rich 
black loam, and in others a light sand mixed with shells, 
both of which, though of no great depth, are very fertile ; 
in the higher grounds the soil is of lighter quality, inter- 
mixed with tracts of deep clay. The crops are grain of 
all kinds, with potatoes, turnips, and other green crops ; 
the lands are chiefly inclosed with stone dykes, but in 
some places with hedges of thorn. Salmon are caught 
on the shores of the burgh. The annual value of real 
property in the parish is £1998. Grangemuir, the seat 
of Lord William Douglas, of Dunino, a handsome and 
spacious mansion, built by the late Mr. Bruce, and 
greatly enlarged by the present proprietor, is pleasantly 
situated in grounds laid out with much taste. Ecclesi- 
astically the parish is in the presbytery of St. Andrew's 
and synod of Fife : the minister's stipend is £142. 5. 6., 
of which part is paid from the exchequer ; with a manse, 
and a glebe valued at £22. 10. per annum. Sir Wynd- 
ham Carmichael Anstruther, Bart., is patron of the 
incumbency. The church is a very ancient structure 
situated in the burgh, near the sea-shore. The parochial 
school is well conducted ; the master has a salary of 
£34. 4. 4., with £4 per annum from a bequest, a house 
and garden, and school-fees averaging about £75 per 
annum. There is a bursary in the United College of 
St. Andrew's, for a scholar from this parish, endowed 
by the late William Thomson, Esq., chief magistrate of 
the burgh. 

ANWOTH, a parish, in the stewartry of Kirk- 
cudbright; containing, with part of the burgh of 
barony of Gatehouse, 883 inhabitants. This parish is 
bounded on the south by Wigtown bay, on the south- 
east by the bay of Fleet, and on the east by the river 
Fleet, which separates it from the parish of Girthon. It 
is about six miles and a half in length, and two and 
a half in breadth, comprising an area of 10,500 acres, 
of which nearly one-half is arable, and the remainder 
meadow and pasture. The surface near the sea-shore i.t 
generally flat, and towards the north rises into hills of 
various elevation, of which the highest, Cairnharrah, 
partly in this parish but chiefly in that of Kirkmabreek, 
is 1100 feet above the sea, and commands an extensive 
view embracing the Isle of Man, part of Cumberland, 
and the coast of Ireland. The river Fleet, which has 
one of its sources in a small loch of that name, in the 
parish of Girthon, after receiving various tributary 



A PPL 



APPL 



streams, falls into the bay of Fleet ; from which it is 
navigable, for about three miles, to Gatehouse. Salmon, 
sea-trout, and flounders are found in this river, but not 
in any great quantity. 

The soil on the coast is dry and fertile, and in other 
parts thin and light. It has been much improved by the 
use of lime, which is brought from Cumberland at a 
moderate cost ; marl, also, is found in the parish, and a 
great abundance of shells on the sea-shore, which are 
used for manure. The chief crops are oats and barley, 
with some wheat, and potatoes, of which large quanti- 
ties are sent to the ports on the Clyde, and to White- 
haven and Liverpool. The system of agriculture has 
been greatly improved ; the lands have been well 
inclosed, and the farm-houses and offices are in general 
substantially built. The cattle are mostly of the black 
native breed, and the sheep, for which the moorlands 
afford good pasture, are principally of the black-faced 
kind ; considerable numbers of both are reared in the 
parish, and sent to the English markets. There are 
some large tracts of ancient wood on the banks of the 
river, and in the grounds of the principal landed pro- 
prietors ; the plantations, which are of oak, ash, birch, 
and fir, are also extensive, and in a thriving state. The 
annual value of real property in the parish is £3*17. 
The principal mansions are, Cardoness, which has been 
rebuilt within the last twenty or thirty years ; and Ard- 
wall and Rusco, which are of older date. The road from 
Carlisle to Port-Patrick passes along the southern border 
of the parish ; and the river Fleet, the navigation of 
which has been greatly facilitated by the construction of 
a canal by the Murrays of Broughton, affords facility for 
coasting-vessels bringing supplies of coal, lime, and 
various kinds of merchandise, and for the transport of 
cattle, sheep, and agricultural produce. 

Ecclesiastically the parish is within the bounds of the 
presbytery of Kirkcudbright, and synod of Galloway : 
the minister's stipend is £230. 15. 2|., with a manse, 
and a glebe valued at £10 per annum ; patron. Sir David 
Ma.Kwell, Bart. Anwoth church, erected in 1826, at a 
cost of nearly £1200, is a neat structure, with a tower at 
the west end surmounted by a spire, and contains 400 
sittings. There is a small place of worship in the parish 
for dissenters. The parochial school is well attended ; 
the master has a salary of £34. 4. 4., with a house and 
garden, and the fees average £20 per annum. The only 
remains of antiquity are the Tower of Rusco and the 
Castle of Cardoness, both on the river Fleet, the former 
two miles above where it ceases to be navigable, and the 
latter beautifully situated near its mouth ; they are 
quadrilateral structures, apparently of great strength, 
but nothing is known of their origin or history. On the 
summit of a hill to the south-east of the church are the 
remains of a vitrified fort, 300 feet above the level of the 
sea, and defended, where most easily accessible, by a 
double fosse : near the spot have been found several silver 
coins of Elizabeth, and one of Edward VI. Samuel Ru- 
therford, author of the Letters, was minister of Anwoth. 

APPIN, county of Argyll. — See Lismore. 

APPLECROSS, a parish, in the county of Ross and 
Cromarty, 18 miles (W.) from Lochcarron ; containing, 
with the island of Crohn, and part of Shieldag quoad 
sacra district, 286 1 inhabitants. It was originally called 
Comaraich (a Gaelic word signifying protection) on 
account of the refuge afforded to the oppressed and to 
5S 



criminals, by a religious establishment that existed here 
in ancient times. The present name is of modern date, 
having been given to the place by the proprietor of the 
estate upon its erection into a parish, at which time five 
apple-trees were planted cross-ways in his garden. This 
parish, which formed part of that of Lochcarron till 1*26, 
stretches along the shore of the Atlantic Ocean, and is 
distributed into the three large portions or districts of 
Applecross, properly so called ; Lochs, consisting of 
Torridon, Shieldag, &c. ; and Kishorn. It is of irregular 
form, twenty miles long, and as many miles in breadth, 
containing about 1800 acres cultivated or occasionally in 
tillage, about 400 acres in wood, and 400 or 500 waste, 
besides an immense tract of pasture in a natural state. 
The surface, in its general appearance, is hilly and rug- 
ged, consisting of rocky elevations covered with heather 
and wild grass ; and the climate, though not unhealthy, 
is foggy, and very rainy. 

The soil is light and gravelly, and produces good crops 
of oats, barley, and potatoes ; the two former are grown 
to the value of £3000 annually, and potatoes and tur- 
nips yield about £1500. The farms are of small extent, 
averaging in rent not more than £6 or £7 each. There 
are very few inclosures, and though some advances have 
been made in the draining and improvement of land, the 
agricultural state is low, the parish being compelled fre- 
quently to import grain and potatoes for home consump- 
tion. The annual value of real property in the parish is 
£2488. The rocks consist of red sandstone, gneiss, and 
quartz ; at Applecross and Kishorn are found large 
quantities of limestone, and at the latter place is also a 
copper-mine, which, when worked some time since, pro- 
duced a fine rich ore. The only mansion of note is on 
the estate of Applecross ; it is a large ancient building, 
with some elegant modern additions, and surrounded by 
about thirty acres of thriving plantation. At Poldown, 
Shieldag, and Torridon are convenient harbours, to 
which there belong about twenty-one vessels of from 
twenty to fifty tons' burthen each, employed in the fish- 
ing and coasting trade. Most of the population are in 
some way engaged in the herring-fishery, which in cer- 
tain seasons is very profitable ; and at Torridon and 
Balgie are salmon-fisheries that let at £15 or £16. 

Ecclesiastically the parish is in the presbytery of 
Lochcarron and synod of Glenelg : the Crown is patron ; 
the minister's stipend is £158. 6. 5., partly paid from 
the exchequer, and there is a manse, built in 1796, with 
a glebe valued at £12 per annum. The parochial church, 
which was erected in 1817, is in good repair, and ac- 
commodates 600 persons. At Shieldag, twelve miles 
distant, is a government church, built in 1827. There 
is a parochial school, the master of w-hich has a salary 
of £27, with about £8 fees, and teaches the classics, 
mathematics, Gaelic, and the ordinary branches of edu- 
cation. Four schools are supported by societies for pro- 
moting education. Many fossils have been found. 

APPLEGARTH and SIBBALDBIE, a united parish, 
in the district of Annand.\le, county of Dumfries, 
2 miles (N. W. by N.) from Lockerbie ; containing, with 
the chapelry of Dinwoodie, 857 inhabitants. The term 
Applegarth is compounded of the words Apple and 
Garth ; the latter signifies in the Celtic language an 
" inclosure ", and both conjoined are invariably taken 
for an " apple inclosure " or " orchard". Bie, or bye, 
which terminates the name Sibbaldbie, signifies in the 



A P PL 



A R B E 



Saxon a " dwelling-place", and the entire name is 
thought to have been applied to the district from its 
having been the residence of Sibbalil. The annexation 
of Sibbaldbie took place in 1609; and the chapelry of 
Dinwoodie, which some suppose to have been a distinct 
parish, was also attached to Applegarth : it is said to 
have belonged to the Knights Templars, who had large 
possessions in Annandale. Chalmers, on the authority 
of the Royal Wardrobe accounts, states that on the 7th 
July, 1300, Edward I., who was then at Applegarth, on 
his way to the siege of Caerlaverock, made an oblation 
of seven shillings at St. Nicholas' altar, in the parish 
church here, and another oblation of a like sum at the 
altar of St. Thomas ii Becket. A large chest was found 
some years ago not very far from the manse, which is 
conjectured to have been part of the baggage belonging 
to Edward, who remained for several days at Apple- 
garth, waiting for his equipage. An ancient thorn 
called the " Albie Thorn", still standing in a field, with- 
in 500 yards of the church, is said to have been planted 
on the spot where Bell of Albie fell, while in pursuit of 
the Maxwells, after the battle of Dryfe-sands, in the 
year 1593. 

The parish contains 11,700 acres, and is situated in 
that part of the shire formerly called the stewartry of 
Annandale. Its surface is diversified by two principal 
ranges of hills, one on each side of the river Dryfe, 
which runs from the north-east in a southern direction ; 
the highest part of the western range, Dinwoodie hill, 
rises 736 feet above the sea, and Adder Law, in the 
eastern range, attains an elevation of 638 feet. In addi- 
tion to its being intersected by the Dryfe, the parish is 
washed on its eastern boundary by the Corrie water, 
and on its western by the river Annan, the banks of 
which streams are in many parts precipitous, and 
clothed with brushwood and plantations. Among the 
trees, comprising most of those common to the country, 
the larch, spruce, and Scotch fir, particularly the larch, 
after flourishing for twelve or fourteen years, exhibit 
symptoms of decay, and gradually pine away, in con- 
sequence of their roots having come into contact with 
the sandstone rock and gravel. In the rivers and their 
several tributary streams, eels, pike, trout, and many 
smaller fish are numerous : and in the Annan, salmon 
of good quality are plentiful. 

The soil is in general fertile. Between the banks of 
the Annan and the Dryfe, the land is alluvial, and inter- 
spersed with strata of river gravel ; the soil on the 
declivity of the western range is in some parts sharp 
and good, but in many places has a wet and tilly sub- 
stratum, and on the higher portions is to be found a 
black moory earth. Of the entire area, 7392 acres are 
either cultivated or occasionally in tillage ; 3777 are 
waste, or in permanent pasture, including sixty or 
seventy acres of moss ; 331 are in wood, and from 150 
to 200 are incurably barren. Among the white crops, 
wheat, which was formerly unknown in the parish, is 
now an important article of produce ; all kinds of green 
crops, also, are raised, of good quality, including con- 
siderable quantities of turnips and potatoes. An ap- 
proved system of husbandry is followed, but agriculture 
has not been carried to the same perfection as in some 
other districts, chiefly from a deficiency in manuring 
and draining, and from exhausting the soil by too 
severe a course of cropping. Considerable improve- 
59 



ments have been made, durmg the present century, in 
the erection of cottages. The breed of black-cattle has 
been particularly attended to, and in symmetry and 
general excellence now rivals the best specimens of the 
best districts. The annual value of real property in the 
parish is £6850. The prevailing rock is the old red 
sandstone, and the western ridge is interspersed with 
large nodules of white and greenish whinstone, while on 
the summit there are greywacke slate and greenstone, 
diversified by numerous veins of quartz. The seats are, 
Jardine Hall, built in 1814, and the mansion of Hook, 
built in 1806 : the former edifice is of red sandstone, 
cut from a quarry on Corncockle muir, in Lochmaben 
parish ; the latter is chiefly of greenstone, from the bed 
of the river Dryfe. In this parish the inhabitants are 
altogether of the agricultural class, with the exception 
of a few tradesmen residing chiefly in the small village 
of Milnhouse. The road from Glasgow to Carlisle, and 
that from Dumfries across Annandale to Eskdale, both 
run through the parish : there are two good bridges over 
the Annan, one of which is on the Glasgow line, and 
the other on the road from Dumfries. Great facility of 
intercourse is also afforded by the Caledonian railway, 
which has a station in the parish. 

Ecclesiastically the parish is within the bounds of 
the presbytery of Lochmaben and synod of Dumfries ; 
patrons. Sir William Jardine, Bart., of Applegarth, and 
John James Hope Johnstone, Esq., of Annandale. The 
stipend averages nearly £250, and there is a manse, 
built in 1805, with a glebe of six acres and a half of 
good land. The church, a plain substantial structure, 
built in 1760, is inconveniently situated at a distance of 
five or six miles from some of the population ; it has 
been at different times repaired and enlarged, and ac- 
commodates 380 persons with sittings. There are two 
parochial schools, in which Greek, Latin, French, and 
geometry are taught, with all the ordinary branches of 
education : the master of one school has a house and 
garden, with a salary of £34. 5., and about £25 fees ; 
the other master has the same accommodation, with a 
salary of £17. 2. 6., and £15 fees. Roman stations are 
visible in several places, and a Roman road traverses 
the parish in a northern direction. Part of the ruins 
still remain of the church of Sibbaldbie ; and in Apple- 
garth churchyard is a very ancient ash-tree, measuring 
fourteen feet in girth at a yard from the ground, and 
called the " Gorget Tree " from having been used as a 
pillory : the iron staples which held the collar or gorget 
were visible not many years ago. 

APPLETREE-HALL, a village, in the parish of 
Wilton, Hawick district of the county of Roxburgh, 
25 miles (N. N. E.) from Hawick ; containing 75 inha- 
bitants. It is situated in the north-eastern part of the 
parish, east of the road from Hawick to Selkirk. 

ARBEADIE, a village, in the parish of Banchory- 
Ternan, county of Kincardine ; containing 301 inha- 
bitants. This village, which is of very recent origin, 
takes its name from the estate on which it has been 
built, and appears to have been erected to supply the 
want of the ancient village of Banchory. A post-office 
has been established ; there are three good inns, and, 
in the immediate vicinity, a branch of the Bank of 
Scotland, and a small lock-up house for the temporary 
confinement of petty offenders. The Independents have 
a place of worship. 

12 



A R B I 



A R B R 



ARBIRLOT, a parish, in the county of Forfar, 2^ 
miles (W.) from Arbroath ; containing, with the village 
of Bonnington, 1045 inhabitants, of whom 77 are in the 
village of Arbirlot. This place appears to have derived 
its name, a contraction of Aber-Elliot, from the river 
Elliot, which runs into the sea a little below its eastern 
boundar}'. The earliest account connected with its his- 
tory, states, that a member of the ancient family of 
Ochterlony originally owned the castle of Kelly, in the 
parish. This family was succeeded by the Irvines, who 
also held the castle, which afterwards came into the 
possession of the Maule family, now sole proprietors of 
Arbirlot. The parish is about four miles long and three 
broad, and contains .5050 acres, of which 4200 are cul- 
tivated or occasionally under tillage, 800 waste, and 
fifty wood. It is intersected by the Arbroath and 
Dundee road and railway, and is bounded on the south 
by the sea, which at this parish has an extent of coast 
nearly three miles long, level and sandy, and much fre- 
quented in the summer for the purpose of bathing. In 
the interior, also, much of the surface is low and flat; 
and the rest gradually rises to a gentle acclivity. There 
is no part deserving of particular notice, e.xcept the im- 
mediate vicinity of the ancient castle of Kelly, which is 
situated on the banlt of the Elliot, and is in good pre- 
servation, and surrounded by scenery that is highly 
picturesque. The Elliot, a stream of inconsiderable 
size but of great beauty, rises in Ditty Moss, in the 
parish of Carraylie, and pursuing a south-eastern course 
for a few miles, through a deep and romantic glen, falls 
into the sea in the east part of the parish. It has nu- 
merous mills erected upon it, and formerly abounded in 
salmon, but since the construction of some dam-dykes, 
these fish have forsaken it : the stream is still frequented 
by good trout. There is a chalybeate spring in the 
parish, of some little celebrity, but it is not now so much 
frequented as formerly. 

The soil in the lower parts consists chiefly of a light 
productive loam, but on the higher portions is damp 
and mossy, and in some places mixed with clay ; the 
subsoil is a gravelly clay : on the northern boundary 
is an extensive muir. The average annual produce is 
valued at £15,000, chiefly derived from crops of oats, 
barley, hay, and potatoes ; the annual value of real 
property in the parish is £6395. The only mansion- 
house is the seat of Kelly, situated in the vicinity of the 
old castle. A small fair is held once a j'ear. Near the 
mouth of the river, at Wormy-hills, is an establishment 
for bleaching yarns, and on the same stream are three 
meal-mills and a flax-mill. There is also a meal-mill 
on a small river which forms the boundary line between 
this parish and Panbride. Ecclesiastically Arbirlot is 
within the bounds of the presbytery of Arbroath and 
synod of Angus and Mearns ; the patronage is vested 
in the Crown, and the minister's stipend is £184. 4. 5., 
in addition to which he has a manse, and a glebe of the 
annual value of £6. The church, rebuilt in 1832, is an 
elegant structure, situated on the bank of the Elliot, and 
containing about 640 sittings. A place of worship has 
been erected for members of the Free Church. There 
is a parochial school, the master of which has a salary 
i)f £34. 4., and £20 fees, &;c., with a house and garden. 
A savings' bank managed by the minister, and a paro- 
chial hbrary, consisting of above 500 volumes, kept in 
the manse, are also supported. 
60 




Seal and Arms. 



ARBROATH, or Aber- 
BROTHOCK, a thriving sea- 
port, a burgh, and parish, 
in the county of Forf.\r, 
15 miles (S. E. by E.) from 
Forfar, and 60 (N. N. E.) 
from Edinburgh ; the parish 
containing, with the former 
cjuoad sacra parish of Abbey, 
and part of the quoad sacra 
parish of Ladyloan, 8707 
inhabitants, of whom 7218 
are in the burgh. Within 
the parliamentary boundary is a population of 14,591. 
This place derives its name (originally Aberbrothock, of 
which its present appellation is a contraction) from its 
situation at the mouth of the river Brothock, which 
falls into the German Ocean. An abbey was founded 
here in the year 1178, by William the Lion, King of 
Scotland, for monks of the Tyronensian order, brought 
from the abbey of Kelso, and was dedicated to St. Thomas 
of Canterbury, in honour of the Archbishop Thomas k 
Becket. This establishment was amply endowed by 
the founder and his successors, and its abbots had a 
seat in parliament. A general assembly of the estates 
of Scotland was held in the abbey in 1320, when a 
declaration was drawn up, in strong and emphatic terms, 
asserting the independence of the Scottish Church of 
the Roman see, and renouncing aU subjection to the 
interference of the pope. In 1445, a battle took place 
here between the retainers of the families of Lindsay 
and Ogilvie, which originated in a contest concerning 
the election of a bailie of the burgh, and in which the 
chieftains on both sides were killed, with nearly 500 of 
their dependents. In the sixteenth century, the abbey 
was almost destroyed by Ochterlonj', a chieftain in the 
neighbourhood, who, having quarrelled with the monks, 
set fire to the buildings ; and at the Dissolution, which 
followed a few years afterwards, this once extensive pile 
was little more than a wide heap of scattered ruins. 
The revenues were returned at £2483. 5. in money, 
with about 340 chalders of grain, and the patronage of 
thirty-four parish churches ; and the site and lands 
belonging to the abbey were, after its dissolution, erected 
into a temporal lordship, in favour of Claude Hamilton, 
third son of the Duke of Chatelherault, who was created 
Lord Aberbrothock, which still forms one of the inferior 
titles of the Duke of Hamilton. In 1781, the town was 
menaced by the commander of a French privateer, who 
approached the port, and commenced a brisk firing for 
a short time, which was succeeded by his sending a flag 
of truce, demanding from the magistrates and inha- 
bitants the payment of £30,000 as a ransom for the 
town, which, on their refusal, he threatened to set on 
fire. The authorities of the place obtained by parley a 
short interval, in which having armed several of the 
inhabitants, they set him at defiance, and he left the 
coast, making prizes of some small craft that he met 
with in his retreat. A battery was soon afterwards 
erected in front of the harbour, to protect the town 
from similar insult, and was kept up till the termination 
of the last war, when it was dismantled. 

The TOWN is situated at the mouth and on each side 
of the river Brothock, and from being a place of scanty 
population and inconsiderable trade has within the last 



A R B R 



A R B R 



half century become a thriving and populous burgh, the 
seat of extensive manufactures, and remarkable for the 
spirit and enterprise of its inhabitants. Its situation is 
irregular, but striking and picturesque. The High-street, 
reaching from the sea to beyond the abbey ruins, is 
spacious and handsome, especially at the market-place 
or cross, where the town-house, guildhall, trades-hall, 
and Commercial Bank are conspicuous objects. Paral- 
lel to it are other streets both to the east and west, 
which are intersected by minor streets extending over a 
large area, and running at several points into the parish 
of St. Vigean's, in which a considerable portion of the 
suburbs is situated. Fronting the harbour, on the west 
side of the Brothock, is a handsome range of houses, 
forming part of Ladyloan-street, which, stretching west- 
ward, is adorned on the north by Ladyloan church, a 
neat modern erection, and on the south or seaward side 
by the signal tower of the Bell-rock lighthouse, and the 
well-built station of the Dundee railway. Many of the 
private houses are elegant and substantial, and those in 
the suburbs, being embellished with gardens and shrub- 
beries, produce a pleasing effect. All the houses are 
built of stone obtained from quarries in the neighbour- 
hood, and the quarries are also celebrated for the pro- 
duction of a superior description of pavement, of which 
immense quantities are annually shipped for both home 
and foreign markets, under the well-known denomina- 
tion of Arbroath pavement. The abundance of this 
article is visible in the excellent footways that are found 
here, even in the most obscure streets ; the care of these 
and of all other police matters, being committed to a 
board elected by the £10 parliamentary voters. Ar- 
broath is lighted with gas, manufactured by a joint- 
stock company. Water is chiefly derived from an ex- 
cellent spring in Boulzie hill, an eminence at the head 
of Hill-street, and from private wells : the supply is 
rather deficient, but as the town becomes larger, means 
will no doubt be taken for obtaining ampler supplies of 
this necessary of life. The town is clean, airy, and 
healthy, but cold in spring from the prevalence of 
easterly winds, which blow keenly from the sea. 

Westward of Arbroath is the spacious field forming 
the public common, accessible at all times to the citizens 
for pleasure and recreation : the national game of golf 
is occasionally played here, but not with the spirit ob- 
servable in some of the other Scottish burghs, and 
cricket is unknown. This common, as well as all the low 
ground to the west, the site of part of the town itself, 
and to the east of it, has evidently been reclaimed from 
the sea ; the rising ground all along the coast, at various 
distances from the present high-water mark, exhibiting 
clear indications of having at some remote period formed 
the boundary of the ocean. At the common this geo- 
logical feature is distinctly perceptible, as an elevation 
varying from twenty to fifty feet gives to the spot the 
respective appellations of high common and low com- 
mon. Along the ridge is a walk commanding a fine 
view of the bay, the Tay estuary, and the east coast of 
Fife. Eastward of the town, the Boulzie hill forms an 
attractive object, the view from it of the sea, the town, 
and neighbouring country, being of great interest and 
extent. A footpath leads thence along the edge of the 
cliffs to Seaton-den, a distance of half a mile, where the 
elevated ground assumes a bolder aspect, and, projecting 
further seaward, presents for miles a most striking and 
61 



picturesque line of coast. Here the rocks, in many 
parts lofty and precipitous, assume strange and fantastic 
shapes ; deep gullies and dark subterranean caves as- 
tonish the spectator, and such is the character of the 
coast for six miles, terminating in the bold promontory 
of Redhead, a rocky bulwark some hundreds of feet 
high. Redhead is in the parish of Inverkeillor, which 
is separated from that of Arbroath by St. Vigean's 
parish. 

There is a public subscription library in the town, 
supported by a proprietary of £5 shareholders, in which 
is a collection of about 4000 volumes on subjects of 
general literature ; and smaller libraries, of raisceilaneous 
and theological works, are attached to the quoad sacra 
churches. A mechanics' library, now containing about 
400 volumes, was established in 1824, and connected 
with it is a mechanics' institution, or school of arts, for 
which an appropriate building has been erected, con- 
taining a reading-room well supplied with periodicals 
and newspapers. Besides these institutions, there are 
two public reading-rooms, and one belonging to the 
shipping interest ; also three masonic lodges, and a 
gardeners' society. A museum, likewise, has been es- 
tablished, which, though comparatively in its infancy, 
already boasts of a fair collection of the antiques and 
curiosities usual in such a repository. 

Arbroath has long been famous for its hand-loom 
manufactures of canvas and linens, and in this respect 
it still retains its deservedly high character, these arti- 
cles being still manufactured and exported to a large 
extent : a portion of the sailcloth required for the royal 
navy is annually supplied from this place. The spinning 
of flax and tow is also carried on largely ; about 7000 
tons of flax are on an average imported yearly from 
Riga, Petersburgh, Memel, and other ports in the Baltic ; 
and this, with the supplies derived from other quarters, 
is hackled, and spun into yarns of various sizes from a 
pound and a half per spindle upwards. The num- 
ber of spinning mills or factories in the town and 
suburbs is nineteen, driven by steam-engines of 350- 
horse power in the aggregate : nearly all of them are 
within the parish of St. Vigean's. These mills, with 
the bleaching, mill-washing, manufacturing, and other 
processes carried on, give employment to several thou- 
sand persons of both sexes, from thirteen years of age 
upwards. After supplying the demand on the spot, the 
surplus yarns are sent to the neighbouring towns of 
Forfar, Kirriemuir, and Brechin, where manufacturing 
is carried on to a large extent : a considerable quantity 
of linen yarns has also, of late years, been exported to 
France. Thus Arbroath may be considered, in reference 
to its size, as one of the most flourishing scats of the 
linen manufacture in Scotland ; that manufacture, in- 
deed, forming the staple trade of the place. There are 
also such works as cast-metal foundries, tan- works, 
bone-mills, rope-works, &c., largely carried on ; and 
ship-building is pursued to a considerable extent. The 
Arbroath and Forfar railway, as originally constructed, 
was opened to the public in January 1839; the hne is 
about fifteen miles in length, and the principal station is 
a handsome building with every requisite accommodation. 
The Dundee and Arbroath railway, along the coast, has 
also its terminal station here ; it is about seventeen 
miles long, and is connected with the Arbroath and 
Forfar line. The market is ou Saturday, and is supplied 



ARB II 



AR BR 



with grain of all kinds. Fairs are held on the last 
Saturday in January, the first Saturday after the old 
term of Whit- Sunday, on the ISth of July, and the first 
Saturday after Martinmas : the fair on the 18th of July 
is denominated St. Thomas's market, and on the day 
following is what is called the Old market, both having 
been holidays from time immemorial. 

Arbroath was formerly a creek to the port of Mon- 
trose, but in consequence of its growing importance as 
a maritime town, and its increasing manufactures, the 
lords of the treasury were lately pleased to entertain a 
representation made by the citizens, and raise the place 
to the status of an independent port. There is now a 
regular establishment of officers, consisting of a col- 
lector, comptroller, and the requisite complement of 
subordinates. The principal imports, besides flax, are 
hides, bark, bones, timber, hemp, and occasionally grain, 
to which was latterly added guano direct from Ichoboe. 
A large coasting-trade is also carried on. In the Lon- 
don trade alone three first-rate clippers are employed ; 
with Newcastle a large intercourse is constantly kept 
up in coal and goods, and there are regular traders also 
to Leith and Glasgow, besides which a number of small 
craft are employed in bringing coal, lime, and other 
articles, and in carrying away agricultural produce, 
pavement, &c. There are at present registered as be- 
longing to the port 106 vessels of the aggregate burthen 
of 10,898 tons. In a recent year, the number of ships 
reported inwards from foreign parts was 101; the 
amount of duties was £8725. 

The HARBOUR appears to have been first constructed 
in 1394, by the inhabitants, in conjunction with the 
abbot, who contributed the greater portion of the ex- 
pense, in consideration of a certain duty to be paid 
annually from the lands of the burgh. A pier of wood 
was erected at the extremity of the High-street, which, 
being found ill-adapted to the purpose, was abandoned 
in 1/25, and the harbour removed to the western side 
of the river, where a basin faced with stone was con- 
structed, 124 yards in length and eighty yards in 
breadth, and a substantial pier of stone built. Great as 
this improvement was, however, it was found in the 
course of another century to afford very inadequate 
accommodation to the trade and shipping of the place ; 
and the inhabitants, alive to the necessity of removing 
so serious a drawback to the prosperity of the town, 
obtained an act of parliament in 1839 for enlarging and 
improving the harbour. A spacious new tidal harbour 
was accordingly formed, to the south and east of the 
old one, at an expense exceeding £50,000. A sea-wall 
of great length and solidity, constructed of ponderous 
blocks of hewn stone tremailed together, defends the 
harbour from the German Ocean, which in easterly 
gales drives ashore with much violence. At the western 
extremity, or return-head, as it is called, of this mural 
bulwark, is a lighthouse of the improved construction 
for directing vessels into the harbour at night, a signal- 
post with balls and flag serving the same purpose 
during the day. On the opposite side is a breakwater 
composed of the same massive materials, and between 
this and the return-head is the entrance to the harbour, 
which is calculated to admit ships of from ten to fifteen 
feet draught of water, according to the state of the tides. 
The bar, which consists of silt and soft sandstone, is 
not considered as a formidable obstacle to the entrance 
62 



of ships. On each side of it is a range of low rocks, in 
the direction of which some succeeding generation will 
doubtless erect another sea-wall and breakwater, thus 
annihilating the bar. The harbour is under the ma- 
nagement of a board of trustees elected annually under 
the provisions of the above-mentioned act of parliament. 
The revenue in 1844 amounted to upwards of £3000, 
shewing a vast increase in the trade of the port, the 
amount in 1819 having been only £679- In connexion 
with the harbour, and under the same management, is 
a patent-slip, well adapted for the repairing of vessels. 

At a distance of twelve miles from the shore, but 
opposite to the harbour, is the Bell Rock Lighthouse, 
erected under an act of parliament obtained in 1806, 
and completed in 1811. It is built upon a rock about 
427 feet in length, and 230 feet in breadth, at low water, 
and rising to an average height of about four feet from 
the sea. The lighthouse is of circular form. The two 
lower courses of masonry, all of which are dove-tailed, 
are sunk into the rock. The diameter at the base is 
forty-two feet, gradually diminishing to the floor of the 
light room, which is thirteen feet in diameter. From 
the foundation the elevation is solid to the entrance, 
which is at a height of thirty feet, and is attained by a 
ladder of ropes with steps of wood ; the walls here are 
seven feet in thickness, and gradually decrease to one 
foot at the lantern, which has an elevation of 100 feet 
from the base, and is fifteen feet in height, and of octa- 
gonal form. The lantern contains a light of Argand 
burners with powerful reflectors, revolving round its 
axis in sis minutes, and in each revolution displaying 
alternately a bright and a deep red light, which in clear 
weather may be plainly seen at a distance of eighteen 
miles. Two large bells connected with the lighthouse 
are tolled by the machinery which moves the lights, 
when the weather is foggy ; and on the harbour of Ar- 
broath a building has been erected for the accommoda- 
tion of the keepers, three of whom are constantly at the 
lighthouse for six weeks, when they are relieved, and 
spend two weeks on shore. Attached to this building 
is a signal tower, fifty feet high, by means of which the 
keepers on the shore communicate with those on the 
rock. The whole expense of the lighthouse, which is 
of such important benefit to the navigation of this part 
of the coast, did not exceed £60,000. 

The town was made a royal bcrgh by charter of 
James VI., in 1599, reciting that the original charters, 
with the title-deeds of the town, and other documents, 
were taken from the abbey, where they had been depo- 
sited for security, and destroyed by George, Bishop of 
Moray. The inhabitants appear to have been before 
incorporated by the abbots, who reserved to themselves 
the nomination of one of the bailies by whom the town 
was governed. By King James's confirmatory charter 
of all previous rights and privileges, the burgh and har- 
bour were made free, and the lands called the common 
muir were conveyed to the burgesses, with power to 
levy anchorage customs and shore dues, and to apply 
the produce to the maintenance of the harbour. Under 
this charter, and the recent Municipal Reform act, the 
government is vested in a provost, two bailies, a dean 
of guild, and treasurer, and twelve councillors, all 
chosen subject to the provisions of the Municipal Re- 
form act. There are seven incorporated trades, the 
whole of which have the exclusive right of carrying on 



A R B R 



A R B R 



their trades within the burgh, with the exception of the 
weavers ; the dean of guild also grants temporary- 
license to trade, to traders who decline entering with 
the guild corporation. The magistrates possess all the 
jurisdiction appendant to royal burghs, and hold courts 
of pleas in civil actions weekly to an unlimited extent, 
and also criminal courts, in which, though by the 
charter they have full jurisdiction in capital cases, they 
confine themselves to the trial of petty olfenees, the 
town-clerk acting as assessor. The magistrates have 
power by the charter to hang and drown, and to replevy 
any action whatever against an inhabitant of the 
burgh, from all judges in the kingdom, upon giving 
security for administering justice within the term of 
law. The dean of guild likewise holds a court for de- 
ciding on cases of disputed marches within the burgh, 
and for enforcing compliance with the acts of parliament 
regulating weights and measures ; in which he is as- 
sisted by a clerk and procurator-fiscal. Previously to 
the union of the two kingdoms, the burgh sent a mem- 
ber to the Scottish parliament, but after that event was 
associated with Montrose, Brechin, Bervie, and Aber- 
deen in returning a representative to the imperial par- 
liament ; and the only change in this respect, under 
the act of the 'iad and 3rd of William IV., is the substi- 
tution of Forfar in lieu of Aberdeen, and the extension 
of the elective franchise to £10 householders. The 
provost is the returning officer. The guildhall is a neat 
plain edifice, adapted for the business of the guild cor- 
poration; and the trades'-hall, erected in 1814, is a 
handsome building. The town-house, erected in 1806, 
is a spacious and elegant structure, comprising a great 
hall, and offices for the town-clerk and others, with 
apartments for the meetings of the council, and for 
holding courts : the upper part, formerly used as the 
burgh gaol, has been fitted up as commodious com- 
mittee-rooms, and for other public purposes. At a short 
distance behind the town-house stand the new gaol, the 
gaoler's house, and the police-office, the whole forming 
a neat building, with very little appearance externally of 
the purposes to which it is devoted. The cells are con- 
structed on the modern principle, properly ventilated, 
and well arranged for the health and classification of 
prisoners. In the police department is a small but 
commodious court-room, where the burgh magistrates 
sit every Monday for the summary disposal of petty 
delinquencies. 

Arbroath parish is about three miles in length, and 
of very irregular form, varying from little more than 200 
yards to a mile and a quarter in breadth. It comprises 
8'20 acres of arable land, and twenty-six of common land 
in pasture. The surface is comparatively level, rising by 
a gradual ascent from the shore till, at the opposite ex- 
tremity, it attains an elevation of 150 feet above the sea. 
The only river is the Brothock, which rises in the ad- 
joining parish of St. Vigean's, and after a course of five 
or six miles, flows through this parish for about a quar- 
ter of a mile, and falls into the sea at the harbour. A 
small stream which in its course gives motion to several 
spinning-mills, forms a tributary to the Brothock ; but 
unless swollen with incessant rains, it is comparatively a 
shallow stream. The scenery is pleasingly varied ; and 
the town, as seen from the sea, is an interesting feature, 
seated in the curve of a range of small hills, which rise 
behind it. These hills command an extensive prospect 
63 



of the Lothians, the eastern portion of the coast of Fife, 
and the estuaries of the Forth and Tay, towards the 
south ; the view terminating, towards the north, in the 
range of the Grampian hills. Near the town the soil is 
a rich black loam ; in the higher lands, thin, resting 
upon a retentive clay, which renders it scarcely suscep- 
tible of improvement ; and along the coast, light and 
sandy. The chief crops are grain of all kinds, potatoes, 
and turnips ; bone-dust and guano are used for manure, 
and the farms are in general well arranged and skilfully 
managed. The annual value of real property in the 
parish is £17,314. A fishery is carried on with consi- 
derable success : cod, haddock, and flounders are taken 
in abundance off the coast, with herrings and mackerel, 
in their season ; lobsters, crabs, and various kinds of 
shell-fish are found in great plenty, and attempts have 
been made to procure a supply of salmon by putting 
down stake-nets, but hitherto without much success. 

This parish is the seat of the presbytery of Arbroath, 
in the synod of Angus and Mearns ; patron, the Crown : 
the minister's stipend averages about £210, with a glebe 
valued at £4. 8. 11. There is also an assistant minister, 
appointed by the Kirk Session, whose emoluments, in- 
cluding the session clerkship, average about £85. The 
church, which was enlarged in 1/64, and to which an 
elegant spire was added in 1831, at an expense of £1300, 
raised mostly by subscription, is a plain cruciform struc- 
ture, situated nearly in the centre of the town, and 
adapted for 1390 persons. A chapel of ease was erected 
in 1797, oa the grounds of the ancient abbey, and is 
thence called the Abbey chapel ; it is a neat edifice for 
a congregation of about 1280, and a quoad sacra district 
was annexed to it, comprising a population of 2289 : 
income of the minister, about £100. Another chapel of 
ease was erected in 1829, for the accommodation of the 
inhabitants of that portion of the suburbs within the 
parish of St. Vigean's ; it is a neat structure, and con- 
tains 1080 sittings, from the rents of which the minister 
derives an income of £150 : a quoad sacra district named 
Inverbrothock has been attached to it, containing 5195 
persons. A few years ago another chapel of ease was 
erected, for the accommodation of the inhabitants on the 
west side of the Brothock : it has a district assigned it 
for quoad sacra purposes, containing a population of 
2116, partly in St. Vigean's parish. There are places of 
worship for the Free Church, the United Presbyterian 
Synod, Episcopalians, Original Seceders, Independents, 
Baptists, Bereans, Glassites, and Wesleyans. 

"The burgh school, and also the parochial school, have 
merged into an institution of more recent establish- 
ment, called the Academy, for which a handsome and 
appropriate building was erected in 1821, at an expense 
of £1600, raised chiefly by subscription. This institu- 
tion is under the control of a rector, appointed by the 
corporation, and three masters, chosen by the directors; 
to each of these a distinct department is assigned, and 
there are consequently four separate schools. The 
classical and mathematical school is under the super- 
intendence of the rector, whose salary is £34 per annum, 
which, augmented with an allowance of £6. 10. for 
house-rent, and the proceeds of a bequest by Mr. John 
Colvill for the gratuitous instruction of five children, 
amounts to £60 per annum : the commercial, English, 
and general schools are under the three masters, who 
have a salary of £25 each. These salaries are paid from 



ARBR 



A RB U 



the various funds constituting the endowment of the 
schools, and are exclusive of school-fees. The Sabbath- 
evening School Society, which has been established for 
more than thirty years, comprehends the whole of the 
town and suburbs ; and connected with the schools 
under its superintendence is a library of more than 
1100 volumes, containing many standard and valuable 
works, in addition to such as are requisite for the chil- 
dren attending school. On the high common is an 
infirmary, a building of elegant design : it cost about 
£1500, defrayed by subscription, and Lord Panmure 
presented £1000 towards the endowment. Mr. Car- 
michael, in 1733, bequeathed £600 and some rent- 
charges for the benefit of seven widows of ship-masters, 
producing at present about £130 per annum; and the 
above-mentioned Mr. John Colvill, late town-clerk, in 
1811 left £10 per annum to the minister of the Epi- 
scopal chapel, £10 per annum to the poor of the parish, 
and a sum for the assistance of twenty householders, 
which now produces to each £3. ID. annually. 

The chief relics of antiquity connected with Arbroath 
are the remains of its venerable abbey. This ancient 
building was one of those which suffered most from 
popular violence at the Reformation, the whole being 
then burned, and reduced to ruin. The north wall, in 
particular, of the nave and transept, was completely 
thrown down, so as to leave the interior open on that 
side to the adjacent cemetery ; soil collected, and trees 
grew up, among the broken fragments, and in course of 
time the traces of the north wall were entirely oblite- 
rated, and graves were gradually extended into the area 
of the church itself. After the destruction of the abbey, 
no attention appears to have been paid to its preserva- 
tion. On the contrary, it was subject to constant 
dilapidation, not only from the ravages of time, but 
from the frequent and extensive demolition of the ruins 
in order to furnish the citizens with materials for build- 
ing. Accordingly, traces of the carved stones of the 
abbey are to be found in many old houses in the town. 
About the year 1806, however, the officers of state laid 
claim to the remains on behalf of the crown ; and after 
removing various encroachments made by sundry parties 
on the abbey precincts, they commenced excavating the 
ruins down to the original pavement, carefully trans- 
ferring the remains of the dead deposited in the area of 
the abbey church, to the adjoining churchyard. In the 
course of these operations, various objects of antiquity 
were brought to light, including a beautifully carved 
truncated statue of Thomas h Becket in his robes of 
office, and a marble slab supposed to have been the lid 
of the royal founder's coffin, adorned with the figure of 
a man in alto relievo, with a lion couchant at his feet. 
The tomb of the king, who was buried under the steps 
leading to the high altar, was not discovered. In addi- 
tion to these excavations, the crown has from time to 
time executed important repairs of the ruins, with a 
view to their preservation, under the superintendence of 
the crown architect for Scotland, acting under the in- 
structions of the Commissioners of Woods and Forests. 
The whole area of the church is now cleared out, and 
the bases of the pillars that supported the roof displayed. 
The church appears to have been 2*0 feet in length, 
from the great entrance at the west to the high altar at 
the east, and 130 feet in breadth, along the transepts ; 
the nave was 148 feet in length, bv about seventy feet 
64 



in height, and the choir about seventy-five feet long. 
The western entrance is tolerably entire, exhibiting the 
remains of a large circular window above the doorway, 
which must have thrown a flood of light into the area 
of the church : but the portions of the tower by which 
the entrance was flanked are so dilapidated that scarcely 
any indication of their original style of architecture 
presents itself. Adjoining the south transept are the 
remains of a building containing a large vaulted apart- 
ment in excellent preservation, supposed to have been 
the chapter-house. The principal remaining tower, 
locally called the Old St. Thomas, rises to the height of 
1 12 feet. The cloisters have disappeared ; and the 
abbot's palace, which, after the abolition of episcopacy 
in Scotland, was converted into a manse for the parish 
minister, is now a private residence. 

This important religious establishment occupied an 
area 1 150 feet in length and about 700 in width, inclosed 
by a stone wall nearly twenty-four feet in height. At 
the north-west angle is a tower twenty-four feet square, 
and seventy feet high, which is still entire ; and at the 
south-west angle was another, of smaller dimensions, 
which being ruinous was some time ago taken down. 
The principal entrance was through a stately gateway- 
tower on the north side, defended by a portcullis and 
drawbridge ; and at the south-east angle was a postern 
of inferior character, called the Darngate, from which 
the town arms are derived. The abbey buildings are 
now placed under the care of a resident keeper, appointed 
by the crown ; and the crowds of visiters to the ruins, 
especially during the summer months, attest the interest 
felt by tourists in these venerable remains of our ancient 
ecclesiastical architecture. The public burying-ground 
adjacent, which is the only place of sepulture for the 
town, is tastefully laid out, and, with its numerous 
monuments of the dead, adds not a little to the feelings 
of solemnity which a visit to this sacred spot is calcu- 
lated to inspire. 

ARBUTHNOTT, a parish, in the county of Kin- 
cardine; adjoining the town of Bervie, and containing 
1015 inhabitants. The name of this place has under- 
gone many changes in its pronunciation and spelling. 
From documents in the possession of the Arbuthnott 
family it appears that, previously to the twelfth cen- 
tury, it was called Aberbotkenothe, which form, about 
the year 1335, had been changed to Aberbuthnot, and, 
in 1443, to the mode now retained. The original term 
signifies " the confluence of the water below the baron's 
house", and is descriptive of the situation of the ancient 
castle and of the present mansion-house, upon the 
narrow point of a projection overlooking the Water of 
Bervie, which is joined by a rapid rivulet, formerly of 
considerable breadth, about 100 yards distant from the 
mansion. This parish, in whose early history the Ar- 
buthnotts have held the most conspicuous place, con- 
tains an area of 9423 acres, of which 6200 are in tillage, 
250 in plantations, and 2223 uncultivated. It is inter- 
sected by the roads from Stonehaven to Brechin, and is 
bounded on the north by the river Forthy, which sepa- 
rates it from Glenbervie ; and on the south and west by 
the Water of Bervie, dividing it from the parishes of 
Bervie, Fordoun, and Laurencekirk. The surface is 
irregular, being much diversified by hill and dale. It 
rises on every side from the valley of the Bervie Water, 
the windings of which, between steep and richly-wooded 



A R B U 



ARDC 



banks, present in many parts interesting and beautiful 
scenery. In summer the stream is small, and slow in 
its course, flowing at the rate of about a mile an hour ; 
but in the rainy seasons it rises rapidly, the flood being 
considerably augmented through the agricultural drains; 
and embankments to some extent have been found ne- 
cessary, to secure the neighbouring lands against the 
havoc consequent upon its overflowing. The highest 
land is Bruxiehill, which has an elevation of about 650 
feet above the sea. 

The SOIL, towards the southern quarter, is a strong 
clay, with a cold retentive subsoil; and in the direction 
of the northern boundary, light and dry. There is also 
some rough wet pasture and moor, but this kind of land 
has been greatly ameliorated and recovered by recent 
drainage. The chief crops are grain of different kinds, 
potatoes, turnips, and beet-root. The parish is alto- 
gether agricultural, and the cultivation of the soil is 
carried on with great spirit; the five and the seven 
years' rotation of crops are each followed, but the latter 
is thought to succeed the best. Bone-dust has been 
applied with advantage as manure on light soils, where 
the turnips are eaten off by the .sheep. Improvements 
have been vigorously carried on, chiefly consisting of an 
extensive and efficient drainage of the lands, the culti- 
vation of much barren soil, and the construction of 
embankments along the course of the Bervie, for the 
protection of the fertile haughs through which it runs. 
The wood planted consists of Scotch fir, larch, spruce, 
chesnut, poplar, hazel, and almost every species known 
in the country ; and upwards of twenty different kinds 
of oak, chiefly American, have been introduced into the 
nursery by Lord Arbuthnott, with a view to plantation. 
The annual value of real property in the parish is £6592. 
The rocks are mostly coarse sandstone, trap, and what 
in the country is called scurdy : blocks of gneiss and 
granite are sometimes to be seen. On the north bank 
i)f the Bervie, pebbles beautifully varied have been found 
embedded in trap ; and calcareous spar, heavy spar, and 
veins of manganese also exist in the parish. In the 
deepest part of a small peat-bog called the " Hog's 
Hole", the skeletons of two red deer were lately found, 
the antlers of whose horns were respectively seven and 
eight in number, some of them measuring eighteen 
inches in length. 

Arbuthnott House, the seat of the ancient and noble 
family of Arbuthnott, is beautifully situated on the 
Bervie, almost concealed by thriving plantations. It 
has been greatly improved by the present owner. The 
grounds are laid out with much taste, and the mansion 
is approached by a fine avenue of beech-trees, upwards 
of two centuries old. In the library of his lordship are, 
the missal used in the parochial church in former times, 
and the psalter and office belonging to a chapel con- 
nected with the church, and dedicated to the Virgin 
Mary ; the penmanship is exceedingly beautiful, and 
many parts are splendidly illuminated. The castle of 
Allardyce, also on the bank of the river, and which is 
the property of the ancient family of Allardyce, has 
lately been repaired ; and the house of Kair is a modern 
mansion of neat and elegant appearance. 

Ecclesiastically the parish is within the bounds of the 

presbytery of Fordoun, synod of Angus and Mearns ; 

the patronage belongs to Viscount Arbuthnott, and the 

minister's stipend is £225, with a manse, and a glebe 

Vol. I.— 65 



of the annual value of £9. The church, which is situated 
near the north bank of the river, about three miles dis- 
tant from the furthest extremity of the parish, though 
much altered and enlarged, is probably four centuries 
old, and was in former times dedicated to St. Ternan. 
An elegant aisle, of finely-hewn ashlar, was added to it 
on the south-east in 1505, by Sir Robert Arbuthnott, 
who also repaired and improved the west gable, on which 
he placed a round tower ; this aisle is the burial-place 
of the family, and contains a full-length statue, of stone, 
of Hugh de Arbuthnott. There is a parochial school, 
the master of which has the maximum salary, with a 
house and garden, and about £10 fees; and a savings' 
bank, established in June 1822, is in a prosperous con- 
dition. The learned Alexander Arbuthnott, first Pro- 
testant jirincipal of King's College, Aberdeen, was a 
native of the parish, and some time its minister, to 
which office he was appointed in 1567; and the well- 
known Dr. Arbuthnott, physician to Queen Anne, and 
one of the triumvirate with Pope and Swift, was born 
here in I667. The place gives the title of Viscount to 
the family of Arbuthnott. 

ARCHIESTOWN, a village, in the parish of Knock- 
ANDO, county of Elgin ; containing 174 inhabitants. 
This is the only village in the parish, and is of modern 
origin, having been commenced about I76O, by Sir 
Archibald Grant, the great-grandfather of Sir James 
Grant, of Monymusk, the present baronet. It is built 
on the moor of Ballintomb, and consists of a double 
row of houses, about three-quarters of a mile in length, 
having a square in the centre, of about half an acre, and 
some by-lanes. The village suffered severely in 1783, 
from an accidental fire, but it has latterly recovered from 
this calamity, and several new houses have been erected 
very recently. In a preaching station, which accom- 
modates about 200 persons, divine service is performed 
once a month, by the minister of the parochial church ; 
and a few dissenters belonging to the United Presby- 
terian Church occasionally assemble here. There are 
schools likewise, which open and close with prayer. 

ARDCHATTAN, a parish, in the district of Lorn, 
county of Argyll, 8 miles (E. N. E.) from Oban ; con- 
taining 2421 inhabitants, of whom 960 are in the quoad 
sacra parish of Muckairn, which is separately described. 
The place is supposed to have derived its name from 
Catan, who accompanied St. Columba to Scotland about 
the year 563, and from its mountainous aspect, of which 
the term Ardchaltan is descriptive, signifying "the hill" 
or "promontory of Catan". It obtained for some time 
the appellation of Bal Mhoadan, or " the residence of 
Moadan", in honour of whom a church was erected in 
the vicinity, which afterwards became the church of the 
parish of Kilmodan. That portion of the parish which 
is comprehended between Loch Creran and Loch Etive, 
still retains the name of Beiiderloch, descriptive of a 
mountainous district between two arras of the sea. The 
parish is bounded on the north by the river and loch of 
Creran, on the south and east by Loch Etive and the 
river and loch of Awe, and on the west by Loch Linnhe. 
Exclusively of Muckairn, which is not included in those 
boundaries, it is about forty miles in length, and ten 
miles in average breadth. The surface is generally 
mountainous, but diversified with several glens and 
valleys of considerable extent, some of them richly 
embellished with wood, and displaying much romantic 

K 



ARDC 



ARD C 



scenery ; the level lands are intersected with numerous 
streams, and the hills of more moderate height are 
crowne(l with plantations. With the exception of the 
valley of Glenure and a few other spots, the only arable 
lands are towards the north and east, beyond which 
little cultivation is found ; lofty mountains, in various 
directions, rise so abruptly from the sides of the lochs 
as to leave little land that can be subjected to the 
plough. 

Of the mountains, the principal is Ben-Cruachan, the 
highest in the county, having an elevation of 3669 feet 
above the sea, and rising from a base more than twenty 
miles in circumference : the acclivity towards the vale of 
Glencoe is precipitously steep, but from the south, 
behind Inverawe, the ascent is more gradual, terminating 
in two conical summits commanding a most unbounded 
prospect. Ben-Cochail, to the north of Ben-Cruachan, 
though little inferior in height, appears much diminished 
by comparison ; and Ben-S^anie, still further up Loch 
Etive, rises from a base of large e.vtent, to an elevation 
of 2500 feet : the acclivities of the latter, of barren 
aspect, are deeply furrowed ; and in the channels of the 
streams which descend from it are found beautiful 
crystals, not much inferior to the cairngorms of the 
Grampians. Ben-Nan-Aighean, or the " mountain of 
the heifers", to the south of Ben-Starive, rises to a great 
height, terminating in a peak of granite ; for about half 
way up the acclivities it affords tolerable pasture, and is 
thence rugged and barren to its summit : rock crystals 
are found near its base, and in the beds of its numerous 
streams. Ben-Chaorach, or the " mountain of the sheep", 
near Ben-Starive, is of inferior height, but affords good 
pasturage. Ben-Ketlan, to the north of it, is of greater 
elevation, and presents a finer outline, bounded on one 
side of its base by the Alt-Ketlan stream, and by the 
Alt-Chaorach on the other ; it is the most fertile of the 
mountains. Two most conspicuous mountains called 
Buachail-Etive, or the " keepers of the Etive", situated 
near the termination of the loch named Etive, are dis- 
tinguished by the names Buachail-Mor and Buachail-Beg, 
from the respective extent of their bases, though neither 
of them has an elevation of less than 3000 feet. Ben- 
Veedaii, called also Ben-Nambian, or the "mountain of 
the deer-skins ', from the number of deer which are 
killed there, is separated from Buachail-Beg by the 
mountain-pass of Larig-Aodt, a lofty and stupendous 
range scarcely inferior in elevation to Ben-Cruachan, and 
whicli opens into the vale of Glencoe. Ben-Treelahan, 
on the west side of Loch Etive, which washes its base 
for nearly five miles, and Ben-Starive (already described), 
on the opposite side, greatly contract the breadth of the 
loch, and, by their rugged aspect, spread over it a 
romantic gloom hardly surpassed in mountain scenery. 
In the north-east of the parish, also, are other moun- 
tains, of which the principal are Ben-Aulay, the highest 
of the range; Ben-Scoullard, Ben-Vreck, Ben-Molurgan, 
and Ben-f'ean. 

Of the numerous glens interspersed between the 
mountains, is Glen-Noe, about four miles in length and 
one mile in breadth, inclosed on the north side by Ben- 
Cruachan, and on the south by Ben-Cochail. It is 
clothed with rich verdure, and watered throughout by a 
stream whose banks, as it approaches the sea, are finely 
wooded. A house has been built near the opening for 
the residence of the farmer who rents it, than which a 
66 



more delightful summer retreat can scarcely be imagined. 
Glen-Kinglas is about nine miles in length and nearly 
two in breadth, and watered by the river to which it 
gives name. The north side is rocky and barren, but 
the south affords excellent pasture. This glen formerly 
abounded with timber, which was felled for charcoal by 
an iron-smelting company, about a century since ; so 
that, with the exception of a few alders on the banks of 
the river, and some brushwood of little value, it is now- 
destitute of wood. Glen-Ketlan, inclosed on one side by 
the mountain of Ben-Ketlan, is about two miles in 
length, and watered by the river Etive, which enters it 
about three miles from the head of Loch Etive. Glen- 
Etive commences at the head of Loch Etive, and is more 
than sixteen miles in length. It was formerly a royal 
forest, the hereditary keeper of which claims exemption 
from certain payments. One portion of the glen, with a 
contiguous tract in the parish of Glenorchy, has been 
stocked with red deer by the Marquess of Breadalbane, 
and another portion of it has been appropriated by Mr. 
Campbell of Monzie to the same purpose. The whole 
tract is marked by features of sublimity and grandeur, 
though stripped of the majestic timber with which it 
was anciently embellished. Glen-Ure, or the "glen of 
yew-trees", opens from the river Creran, and expands to 
the south and east for about three miles. Near the 
river are the dilapidated remains of the ancient mansion 
of the family of Glenure, and adjacent is the farm of 
Barnamuch, which has been always famed for the 
richness- of its pastures. The remote extremity of the 
glen is marked with features of rugged grandeur. Glen- 
Dindal, or Glen-Dow , about seven miles to the west of 
Glenure, is three miles in length, and in the lower part 
luxuriantly wooded ; it is frequented by numbers of 
fallow deer, originally introduced about the middle of 
the last century. Glen-Salloch, the most elevated of the 
glens, is situated between Loch Etive and Loch Creran, 
and extends from south to north for about six miles ; it 
comprehends much variety of scenery, and the views 
from any point commanding either of the lakes are 
romantically picturesque. 

The principal lochs are Loch Etive and Loch Creran. 
Loch Etive branches from the Linnhe loch near Dun- 
staffnage Castle, and extends eastward to Bunawe, after 
which it takes a northern direction among the moun- 
tains, and terminates at Kinloch Etive. It is about 
twenty-two miles in length, varying from less than a 
quarter of a mile to more than a mile and a half in 
breadth, and being from twenty to 100 fathoms in depth. 
The bay affords safe anchorage to vessels not exceeding 
100 tons; and at Connel Ferry, near the western ex- 
tremity, the tide rises to a height of fourteen feet, form- 
ing in the narrow channel, which is not more than 
200 yards in width, and obstructed by a ledge of rock, 
a foaming and apparently terrific rush of water, which 
the skill of the boatmen has rendered available to facili- 
tate the passage. There is another ferry across the loch 
at Bunawe, opposite to which is the small island of Elan- 
Duirnish, inhabited only by the family of the ferryman, 
and connected with the mainland, on the opposite shore, 
by a stone causeway, along which passes a road that 
afterwards diverges to Inverary and Glenorchy. Loch 
Creran issues from the Linnhe loch near the island of 
Eriska, and extends in a north-eastern direction for 
about twelve miles, the breadth being on an average a 



A RDC 



A R DC 



mile and a half. It is about fifteen fathoms in depth, 
and the spring tides rise from fifteen to sixteen feet ; 
the bay, having a clayey bottom, affords good anchorage, 
and there is a ferry across the loch at Shean, in the nar- 
rowest part. The loch has several barren and un- 
inhabited islets ; and the island of Eriska, which is well 
wooded, contains a considerable portion of pasture and 
arable land, forming a very compact farm. 

Among the chief rivers is the Jwe, which, issuing 
from the loch of that name, and flowing between richly- 
wooded banks, after a course of about four miles, falls 
into Loch Etive at Bunawe. The Elive, which has its 
source near Kings-house, in the parish, flows in a 
western and south-western direction, and gradually ex- 
panding in its progress, after a course of nearly sixteen 
miles, falls into Loch Etive near its head. The Kinglas 
has a course of about twelve miles to the south-west, 
flowing along a channel of rock and granite ; its waters 
are remarkably transparent, and salmon are found in 
numbers. The Liver, which rises to the south of the 
Kinglas, flows for about six miles in a western direction, 
and falls into Loch Etive at Inverliver. The ]Voe, which 
waters the glen of that name, has a course of four miles 
between rugged mountains, and, near its confluence with 
Loch Etive, forms a romantic cascade. The Creran, 
which has its source near Ben-Aulay, flows westward for 
nearly twelve miles, and after passing through the in- 
land lake of Fasuacloich, forms a channel navigable for 
small boats, and falls into the sea at the head of Loch 
Creran. The Ure has a course of about seven miles in 
a northern direction, and passing to the west of Glenure 
House, falls into the Creran river. The Tendal has a 
western course of about six miles, through the glen of 
that name, and forms several interesting cascades. The 
Bute, after a course of little more than three miles, and 
the Dergan, which rises in the heights of Glen-Salloch, 
both fall into Loch Creran ; and the Esragan-More and 
the Esragiin-Beg, separated by the mountain of Ben- 
Vean, after a course of about five miles, fall into Loch 
Etive. The rivers generally form in their progress nu- 
merous cascades, many of which, especially those of the 
mountainous districts, are incomparably beautiful. 

Though generally a pastoral district, there is still a 
considerable portion of arable land, estimated at about 
1700 acres ; the soil is chiefly a light loam, requiring 
much manure, but producing good crops of oats, bear, 
potatoes, and turnips. The farm-houses, with very few 
exceptions, are of an inferior order, thatched with straw, 
and ill adapted to the accommodation of the occupiers. 
Great numbers of cattle and sheep are fed in the 
pastures, and considerable attention is paid to the 
rearing of stock ; the cattle are of the Highland black 
breed, and on the dairy-farms the cows are of the 
Ayrshire breed. The sheep, which were originally of 
the small white-faced kind, have been almost entirely 
superseded by the black-faced, and a few of the Cheviot 
breed have been recently introduced ; the number of 
sheep reared annually is estimated at 32,000. About 
2700 acres are woodland and plantations : the coppices 
are chiefly oak, ash, birch, and mountain-ash ; and the 
plantations consist of ash, beech, elm, sycamore, and larch, 
Scotch, and spruce firs, all of which are in a thriving 
state. The annual value of real property in Ardchattan 
and Muckairn is £10,987. Lead-ore has been discovered 
on the farm of Drimvuick, but not wrought ; large 
67 



boulders of granite are found in abundance, and on the 
upper shore of Loch Etive a quarry has been opened by 
the Marquess of Breadalbane, from which blocks are 
raised of large size, and of very superior quality. The 
principal mansions in the parish are, Lochnell House, 
originally built by Sir Duncan Campbell, and improved 
at an expense of £15,000 by General Campbell, his 
successor ; Barcaldine House, recently enlarged, and 
beautifully situated in a richly-wooded demesne ; Ard- 
chatlan Priory, a portion of the ancient convent, con- 
verted into a private residence ; Inverawe House, plea- 
santly situated on the banks of the Awe, and surrounded 
with stately timber ; and Drimvuick House, a pleasant 
residence. There is a post-office at Bunawe, about four 
miles distant from the church ; the mail from Fort- 
William, likewise, passes through a portion of the parish, 
and facility of communication is afforded by good roads. 
A fair for cattle and horses, which is also a statute-fair, 
is held at Shean Ferry twice in the year. 

For ECCLESIASTICAL purposcs the parish is within the 
bounds of the presbytery of Lorn and synod of Argyll : 
the minister's stipend is £283. 3. 2., with a manse, and 
a glebe valued at £8 per annum ; patron, Archibald 
Campbell, Esq., of Lochnell. The church, erected in 
1836, is a neat structure, situated on the north shore of 
Loch Etive, and containing 430 sittings. There is a 
preaching station at Inverghiusachaw, in Glen-Etive, 
about sixteen miles distant from the church, where a 
missionary supported by the Royal Bounty preaches 
once in three weeks. A place of worship in connexion 
with the Free Church has been built. The parochial 
school is attended by about fifty children ; the master 
has a salary of £29. 16. 7., including the proceeds of a 
bequest producing £4. 3. 4., with a house and garden, 
and the school-fees average about £11 per annum. 

There are some remains of Ardchattan Priory, founded 
in 1231, by Duncan Mc Coull, the supposed ancestor 
of the lords of Lorn, for monks of the Benedictine order; 
the house of the prior has been converted into a re- 
sidence by Mr. Campbell, the proprietor, and there are 
traces of the abbey and cloisters, with numerous monu- 
mental relics. Some remains also exist of the ancient 
churches of Bal-Moadan and Kilcolmkill. The Castle of 
Barcaklme, erected in the fifteenth century, by Sir 
Duncan Campbell, on a neck of land between Loch 
Creran and the bay of Ardmucknish, is rapidly falling 
into decay. There are remains of Druidical circles of 
large granite stones placed on end, and smaller circles 
of upright stones, on the summits of which latter are 
slabs of granite ; also stone coffins, in some of which 
have been found rude urns containing human bones ; 
and numerous tumuli, in one of which was an urn con- 
taining calcined bones and an arrow-head of flint. 
Many ancient coins have been likewise discovered, in- 
cluding several silver coins of the reign of Edward I., 
on the reverse of which were the names London, Cam- 
bridge, and Oxford, in good preservation. The site of 
the old city of Beregonium, supposed to have been the 
ancient metropolis of Scotland, and concerning which 
so many conflicting accounts have been written, and 
so many fabulous legends propagated by tradition, is re- 
ferred to an eminence between the ferries of Connel and 
Shean, called Dun Mac Sniachan, on which are the 
remains of a vitrified fort. The Rev. Colin Campbell, 
an eminent mathematician and metaphysician, was mi- 

K2 



ARDC 



A RD E 



nister of the parish in 1667. For a description of Muc- 
kairn, which is not comprised in the foregoing article, 
see MucKAiRN. 

ARDCLACH, a parish, in the county of Nairn, 
twelve miles (S. S. W.) from Forres; containing 1177 in- 
habitants. This place derives its name from its situation 
in a mountainous and rocky district, of which the Gaelic 
words are faithfully descriptive. The parish is bounded 
on the north by the parishes of Auldearn and Nairn, and 
on the west by the parish of Cawdor ; it is nearly si.xteen 
miles in extreme length, and twelve miles in extreme 
breadth. During the wars of the Covenanters, it shared 
largely in the hostilities of that distracted period ; after 
the battle of Auldearn, in 1645, the lands here of Brodie 
of Lethen were plundered by the forces of the Marquess 
of Montrose, and in 1649 and 16.53 were again desolated, 
after unsuccessful assaults of Lethen Castle, by the 
Marquess of Huntly and the troops under the Earl of 
Glencairn, respectively. The number of acres in the 
parish is about 40,000, of which nearly 4000 are arable, 
about ^SOO woodland and plantations, and the remainder 
hill-pasture, moorland, and waste. The surface is moun- 
tainous, and some of the hills are considerable ; that 
called the Shaw has a height of 800 feet, and the hill of 
Lethenbar of 862 feet, above the level of the sea. The 
lower lands are watered by numerous springs, and by the 
river Findhorn, which rises in the mountains of Inver- 
ness, and flows through the parish in a north-eastern 
direction into the Moray Firth. In its course it receives 
many tributary streams from the higher lands, the prin- 
cipal of which are, the burns of Torgarrow and Altnarie, 
forming in their descent beautiful cascades j the burns 
of Drunilochan and Tomnarrach ; and the burn of 
Lethen, or Muckle-Burn, which flows for nearly ten 
miles through the parish, and falls into the Findhorn 
near its mouth. 

The system of agriculture has been greatly im- 
proved under the liberal encouragement given to 
his tenants by Mr. Brodie of Lethen, and the rotation 
plan of husbandry is generally prevalent ; the crops are 
oats, with other kinds of grain, and various green crops. 
In the lower lands, the soil is tolerably fertile, and has 
been benefited by the use of lime ; the mountainous 
districts afford pasture for cattle and sheep, of which 
the former are chiefly of small size, but hardy and 
adapted to the pastures, and the latter have been much 
improved by a cross with the Lanarkshire breed. The 
natural wood is mostly Scotch pine, birch, alder, hazel, 
mountain-ash, and poplar ; and the plantations are prin- 
cipally larch, interspersed with fir : the wood of Dulcie 
tbrras an extensive forest of fir, wholly indigenous, and 
there are ample and thriving plantations at Glenfairness 
and Lethen. The annual value of real property in the 
parish is £23*3. The rocks along the course of the river 
Findhorn are mainly granite, gneiss, and quartz ; the 
substratum in the western portion of the parish is the 
old red sandstone, with some of the schistose formation, 
in which are found impressions of plants, occasionally 
resting on a layer of conglomerate, with nodules contain- 
ing imperfect marine fossils, and which, when burnt, 
produce excellent lime for agricultural use. The moors 
aflford black game and grouse, partridges, snipes, wood- 
cocks, and other birds ; and hares and rabbits are 
found in great number. The lake on the lands of Lethen 
called Loch Belivat, which covers an area of twenty-seven 
68 



acres, abounds with trout of three distinct species, 
weighing on the average about two pounds each ; and in 
the centre is an island frequented by aquatic fowl of 
every kind. Salmon are taken in abundance in the 
river Findhorn. Coulmony House, the property of Mr. 
Brodie, is a handsome mansion, beautifully situated on 
the river. Glenfairness was purchased a few years ago 
by Mr. Dougal, who has carried out extensive improve- 
ments, and has built a new and handsome mansion on 
his estate. 

This parish, which till 17/3 was united to Edenkillie, 
in the presbytery of Forres, is within the bounds of the 
presbytery of Nairn and synod of Moray : the minister's 
stipend is £248, with a manse, thoroughly repaired in 
1841, and a glebe of seven acres and a half, valued at £5 
per annum ; patron, Mr. Brodie. Ardclach church, situ- 
ated nearly in the centre of the parish, and surrounded 
with a spacious cemetery, was originally built in 1626, 
rebuilt in 1762, and again in 1839 at a cost of £500; it 
contains 686 sittings, and the service is performed alter- 
nately in the English and Gaelic languages. A place of 
worship has been erected in connexion with the Free 
Church. The parochial school affords an ample course 
of instruction ; the master has a salary of £36. 7- 3., 
including an allowance of £2 for a garden, with a good 
dwelling-house, and the fees average from £10 to £15 
per annum. There are also, a female school for reading, 
knitting, and sewing, which receives £5 per annum from 
the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge ; and a 
school at Fornighty, the master of which has a salary of 
£15 from the society, and receives £2 from a bequest by 
Mr. Dunbar, of London. About a mile below the bridge 
of Dulcie, on the lands of Glenfairness, is an ancient 
obelisk, on which are rudely sculptured two figures in 
the Highland costume, supposed to commemorate the 
fate of a Celtic princess who, eloping with her Danish 
paramour, was pursued to the hill of Dunearn, on the 
verge of the river, into which they precipitated them- 
selves, and perished together. On the summit of the 
hill of Lethenbar is a very perfect Druidical circle ; and 
in the neighbourhood are several tumuli. 

ARDEN, a village, in that part of the parish of New 
MoNKLAND which formed the quoad sacra parish of 
Clarkston, Middle ward of the county of Lanark ; 
containing 646 inhabitants. It is situated about four 
miles east of the town of Airdrie, and in the southern 
portion of the parish. 

ARDERSIER, a parish, in the county of Inver- 
ness ; containing, with the village of Campbelton proper, 
and the garrison of Fort-George, 14*5 inhabitants, of 
whom 716 reside in the village. This parish, called in 
ancient documents Ardrosser, is supposed to have derived 
its name from a bold promontory towards the western 
shore, which rises to a height of 200 feet above the 
level of the sea. A considerable portion of the lands 
belonged to the diocese of Ross, and in 1574 was granted, 
with consent of the dean and chapter, to John Campbell 
of Calder, ancestor of the present proprietor, Earl Caw- 
dor, who still pays to the crown an annual sum as 
bishop's rent. The Knights Templars had also some 
lands in the parish, over which they possessed a juris- 
diction of regality ; and the last preceptor. Sir James 
Sandilauds, obtained from Mary, Queen of Scots, the 
erection of his estates into a temporal barony, and, in 
1563, was created Lord Torphichen. 



A R D N 



A R D N 



The PARISH, which is bounded on the north and west 
by the Moray Firth, extends about four miles in length, 
from north-west to south-east, and is two miles in 
breadth, comprising 3250 acres, of which 1434 are 
arable, about 500 in plantations, and the remainder, 
meadow, pasture, and heath. The surface, with the 
exception of the high grounds to the west and north, is 
generally flat, and, towards the coast, low and sandy. 
In some parts the soil is a deep black mould, in others 
of lighter quality, and in some places a strong clay, 
alternated with shallow sand. The usual crops of grain, 
and large quantities of potatoes, are raised ; the lands 
have been partly inclosed, and the modern improvements 
in husbandry are gradually taking place. The annual 
value of real property in the parish is £ 1 540. A salmon- 
fishery on the coast is carried on to a moderate extent, 
there being two stations, the rents of which together 
amount to £60 per annum. Ecclesiastically Ardersier 
is within the bounds of the presbytery of Nairn and 
synod of Moray : the minister's stipend is £158. 6. *., 
part of which is paid from the exchequer ; with a manse, 
and a glebe valued at £25 per annum : patron. Earl 
Cawdor. The church, situated in the eastern part of 
the parish, was built in 1802, and is a neat structure, 
containing 500 sittings. There are places of worship 
for the United Presbyterian Synod and members of the 
Free Church. The parochial school is well attended ; 
the master has a salary of £36. 7. if., with a house and 
garden, and the fees average about £20 per annum. 

On the heath near the borders of the adjoining parish 
of Nairn, is an obelisk supposed to indicate the spot where 
the Danes were repulsed ; and at Achnuallan were the 
t-emains of a Druidical circle, near which a horn filled 
with silver coins was found in ISOO; but those remains 
have been removed for building materials. At Dalyards, 
the ruins of a building thought to have belonged to the 
Knights Templars have disappeared in the progress of 
agriculture ; and on a hill behind Campbelton is a cir- 
cular mount 120 yards in diameter at the base, and 
surrounded towards the summit by a rampart of clay 
and earth : it was called (in the Gaelic) Cromal, now 
corrupted into " Cromwell's mount", and has been partly 
destroyed, like many other fortlets. A Roman sword ; 
the head of a spear ; and some stone-axes supposed to 
be of Danish origin, have been found in the parish. 

ARDGOUR. — See Ballichulish. 

ARDNAMURCHAN, a parish, partly in the county 
of Argyll, and partly in the county of Inverness ; 
comprising the quoad sacra districts of Aharade and 
Strontian, and containing 5581 inhabitants. The present 
parish of Arduamurchan, previously to the Reformation, 
formed three separate parishes, comprehending the five 
districts of Ardnamurchan, Sunard or Sunart, Moidart, 
Arasaig, and South Morir. These districts still remain 
as distinct portions, and from the first the parish takes 
its name, signifying " the promontory" or " heights of the 
great sea". This terra was originally applied with great 
propriety, the district of Ardnamurchan being nearly a 
peninsular promontory, extending from the mainland, to 
a considerable extent, into the waters of the Atlantic 
Ocean. The districts of Ardnamurchan and Sunart are 
in the county of Argyll, and the other three districts in 
Inverness-shire ; the whole being supposed to comprise 
more than 250,000 acres, of which upwards of 110,000 
are in the Argyllshire portion. The parish is bounded 
69 



on the south by Loch Sunart, separating it from the 
parish of Morvern ; on the south-west, by the northern 
end of the Sound of Mull ; on the north, by Loch Morir 
and the river flowing thence, which separate it from 
North Morir, in the parish of Glenelg ; and on the 
north-west and west, by that part of the Atlantic Ocean 
which reaches to the opposite shores of Skye and the 
Small Isles. On the east it is bounded by the parish of 
Kilraalie. The coast, which is continuously, and remark- 
ably, indented with creeks and bays forming numerous 
points and headlands, is supposed to embrace a line of 
several hundreds of miles, and exhibits a bold and rocky 
appearance. At some seasons, the foaming surges of the 
neighbouring waters are to be seen driven landward by 
the westerly winds, and occasionally rendering inacces- 
sible the several creeks and landing-places. The head- 
land of Ardnamurchan, which is the most western part 
of the mainland of Great Britain, and the most promi- 
nent point on the line of coast between Cape Wrath and 
the Mull of Cantyre, was formerly used as a geographical 
mark, in respect to which the Western Isles were deno- 
minated north or south. At a creek on its extreme 
point, the picture of dreariness and desolation, a few 
green mounds indicate the place where the mutilated 
bodies of shipwrecked seamen rest below, vessels having 
not unfrequently been dashed to pieces on the adjoining 
rocks. There has been a lighthouse recently built on this 
point. The whole coast surrounding the district of Ard- 
namurchan is a series of indentations and projecting 
rocks. Beyond this, which is the southern part of the 
parish, the line of coast runs along the Moidart district 
on the west and north, and then forms the western 
limit of Arasaig and South Morir, marked with many 
rocky points and headlands, of which the point of Arasaig, 
the promontory next in importance to Ardnamurchan, is 
well known to mariners, and is visited by steamers ply- 
ing from Glasgow to the Isle of Skye. The coast here 
is very rugged, but not abrupt or precipitous. It has 
numerous shelving rocks, extending under water to the 
northern boundary of the parish. 

A deep and wide bay is formed by the line of shore 
stretching in an eastern direction from the point of 
Ardnamurchan to the isthmus of that district, then 
northward, and afterwards round to the west, reaching 
to the point of Arasaig. In the south-eastern part of 
this great bay, at the flexure of the coast of Ardnamur- 
chan towards Moidart, are the fine sands of Kintra, mea- 
suring about two square miles in extent, of nearly circular 
form, and covered at high water by the sea, which enters 
by a small inlet. The principal harbours along the coast 
of the parish are, the bay of Glenmore, on the south of 
Ardnamurchan, in the mouth of Loch Sunart, affording 
excellent anchorage ; that of Kilchoan, a small harbour 
on the same coast, forming the chief point of communi- 
cation with Tobermory ; and, on the north coast of Ard- 
namurchan, at Ardtoc, a small bay where inferior craft 
may find a safe retreat. At the island of Shona, north 
of Kintra bay, also, and in the opening of Loch Moidart, 
are several creeks with good anchorage, the resort of 
boats from the southern highlands, in the season for cod- 
fishing ; and in Loch Sunart are the harbour of Stron- 
tian, and the creek of Salin, at which latter a pier has 
been built. Of the several maritime lochs in or bound- 
ing the parish, some are of considerable extent, and form 
a distinct feature in the general scenery of the coast. 



A R D N 



ARDN 



Loch Sunart branches oflf from the Sound of Mull, where 
it is about six miles in breadth, and extends inland for 
about twenty-five miles. The tide runs with much im- 
petuosity through the channels formed by the islands of 
Carna, Resga, and Oransay, six or seven miles from the 
mouth ; but further inland the water lies quietly, with 
the exception of the ebb and flow of the tides, between 
lofty rocks and precipitous banks overgrown with wood, 
which at many points present most picturesque scenery. 
Loch Moidart is about four miles long, from east to west, 
and communicates with the open sea by means of a nar- 
row channel on each side of the island of Shona. Being 
surrounded with steep and lofty mountains, it is usually 
unruffled ; and its scenery embraces all the striking fea- 
tures of a Highland district. The remaining salt-water 
lochs are Loch-nan-Uamh, situated between Moidart and 
Arasaig ; Loch Ainart, a branch of the former ; and 
Loch-na-Keaull, just north of Arasaig point ; all of 
comparatively small extent. In different parts of the 
coast there are caves, some of them very extensive, but 
none of much note : in one at Baradale, in Arasaig, a 
damp, rough, dark excavation. Prince Charles Stuart 
concealed himself for three days, after his defeat at 
Culloden. 

The INTERIOR of the parish, consisting of land of 
very rugged character, is crowded with the features, 
variously combined, of almost every description of wild 
and romantic scenery, comprising lofty mountain ranges, 
precipitous rocky elevations, thickly-wooded hills, dells, 
and ravines, with numberless inland lochs, and several 
rivers. The Ardnamurchan portion is strongly marked 
by a range of hills, of no great elevation, running from 
the western point for about twenty-four miles towards 
the east, and varying from four miles and a half to seven 
in breadth. Near the coast are many farms under good 
cultivation, within the first ten or twelve miles ; but 
afterwards the pasture becomes coarser. Oak, birch, 
and hazel are to be seen covering the rocks, and the 
lower hills on the south, to Loch Sunart ; while, on the 
north, the district is occupied at its eastern extremity by 
a very extensive moss, girt by the river Shiel. This 
stream flows from Loch Shiel, and falls into the western 
ocean, forming one of the two principal streams in the 
parish, the other of which flows from Loch Morir into 
the western sea, and constitutes part of the northern 
boundary of the parish. The Sunard or Sunart district, 
in some ancient records written Swynefort or Swyni- 
ford, is supposed to have derived its appellation from 
the circumstance of a king of Denmark named Swin, 
who was driven from his own country for apostatizing 
from Christianity, having in the tenth century landed 
in a creek here on the western shore, called Swiueard in 
consequence of that event. This tract is a continuation 
of that of Ardnamurchan, and is about twenty-five miles 
long and ten in average breadth. For several miles from 
its commencement, it has the appearance of a mountain 
ridge. After this the eminences expand, reaching to Loch 
Sunart on the south and Loch Shiel on the north and 
north-west, leaving a large intermediate space occupied 
with lofty hills and deep valleys and glens, thrown 
together in apparently the greatest irregularity and con- 
fusion. The most lofty mountains are Ben-Reisipoll, 
Scur-Dhoniel, Scour-Choinich, Creach-Bhunn, and 
Glaschoirein Hill, reaching respectively 266 1 feet, ^"SO 
feet, 2364 feet, 2439 feet, and 1920 feet in height. The 
70 



district contains two extensive and interesting valleys, 
of which that of Strontian, near its eastern extremity, 
opening at Loch Sunart, stretches for about five miles 
inland. It is ornamented in succession from its en- 
trance with clusters of fine natural oak, flourishing 
plantations surrounding a tasteful mansion with well 
laid out grounds, an excellent and well-cultivated farm, 
with the crofts and tenements of numerous cottagers, 
the government church near the stream that runs 
through the valley, and, further on, the beautifully- 
situated manse. Glenaheurich, a few miles north of the 
former valley, contains a spacious lake, and affords ex- 
cellent pasturage for sheep. Besides these there are 
other glens of inferior dimensions, bounded with pictu- 
resque hills displaying a profusion of verdure and orna- 
mental wood. The district of Moidart takes its name 
from a compound Gaelic term signifying " the height of 
sea-spray ". It extends about ten or twelve miles in 
breadth ; and twenty-five in length, in a direction 
parallel with Sunart, along the whole boundary of Loch 
Shiel. It is bounded on the west and north by the sea ; 
and the continuous range of mountains along the coast 
on each side, incloses an intermediate and lofty ridge, 
exhibiting a summit with a most magnificent assemblage 
of crags, rocks, hills, and ravines, rendered more in- 
teresting to the curious observer by the almost im- 
possible attempt to find their parallel. There are, how- 
ever, some tolerably fertile plains in this interesting dis- 
trict of the parish ; and a valley called Glenaladale, about 
three hundred yards broad, containing fair arable and 
pasture land. The districts of Arasaig and South Morir, 
not separated from each other by any marked natural 
features, constitute together a tract twenty-four miles in 
length, and fifteen broad. A long and very dreary valley 
named Glenmeuble stretches along Arasaig for ten miles, 
with a farm at the eastern end, and a small loch called 
Beoraig, not very far off. South Morir is bounded on 
the north by Loch Morir, and the river that flows from 
the loch into the sea. 

The parish contains numerous fresh- water lakes, many 
of which abound with varieties of excellent trout. The 
principal of them is Loch Shiel, which here separates 
the county of Argyll from that of Inverness, and is 
embosomed amid mountains of the most magnificent 
description, very little known to travellers. Near the 
western extremity of this lake is the beautiful green 
island of Finnan, truly an oasis in the bleak wilderness, 
where the remains of an ancient monastery are still very 
distinct, and where the bell that used to summon the 
inmates to matins and vespers is yet to be seen. Loch 
Shiel empties itself by the river Shiel into the western 
sea ; and so trifling is the fall in the course of this 
stream that, during high tides, boats of six or seven 
tons' burthen can ascend it, and are often seen spread- 
ing their sails at the eastern extremity of the lake, 
twenty-seven or twenty-eight miles from the sea. An 
important salmon-fishery is carried on at the river Shiel, 
one of the most important indeed in the north of Scot- 
land, paying a large rental. The fish caught here are 
of a superior quality, and are exported in great quanti- 
ties to the India and other distant markets, being pre- 
pared for exportation in a large curing establishment 
lately built on the river-side. 

The SOIL is various, but generally light and shallow. 
Only a small portion of it is fit for superior husbandry j 



A RDN 



A RD N 



the remainder is moor and moss, of which latter there 
are several large tracts styled moss-flats, especially adja- 
cent to Loch Shiel. That called the Moss of Kintra 
covers an area of seven square miles, and, like some of 
the others, is a quagmire in the middle, of unknown 
depth, though considerable portions near the margin 
are capable of improvement. Oats and bear are raised ; 
but potatoes, hay, wool, and the cuttings of wood, form 
the largest items in the returns of produce. The 
sheep that are kept are the black-faced ; and the cattle, 
the Argyllshire : both the sheep and the cattle are 
generally of a superior description, the pasture in many 
parts being admirably adapted for them. The method 
of cultivation varies according to the nature of the soil, 
and the locality ; ploughs and spades of all kinds are in 
common use, and shell-sand mixed with kelp, and 
various deposits from the sea-shore, are extensively em- 
ployed as manure. Considerable improvements have 
been made on some of the estates within these few years, 
and the farm-buildings of the superior tenants are good, 
whilst those of the inferior class are of the worst descrip- 
tion. There are several farms tilled according to the 
most improved system of agriculture. The extent of 
arable land in the Ardnamurchan and Sunart districts 
is upwards of 5000 acres, about half turned by the 
plough, and half by the spade ; and it is supposed that 
the quantity throughout the parish might be doubled 
with a profitable application of capital, there being in 
these two districts alone about 13,000 acres of pasture, 
more than 3000 of moss, and upwards of 80,000 of 
moor, much of which is capable of tillage. An agricul- 
tural association, principally connected with Ardna- 
murchan and Sunart, and some neighbouring places, 
meets annually at Strontian ; under the auspices of 
which great improvement has taken place in the breed 
of horses, black-cattle, and sheep. The annual value of 
real property iu the parish is £6894. The geological 
structure of the parish is of great interest, presenting 
one of the most inviting fields in Scotland to the student 
of geology. The natural wood is of considerable ex- 
tent, including much oak, valuable for its bark and 
timber, birch, hazel, alder, and ash : the plantations in 
the parish comprise fir, plane, oak, and ash trees. 
There are various mansion-houses of proprietors, gene- 
rally plain comfortable buildings suited to the climate, 
and those more recently erected shewing a due regard 
to ornament. The population is rural, and scattered 
through the different districts. Some of the inhabitants 
are engaged in salmon-fishing on the river Shiel, and 
others in taking herrings on some of the lochs. 
Indeed the whole sea-coast abounds with a variety of 
fish, especially cod, ling, sethe, lythe, gurnet, flounder ; 
while lobsters, oysters, and the smaller kinds of shell- 
fish, are also plentiful ; though the apathy and ignorance 
of the people prevent their availing themselves to any 
great extent of this bountiful provision made for their 
wants. Two decked-vessels belong to the place, one of 
fifty and the other of twenty tons. An extensive manu- 
factory of bobbins for thread is carried on at Salen, on 
Loch Sunart ; the machinery is very ingenious, and 
moved by immense power, the water-wheel being forty 
feet in diameter. There is a post-office at Strontian, 
with a daily post ; also one at Arasaig, with a delivery 
three times a week ; and a third at Kilchoan, com- 
municating with Strontian by a messenger twice a 
71 



week. A road runs from Arasaig, by Glenfinnan, to 
Fort-WiUiam and the Caledonian canal, and another 
from Strontian to Corran Ferry, by each of which cattle 
and sheep are driven to the southern markets. The 
principal communication, however, is by steam-vessels 
from Glasgow, which touch at the point of Arasaig, and 
at Tobermory, a sea-port in the northern extremity of 
the island of Mull, about five miles south from the har- 
bour of Kilchoan, in Ardnamurchan. A fair is held at 
Strontian in May, and another in October, for cattle and 
sheep : there is also a cattle and sheep fair at Arasaig. 

The parish is ecclesiastically in the presbytery of 
Mull, synod of Argyll, and for pastoral purposes is dis- 
tributed into five portions, namely, the parish church 
district, two quoad sacra parishes, a district under the 
care of a missionary, and another under that of an 
assistant. The first of these embraces the western por- 
tion of the peninsula of Ardnamurchan, and contains a 
place of worship at Kilchoan, on the south, four or five 
miles from the point, and one at Kilmorie, on the 
northern coast, at which the minister officiates alter- 
nately. Kilchoan church, which, on account of its 
situation, commands the larger attendance, is a very 
superior edifice, built in 1831, and accommodating more 
than 600 persons ; that of Kilmorie, raised by a former 
incumbent, is a very humble structure, originally built of 
dry stone, and thatched. The minister has a stipend of 
about £270, subject to a deduction to the assistant ; with 
a manse, and a glebe of twenty-seven acres, valued at £10 
or £1^2 per annum: patron, the Duke of Argyll. The 
quoad sacra church at Strontian is thirty miles distant 
from the parish church ; that at Aharacle is situated 
at the west end of Loch Shiel, twenty-three miles dis- 
tant. The mission of Laga comprehends about eleven 
miles of the coast of Loch Sunart, partly in the parish 
church district, and partly in that of Aharacle ; the 
minister receives £60 per annum from the Royal Bounty, 
and has built a preaching-house at his own expense. 
The district of the assistant is by far the largest eccle- 
siastical division, embracing the principal part of 
Moidart, and the whole of Arasaig and South Morir. It 
has a small preaching-house, built partly by subscrip- 
tion, at Polnish, near Inveraylort, and a school-house at 
Ardnafuaran, in Arasaig. The assistant receives from 
the parish minister £.55. 11. 1., and £32 from the Royal 
Bounty, with £5 for communion elements. There are 
five Roman Catholic chapels in the parish, with two 
officiating priests. The parochial school, situated at 
Kilchoan, aflfords the ordinary instruction ; the master 
has a salary of £25. 13. 3., and £10 fees, with a house, 
garden, and two acres of land, the whole valued at £7. 
There are two schools attached to the quoad sacra 
parishes of Aharacle and Strontian, erected by Sir 
J. M. Riddell, Bart., and endowed by government; 
while in other parts of the parish are schools supported 
by various religious societies. The chief relic of an- 
tiquity is the castle of Mingary, on the southern shore 
of Ardnamurchan, once the stronghold of Mac Ian, from 
which James IV. in 1493 granted a charter, and where, 
two years afterwards, he held his court to receive the 
submission of the nobles of the forfeited lordship of the 
Isles. The parish contains several vitrified forts. On 
the plain of Glenfinnan is a tower erected in commemo- 
ration of the events of 1745, by Alexander McDonald 
of Glenaladale, with an inscription by Dr. Donald 



A RD R 



A RD R 



Mc Lean ; the successor to the property, Angus 
Me Donald, Esq., has lately much improved the tower, 
and crowned it with a statue of Prince Charles Stuart. 

ARDOCH, for a time a quoad sacra parish, com- 
prising the hamlets of Balhaddie, Buttergask, Green- 
loaning, and Rottearn, in the parish of Dunblane; the 
thriving post-village of Braco, in the parish of Mithill ; 
and part of the parish of Blackford, in the county of 
Perth; the whole containing 1584 inhabitants. The 
parish was about seven miles in length by six in breadth, 
and intersected by the high road from Crieff to Dunblane 
and Stirling ; two-thirds of the soil are in tillage or 
pasture, and the remainder, with the exception of a 
portion under plantation, is uncultivated. Great facilities 
of communication are afforded by the Scottish Central 
railway. At Rottearn is a small manufactory for con- 
verting potatoes into flour. Fairs are held at Braco on 
the first Wednesday in January, the last Tuesday in 
April, and the first Tuesday in August, chiefly for cattle. 
The district is in the presbytery of Auchterarder, synod 
of Perth and Stirling ; the minister is under the juris- 
diction of the ministers of Dunblane and Muthill, and 
has a manse and garden. The church, or chapel of 
ease, erected by subscription in 1*80, is a plain edifice, 
and contains 555 sittings. The United Presbyterian 
Synod and the Free Church have places of worship also 
in the district : that for the latter body is a handsome 
structure with a tower and spire, and contains sittings 
for 700 persons. There is a school for the benefit of all 
denominations, and a library is supported. Near the 
village is the most entire Roman camp that remains in 
Scotland. — See Muthill. 

ARDRISSAIG, a village, in the parish of South 
Knapdale, county of Argyll ; containing about 400 
inhabitants. This village, which is situated at the 
harbour of Ardrissaig in Loch Gilp, has sprung up since 
the commencement of the Crinan canal, in 1793, and is 
of respectable appearance. It is the scene of much 
bustle and traffic, occasioned by the convenience of its 
harbour, at the opening of the canal into Loch Gilp. 
Exclusive of the business in goods and passengers con- 
nected with the canal, it is computed that about 24,000 
persons are landed and taken ou board annually, besides 
large numbers of sheep and cattle, by the Glasgow 
steam-vessels, three of which in summer, and one in 
winter, arrive here daily. In the harbour is a slip and 
steam-boat pier, erected in 1S37, at an expense of more 
than £1000 ; and independently of the boats belonging 
to the parish, forty or fifty in number, many others, 
making together above 100, are frequently in the har- 
bour in the fishing season, herrings being taken in Loch 
Fine (of which Loch Gilp is a branch) in very large 
numbers. In her visit to Scotland in 1847, Her Majesty 
and the royal party landed at Ardrissaig in the month of 
August, and proceeded along the Crinan canal in a barge 
which had been prepared for their reception, rejoining 
the royal squadron at the other extremity of the canal. 
Her Majesty also returned to England by way of the 
Crinan line of navigation, in the month of September. 
The revenue of the canal is scarcely sufficient to defray 
the cost of maintaining it. One of the parochial schools 
is established here. 

ARDROSSAN, a parish, in the district of Cunning- 
HAME, county of Ayr; including the thriving sea-port 
town of Ardrossan, and the greater part of Saltcoats. 
72 



seventy-four miles (W. S. W.) from Edinburgh ; and con- 
taining 4947 inhabitants. This place derives its name, 
of Celtic origin, from the situation of its ancient baronial 
castle on a small promontory. Little is known of its 
earlier history ; and of its ancient proprietors not much 
further notice occurs than that Sir Fergus de Ardrossan 
accompanied Edward Bruce in his expedition into 
Ireland, in 1316, and was one of the Scottish barons who 
in 1320 signed a memorial to the pope, complaining of 
the aggressions of Edward I. of England. During the 
time of Baliol, the castle being occupied by the English, 
was surprised and taken by William Wallace, who, 
arriving in the night with some of his followers, set fire 
to the few houses situated around the base of the hill on 
which it stood ; and on the garrison going out to ex- 
tinguish the flames, the assailants rushed into the castle, 
made themselves masters of the gates, and put all the 
English to the sword, as they unsuspectingly returned. 
The castle appears to have been inhabited till the time 
of Cromwell, who is said to have thrown down its walls, 
and to have not only demolished it, but carried away the 
materials for the erection of the fort which he built at Ayr. 
On the death of the last Baron Ardrossan without issue 
male, the estate passed, by marriage with his heiress, to 
the Montgomerie family, its present proprietors. 

The TOWN is beautifully situated on the shore of the 
Firth of Clyde, and owes its rise to the fostering patron- 
age of the late Earl of Eglinton, by whom it was origi- 
nally built, and by whom the harbour to which it is so 
much indebted was originally constructed, chiefly at his 
own expense. Ardrossan is rapidly increasing in im- 
portance. It consists of various spacious and regu- 
larly-formed streets, intersecting each other at right 
angles, and containing houses uniformly and handsomely 
built ; the town is lighted with gas, and is supplied with 
excellent water by means of cast-iron pipes, which are 
laid down from a reservoir fed by a small stream called 
the Stanley burn. It is much frequented, during the 
season, as a watering-place. Lodging-houses have been 
built for the reception of the company who resort hither 
for bathing ; and a large hotel has been erected, con- 
taining ten public rooms, and a proportionate number of 
sleeping-rooms, with hot and cold baths. The public 
baths, for which a handsome building was raised, were 
originally established on the tontine principle by the late 
Earl of Eglinton, after whose decease in ISIQ they were 
suspended for a time, till in 1833 they were purchased 
by the present proprietor, by whom the buildings have 
been enlarged, and put into a state of complete repair. 
The baths are of marble, with convenient dressing-rooms 
attached to each ; they are under excellent management, 
and hot, cold, shower, and vapour baths are prepared 
on the shortest notice. Connected with the establish- 
ment are numerous lodging-rooms, which are fully 
occupied during the season ; there is also a bath gratui- 
tously appropriated to the use of the poor. In the im- 
mediate neighbourhood of the town are several villas, 
pleasantly situated, commanding good views of the 
Firth ; and around the margin of the bay a crescent has 
been laid out, forming a splendid addition to the ap- 
pearance of the town. The Pavilion, the marine villa of 
the Earl of Eglinton, is an elegant seat, occasionally the 
residence of his lordship. There are many agreeable 
walks in the environs, and between this and Saltcoats is 
a fine sandy beach, about three-quarters of a mile in 



A R D R 



A RD R 



length, which is a favourite promenade. In the year 
1846 an act of parliament was passed for erecting the 
town and places adjacent into a burgh of barony ; for 
paving, lighting, and cleansing the same; and esta- 
blishing a police. There are about sixty looms in the 
town, employed in the weaving of shawls and heavier 
articles, and lighter articles of silk and cotton ; and in 
Saltcoats nearly 450 : many of the females are also en- 
gaged in working muslin. Fairs are held in July, and 
on the fourth Thursday in November, for cattle and 
various kinds of merchandise. 

The HARBOUR was projected by the late Earl of 
Eglinton, in the beginning of the present century, with a 
view to accommodate the shipping belonging to the 
Firth of Clyde. At that time, the river Clyde had not 
been deepened, and only the smallest class of coasters 
could reach Glasgow. The accommodation at Greenock 
and Port-Glasgow was limited, and as the trade of the 
city of Glasgow was rapidly increasing, it was very pro- 
bable that a safe and commodious harbour at the mouth 
of the Firth of Clyde, with a proper communication to 
Glasgow, would confer a great benefit on the manufac- 
turing and commercial interests of the west of Scotland, 
and command a large return upon the capital required 
for the construction of the necessary works. Lord 
Eglinton was strongly impressed with this opinion, and 
through his influence and exertions two companies were 
organized, one for the construction of a tide-harbour 
and wet- dock at Ardrossan, and the other for the con- 
struction of a canal from Glasgow, by Paisley and 
Johnstone, to the proposed harbour. The acts incorpo- 
rating these two companies were obtained in 1805 and 
IS06, and the works were commenced immediately after. 
In a very short time, however, it was found that the 
capital subscribed for the two undertakings would be far 
short of what was necessary for their completion. The 
canal was only completed to Johnstone, when the funds 
were exhausted, and the canal company stopped the 
further progres.s of the works. The same result would 
have followed the deficiency in the harbour company's 
capital, had it not been for the public spirit of Lord 
Eglinton, who took the whole responsibility upon him- 
self, and C(mtinued to prosecute the works until his death 
in 1819. At that period the tide-harbour was opened, 
and the wet-dock nearly completed ; the whole outlay 
then amounting to upwards of £100,000. But though 
the works were thus far advanced, there was little pros- 
pect of the canal ever being finished, and as the harbours 
of Greenock and Glasgow were by this time greatly im- 
proved, it was deemed imprudent by the trustees left in 
charge of the harbour to lay more money out upon it. 
An attempt was made in 18'27, to carry out the original 
plans by forming a railway from Ardrossan to Johnstone, 
to join the canal there : an act was obtained, but the line 
was only constructed to Kilwinning, six miles from 
Ardrossan, with a branch of four miles more to the 
Eglinton coal-fields. In 1840 the communication was 
finally opened by the construction of the Glasgow and 
Ayrshire railway, which passes through Kilwinning, and 
there joins the Ardrossan line. About this time, the 
harbour proprietors addressed the present Earl of Eglin- 
ton, requesting him to take the harbour into his own 
hands, and complete it ; to which his lordship acceded. 
An act was accordingly passed in 1842, vesting the 
works in Lord Eglinton, on his paying the other share- 
VoL. I.— 73 



holders the value of their shares ; the works were again 
commenced in 1844, and were completed the following 
year. In 1846 an act was passed authorising the con- 
struction of the Glasgow, Kilmarnock, and Ardrossan 
railway, to commence at the Neilston end of the Glasgow 
and Neilston railway, and to form a junction with the 
Ardrossan line. The same act gave power to purchase 
the Ardrossan railway and harbour, for which the new 
company engaged to pay £208,000 in three yearly in- 
stalments ; and in 1849 an act was obtained for enlarging 
the provisions of the acts relating to the harbour, and 
the Glasgow, Kilmarnock, and Ardrossan railway. 

The harbour is perfectly sate, and easily taken in every 
wind : no damage has ever been occasioned in it during 
the heaviest storms, and vessels have been known to 
quit their moorings in other ports in severe gales, and 
run to Ardrossan for shelter. The entrance bears East 
I North magnetic, and is shewn at night by two red 
guiding lights : the most conspicuous landmark is a 
tower on the Horse island, whose latitude is 55° 58' 40" 
N., and longitude 4° 50' 23" W. The depth of water in 
the dock is nineteen feet at neap, and twenty-two feet at 
spring tides ; it is capable of accommodating forty 
square-rigged vessels, and the harbour can accommodate 
about eighty of the same class. It has been in contem- 
plation, also, to extend the piers into deeper water, so as 
to inclose a greater area, of such depth that the largest 
vessels might be afloat at low water. The arrangements 
for loading and unloading are very complete ; the rail- 
way is carried along every part of the quay walls, and 
the trucks can be taken directly alongside the vessels. 
The facilities thus afforded for transmitting goods, con- 
joined with the great natural advantages of Ardrossan, 
will no doubt be the means of realizing the anticipations 
of the noble proprietor, and making the place one of the 
most thriving sea-ports in the west of Scotland. The 
export trade consists principally of iron and coal from 
the mineral fields in the neighbourhood, and general 
goods from Glasgow : the chief imports are, timber from 
America ; corn, cattle, and provisions from Ireland ; and 
goods from the manufacturing districts of England. 
Before the opening of complete railway communication 
between Scotland and England, steamers used to sail 
four times a week from Ardrossan to Fleetwood, in 
Lancashire, furnishing the most rapid communication 
between Paisley, Greenock, Glasgow, Edinburgh, &c., 
in Scotland, and Preston, Manchester, Liverpool, Leeds, 
Birmingham, and London. These steamers were sup- 
posed to be the fastest then afloat, and plied in connexion 
with the railway trains to Ardrossan and to Fleetwood. 
Passengers were repeatedly taken in rather less than 
twenty-four hours from London to Glasgow, and twenty- 
six hours from London to Edinburgh, by this route. 
Steam-boat communication is maintained with Belfast, 
&c. An excellent graving-dock, here, is capable of 
admitting vessels of 1200 tons' register, and there is a 
patent-slip which can take on vessels of 800 tons' 
register : these afford the most ample facilities for re- 
pairing vessels. Ship-building is carried on to a con- 
siderable extent, and vessels of every description and 
size have been built, which bear a very high character. 
There is a large saw-mill on the harbour grounds. 

The PARISH is bounded on the south and south-west 
by the Firth of Clyde, and comprises about 7000 acres, 
of which 1580 are arable, 3000 meadow and pasture. 



A R D R 



A RG Y 



2270 hilly pasture, and about 190 woodland and plan- 
tations. It3 surface is agreeably diversified with tracts 
of level land, and gentle undulations rising into hills of 
different elevation, which increase in height towards the 
coast. The highest of the hills is called Knock- Georgan, 
and is 700 feet above the sea, commanding a rich 
prospect ; of the others, only one has an elevation of 
400 feet. Several of them are ornamented with clumps of 
trees, and add much to the beauty of the scenery. The 
shore is generally level, and indented with bays of 
various dimensions, of which that of Ardrossan is very 
picturesque ; it is about three-quarters of a mile in 
length, and to the north of it is another fine bay, of 
larger size ; the coast here becomes rocky and irregular, 
and ridges of shelving rocks extend for a considerable 
length. Nearly opposite the harbour, and about a mile 
from the shore, is Horse Isle, containing about twelve 
acres : on this isle a beacon tower was erected by the 
late Earl of Eglinton for the benefit of vessels ap- 
proaching the harbour, and it has been in contemplation 
to convert the tower into a light-house. The chief 
rivulets are, the Stanley and Monfode burns, which 
descend from the higher lands, and after flowing through 
the parish, fall into the Firth ; and the Munnock or 
Caddel burn, a more copious stream, which intersects 
the upper part of the parish, and falls into the river 
Caaf, which separates the parish from that of Dairy. 

The SOIL, towards the coast, is light and sandy, and 
in the higher grounds a tenacious clay, occasionally in- 
termixed with loam. It has been rendered generally 
fertile by long cultivation, and a judicious use of sea- 
weed and lime. The principal crops are oats, wheat, 
potatoes, and turnips. The system of agriculture is in 
a very advanced state ; the lands are well drained and 
inclosed, and great improvements have been made, and 
much unprofitable land reclaimed, under the auspices of 
the Agricultural Society, which holds its meetings here 
in November. Great attention is paid to the manage- 
ment of the dairies; and about 10,000 stone of cheese 
of good quality are annually produced, which supply the 
neighbouring markets : the cows are generally of the 
Cunninghame or Ayrshire breed. The annual value of 
real property in the parish is £11,7/5. The substrata 
are limestone, freestone, and coal. The last was formerly 
wrought in the northern part of the parish, and in the 
vicinity of Saltcoats, but the workings have been for 
some time discontinued. There are three limestone- 
quarries in the upper part of the parish. The freestone 
is found both of a red and white colour, and there is an 
extensive quarry of the former close to the town of 
Ardrossan, from which the stone was raised for building 
the town and forming the quay. Near the town are 
also various kinds of whinstone, of which whole rocks 
have been blasted with gunpowder, and used in the for- 
mation of the breakwater. There are several strata of 
ironstone near the pubhc baths, varying from two inches 
to nearly five feet in thickness, but from their situation, 
the working of them has not been thought likely to 
repay the expense. A variety of fossil shells is found in 
several parts, and it is generally supposed that the sea 
has considerably receded from this part of the coast. 

Ecclesiastically the parish is in the presbytery of Irvine 

and synod of Glasgow and Ayr : the minister's stipend 

is £261. 1. 3., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £20 per 

annum ; patron, the Earl of Eglinton. The old church, 

74 



which was situated on the Castle-hill, at Ardrossan, was 
destroyed by a storm in I691, and another erected on a 
site about half a mile further from the coast. This 
church, also, being so much shaken by a storm, in 1*73, 
as to be considered unsafe, was taken down, and the 
present church built, in the town of Saltcoats, in 1774; 
it is a substantial edifice, adapted for a congregation of 
840 persons. Another church connected with the Esta- 
blishment was built in 1844, in Arran place, Ardrossan; it 
is a handsome edifice in the pointed style, and ornamental 
to the town. There are places of worship for dissenters 
in Ardrossan and Saltcoats. The parochial school, 
situated in Saltcoats, is well conducted ; the master has 
a salary of £34. 4. 4., and £25 from fees, with a house 
and garden. Of the ancient castle of Ardrossan some 
small fragments only are remaining. Upon the lands of 
Monfode are the remains of a baronial castle, much 
dilapidated, formerly the residence of a family of that 
name. On Knock-Georgan are the remains of a Danish 
camp ; and on one of the other hills in the parish is an 
artificial mound of rectangular form, sixteen yards long, 
nine yards wide, and the same in height, with sloping 
banks ; concerning which nothing authentic is recorded. 
Dr. Robert Simson, professor of mathematics in the uni- 
versity of Glasgow, was a heritor of this parish, where 
he was accustomed to reside during the vacations, on his 
estate of Knockewart. 

ARGYLLSHIRE, a maritime county, in the south- 
west of Scotland, bounded on the north by Inverness- 
shire ; on the east by the counties of Inverness, Perth, 
and Dumbarton ; and on the south and west by the 
Firth of Clyde and the Atlantic Ocean. It lies between 
55° 21' and 57° (N. lat.), and 4° 15' and 7° 10' (W.long.), 
and is about 115 miles in extreme length, and about 
50 or 60 miles in average breadth ; comprising an 
area, including the various islands connected with it, 
of about 3800 square miles ; of which, what may be 
considered as the continent contains about 2735 square 
miles, or 1,750,400 acres. There are 19,207 houses, of 
which 18,552 are inhabited ; and a population of 97,371, 
of whom 47,795 are males, and 49,576 females. The 
county appears to have been occupied at an early period 
chiefly by the Scots, who, emigrating from the Irish 
coasts, settled in the peninsula of Cantyre, and after the 
subjugation of the Picts, and the union of the two king- 
doms under Kenneth Mc Alpine, became identified with 
the general population of the country. In the legends 
of romance, this part of Scotland is celebrated as the 
principal scene of the exploits of the heroes of the race 
of Fingal, and as the birthplace of the bard Ossian, 
whose poems are still the subject of deeply-interesting 
research among the learned. Ossian is said to have 
been boru in the valley of Glencoe ; and the county, 
which abounds with numerous localities connected with 
the achievements of his heroes, stiU retains, in a very 
high degree, that spirit of feudal vassalage for which it 
was for ages pre-eminently remarkable. The family of 
Campbell, long distinguished as the principal of that 
extensive and powerful clan, and ancestors of the Dukes 
of Argyll, for many generations possessed an absolute 
and sovereign authority over their vassals, who on every 
occasion rallied round the standard of their chieftain, 
with all the fideUty of kindred attachment, and tendered 
the most arduous services with implicit submission to 
his control. 



A R G Y 



A R G Y 



Prior to the ReformatioD, the county was for centuries 
the seat of a diocese, the bishop of which resided on 
the island of Lismore (between the main land and the 
isle of Mull), where the cathedral church was situated ; 
and the jurisdiction extended over all the adjacent 
islands, including those of Bute and Arran. Since that 
period, it has constituted the chief part of the synod of 
Argyll, comprising the presbyteries of Inverary, Dunoon, 
Cantyre, Islay and Jura, Lorn, and Mull ; and about 
fifty parishes. For civil purposes, the county is divided 
into the districts of Argyll, Cowal, Islay, Cantyre, 
Lorn, and Mull ; and is under the jurisdiction of a 
sheriff-depute, by whom three sheriifs-substitute are ap- 
pointed, who reside respectively at Inverary, which is 
the county town, at Campbelltown, and Tobermory. 
The courts of assize and general quarter-sessions are 
held at Inverary ; and courts for the recovery of small 
debts are held four times in the year at Oban, Loch- 
gilphead, Dunoon, and Bowmore; and twice in the year 
at Strontian. The royal burghs are Inverary and Camp- 
belltown ; and in addition to the other places above 
noticed, the county contains the small towns of Balli- 
chulish and Tobermory, the village of Ardrissaig, &c. 
Under the act of the 2nd 'of William IV., the county 
returns one member to the imperial parliament ; and 
the royal burghs of Inverary and Campbelltown, with 
the parliamentary burgh of Oban, unite with Ayr and 
Irvine, in the county of Ayr, in returning another 
member. 

The SURFACE is generally wild and mountainous, es- 
pecially towards the north, where it borders on the 
Grampian range ; and even along the coasts, which form 
a line of more than 600 miles, and where the land is 
lowest, there are numerous hills of very considerable 
elevation. The most mountainous parts of the county 
are, however, interspersed with pleasing and fertile 
tracts of valley, watered by streams, on the banks of 
which are some productive arable lands ; and in many 
places the slopes of the hills afford good pasture. Of 
the numerous Islands that are included within the limits 
of the county, the principal are Mull, Jura, Islay, 
Coll, Tiree, Colonsay, Lismore, and Oronsay, with 
smaller islands, all of which are noticed under their 
respective heads. Between these islands and the main 
land are several e.xtensive sounds, the principal of which 
are, the Sound of Mull, between the island of that name 
and the main land ; and the Sound of Jura, separating 
that island from the continent : the Sound of Islay is 
between the isles of Jura and Islay, and the Firth of 
Clyde separates part of Argyllshire on the west from the 
counties of Ayr and Renfrew on the east. The most 
prominent Mountains are, the Cruachan, rising from the 
north-eastern extremity of Loch Awe, to the height of 
3390 feet ; the Cruachlus.sa, in the district of Knapdale, 
attaining an elevation of 3000 feet ; Benreisipoll, in 
Ardnamurchan, 2661 feet in height; Buchael-Etive, 
near Loch Etive, towards the north, rising 2537 feet 
above the sea ; the Paps of Jura, in the isle of Jura, 
2476 feet in height; and Beininturk, in Cantyre, which 
has an elevation of 2170 feet. 

The coasts arc deeply indented with arms of the sea, 
constituting salt-water lochs of considerable extent. 
Among these is Loch Fine, which is of very great depth, 
sixty miles in length, and varying from two to three 
miles in breadth, and on the shore of which is situated 
75 



the. town of Inverary : its great depth is thought to be 
one cause of the superior quality of its herrings. Loch 
Linnhe lies between the districts of Morven and Lorn, 
and is the source of most of the inland lakes which 
form the Caledonian canal ; the scenery on both its 
shores is strikingly romantic, and the borders are 
thickly interspersed with the remains of ancient for- 
tresses, and enlivened with numerous handsome re- 
sidences. Loch Long extends from the Firth of Clyde, 
for nearly twenty-two miles, into the land, separating 
the county from that of Dumbarton ; and from the 
west side of this arm of the sea branches off Loch God, 
crowned on its precipitous banks with the ruins of Castle 
Carrick, a royal residence, of which His Grace the Duke 
of Argyll is hereditary keeper. Of the inland lakes 
of the county, by far the most extensive is Loch Awe, 
about twenty-eight miles in length, and from one to 
two miles in breadth ; it abounds with salmon, eels, and 
trout, and from one side of it issues a stream called 
the Awe, which flows through the magnificent pass of 
Brander into the Loch Etive, at Bunawe ferry. The 
pass of Brander, which was the scene of a battle be- 
tween Robert Bruce and Mac Dougall of Lorn, seems 
to have been formed by some violent convulsion, causing 
the rare circumstance in nature of a lateral escape of 
water from a lake. Loch Etive, a lake of much smaller 
extent, communicates with Loch Awe by the river Awe, 
and on the west with the Sound of Mull, from which it 
forms an inlet, nearly opposite the island of Lismore : 
on the north shore are the ruins of the ancient priory 
of Ardchattan. There are several smaller lakes, but 
none of sufficient importance to require particular no- 
tice ; also numerous streams intersecting the lands in 
various places, few or none of which, however, are 
navigable. 

The quantity of land which is arable and in cultiva- 
tion is little more than 100,000 acres ; about 30,000 
acres are in woodland and plantations, and the remain- 
der, nearly 1,300,000 acres, with the exception of about 
25,000 in inland lakes and rivers, is principally heath, 
and hill and mountain pasture. The soil of the arable 
land is extremely various. Along the coasts, it is gene- 
rally a light gravelly loam, resting upon a clayey bottom, 
and differing in fertility in different places. On the 
lower grounds, in some parts, is a mixture of clayey 
loam ; in others, a kind of black mossy earth ; and on 
the slopes of the hills, a light gravelly soil. The .system 
of agriculture is moderately improved, and the rotation 
plan of husbandry is growing into use. The chief crops 
are oats, bear, and potatoes, with peas and beans, and 
various green crops ; the cultivation of turnips has been 
extensively introduced. Wheat of excellent quality has 
been raised, but though the soil in many parts is favour- 
able to its growth, very little attention is paid to its 
culture. Flax, for domestic use, is raised in consider- 
able quantities. The cattle are principally of the black 
West Highland breed, and, being in much demand, on 
account of the superior beef they afford, are reared to a 
great extent throughout the county, especially in the 
islands : next to sheep, they form the staple trade of the 
county. The sheep-farms are in general very extensive, 
and the stock is principally of the Linton or black-faced 
breed, though the Cheviot breed, which has been lately 
introduced in some places, has been found equally well 
adapted to the pastures, and more profitable. 

L2 



A R M A 



A RNG 



The chief Substrata are, limestone, which is very 
abundant, and freestone of various kinds and colours, 
some fine specimens of which are found in Cantyre, 
and also in Glenorchy. Slate is abundant in the neigh- 
bourhood of Easdale, and is also wrought in the district 
of Appin. Near Inverary is a kind of granite which is 
susceptible of a high polish, resembling spotted marble ; 
and there are quarries of marble in Lorn, on the estate 
of Lochiel, and in the island of Tiree, which last is of very 
beautiful quality. Coal is found near Canipbelltown, 
and is wrought for the supply of that district ; there 
are also indications of coal in Morven, and in the isle 
of Mull. Lead-ore has been wrought at Strontian, and 
found in other places ; a copper-mine has been opened 
in the parish of Kilmalie, and there are numerous ves- 
tiges of ancient iron-works in the mountains, though 
no ore of sufficient quality to remunerate the expense 
of working it is now found. The greater portion of the 
county was formerly covered with Wuuds, of which but 
very small remains now exist : the deficiency has been 
partly supplied by modern plantations, especially on the 
lands of the Duke of Argyll. The soil and climate are 
well adapted to the growth of timber of every kind : 
the most flourishing descriptions at present are oak, 
beech, elm, plane, birch, ash, chesnut, larch, and Scotch, 
spruce, and silver firs ; and within the last few years 
plantations have been gradually increasing. The prin- 
cipal manufacture is that of wool, which has been made 
into carpets, under the auspices of the Duke of Argyll j 
but it is limited to a very small extent. The spinning 
of flax is carried on, for domestic use. There are se- 
veral distilleries, tanneries, and some bleach-fields ; and 
the herring-fishery in Loch Fine is on an extensive 
scale. Facility of intercourse has been obtained by the 
formation of roads in various directions, and canals ; 
and from the inlets from the sea, every advantage of 
steam navigation is obtained. The annual value of real 
property in the county is £26Q,273, of which £232,441 
are returned for lands, £25,362 for houses, £1430 for 
fisheries, and the remainder for other species of real 
property. There are numerous remains of ancient cas- 
tles, forts, Danish encampments, monasteries and other 
religious houses, cairns, tumuli, Druidical remains, 
vitrified forts, many Fingalian relics, and other monu- 
ments of antiquity, all of which are noticed in the 
articles on the several localities where they occur. The 
county confers the title of Duke on the celebrated 
family of Campbell, who were created Earls of Argyll 
in 1457, advanced to the Marquessate in 1641, and 
made Dukes in 1/01, and who also bear several dignities 
named after different divisions of the county. 

ARINANGOUR, a village, in the island of Coll, 
parish of Tiree and Coll, county of Argyll j con- 
taining about 170 inhabitants. This place, which is 
situated about the middle of the island of Coll, contains 
the only harbour of any note in that portion of the 
parish. It has a pier, and is considered a safe retreat for 
shipping, but has the disadvantage of a rocky entrance. 
ARMADALE, a village, in the parish of Bathgate, 
county of Linlithgow, 2 miles (W.) from Bathgate ; 
lontaining 121 inhabitants. It derives its name from 
an estate in the vicinity, which once belonged to a 
senator in the college of justice whose title was Lord 
Armadale, being taken from the estate. The road from 
Linlithgow to Whitburn runs through the village, and 
76 



it is also situated on one of the great roads between 
Edinburgh and Glasgow, from which cities it is nearly 
equidistant. The population is employed in agriculture, 
and in the mines and quarries of the neighbourhood. 

ARNGASK, a parish, in the counties of Fife, Kin- 
ross, and Perth, 6 miles (N. N. E) from Kinross; 
containing, with the villages of Damhead and Duncrivie, 
750 inhabitants. This parish constitutes a portion of 
the Ochil hills, and is situated around the junction of 
the counties of Perth, Fife, and Kinross, at Damhead. 
It is nearly of a circular figure, and extends in length 
four miles from east to west, and about three from north 
to south, comprising 61 16 acres, of which 4590 are 
arable, 1291 uncultivated, and the remainder plantations, 
formed chiefly within the last thirty or forty years. 
The surface is in general hilly, consisting of numerous 
undulations and smooth round eminences varying from 
600 to 800 feet in height above the level of the sea. 
Some of them are picturesque and well-wooded, and 
among the many points commanding extensive and 
interesting views, that of Cairn-Geddes, a part of the 
laads of Fordel, is especially worthy of notice, as afiFord- 
ing a diversified and magnificent prospect embracing 
the Firth of Tay, the Carse of Gowrie, the Sidlaw hills, 
the upper portion of Strathearn, and a large section of 
the Grampians. The Farg, a fine trout- stream much 
frequented by anglers, rising near the western boundary, 
separates the parish for more than a mile from that of 
Forgandenny, and divides, in its onward course till it 
reaches Damhead, the counties of Perth and Kinross ; 
after which it runs between the counties of Perth and 
Fife, till it departs from this locality, in about the centre 
of the celebrated and romantic glen to which it gives its 
name. 

The uncultivated part of the land contains large tracts 
of a moorish or heathy soil ; but the soil which prevails 
in other portions is mostly a good black loamy earth, 
partially formed from the decomposition of the trap or 
wbinstone rocks, and, though light and shallow in some 
places, is generally rich. It produces abundant crops, 
consisting of the ordinary sorts of grain (including 
wheat), peas, potatoes, turnips, and grass for hay. In 
consequence of the introduction of bone manure, turnip 
husbandry has within these few years been greatly ex- 
tended, the root being eaten off the ground by the 
sheep, to the decided advantage of the soil. The parish 
contains four mills for grinding corn, and twenty-two 
for threshing, twenty of which are worked by horses, one 
by steam, and the other by water. The annual value of 
real property in the parish is £4394, of which £1909 
are for the Fife portion, £1344 for the Kinross portion, 
and £1141 for that in Perthshire. 

Duncrivie village is pleasantly situated at the southern 
extremity of the parish : and Damhead lies in the vale 
through which passes the great north road from Edin- 
burgh to Aberdeen : it has a post-office, established in 
1838, in connexion with Kinross on the south, and 
Bridge of Earn on the north. About eight hand-looms 
are in operation, and there is a saw-mill worked by 
water. Cattle-fairs are held at Damhead on the last 
Tuesday in April (O. S.), the first Thursday in August, 
and the first Tuesday in October ; there is also a cattle- 
market which has been held from time immemorial at 
Lustielaw, on the third Tuesday in May (O. S.). Eccle- 
siastically the parish is in the presbytery of Perth, 



A R RO 



A R RO 



synod of Perth and Stirling, and in the joint patronage 
of Mrs. Wardlaw, and Robert Low, Esq., of Fordels ; 
the minister's stipend is £1*8. 19. 10., with a manse 
and offices, built in 1829, and a glebe valued at £9. 13. 4. 
per annum. The church, which is pleasantly and con- 
veniently situated, is a plain substantial edifice ; it was 
built in 1806, and contained '240 sittings previously to 
1821, at which period 140 additional sittings were ob- 
tained by the erection of galleries. The parochial school 
affords instruction in Latin and Greek, in addition to 
the usual branches ; the master has a salary of £34, in- 
cluding allowance for garden, besides £26 fees. 

ARNPRIOR, a hamlet, in the parish of Kippen, 
county of Perth ; containing 96 inhabitants. It is 
situated to the south of the river Forth, and had an- 
ciently a castle, of which the remains may be traced. — 
See KippEN. 

ARNTULLY, county of Perth. — See Airntully. 

ARNYFOUL, a hamlet, in the parish of Glammis, 
county of Forfar ; containing 73 inhabitants. 

ARRAN, an island, in the county of Bute ; com- 
prising the parishes of Kilbride and Kilmory, and con- 
taining 6241 inhabitants. This island, called Glotta 
Astuarium by the Romans, is situated in the Firth of 
Clyde, between the coast of Ayrshire, which is on the 
east, distant about thirteen miles, and Cantyre, in Ar- 
gyllshire, lying to the west, and distant about six miles. 
It is of an oval form, indented by bays, and extending 
thirty miles in length, and fifteen in its greatest breadth. 
The surface throughout is rugged and mountainous, 
and intersected with mossy glens, whence streams, 
flowing from the heights, make their course to the sea. 
Arran is highly interesting to the geologist, on account 
of its presenting, within a narrow space, an epitome of 
the whole geological structure of Scotland ; while its 
pathless glens and picturesque hills commend it equally 
to visiters in general. There are several safe and com- 
modious harbours, of which that of Lamlash, on the 
east side, will afford good anchorage to several hundred 
vessels ; and the Cock of Arran, on the northern extre- 
mity, is a well-known landmark. The higher parts of 
the island are rocky and sterile, and generally covered 
with fern and heath; but in the valleys, and in the 
vicinity of the lakes, which are five in number, the soil 
is moderately fertile, though not well cultivated. Coal 
and limestone are said to exist ; freestone, ironstone, 
and marble are abundant, and jasper has been found on 
Goat-Fell, a hill above 3000 feet in height. There are 
several cairns, some remains of Druidical edifices, ruins 
of ancient fortresses, and some natural caves remark- 
able for their great extent ; and various places exhibit 
marks of volcanic fire. Arran is the property of the 
Duke of Hamilton, and gives the title of Earl to his 
grace. — See Kilbride, and Kilmory. 

ARROCHAR, a parish, in the county of Dumbar- 
ton, 22 miles (N. N. W.) from Dumbarton, and 22 
(E. S. E.) from Inverary ; containing 580 inhabitants. 
The name of this place, which at different times has 
been variously spelt, is derived from a Gaelic term sig- 
nifying " high" or " hilly", in reference to the nature of 
the ground. The parish is remarkable for the magnifi- 
cence of its scenery, and is much resorted to by tourists 
on account of the peculiar and numerous attractions 
which it presents, as well as from the excellence of the 
inns, the good order of the roads, and other advantages. 



Arrochar was disjoined from the parish of Luss in !6.58. 
It is about fifteen miles long and three broad, and con- 
tains 31,000 acres ; including two farms named Ardleish 
and Doune, which lie on the east side of Loch Lomond, 
and occupy the north-eastern extremity of the parish, 
almost separated from the main portion by the lake. 
The parish is bounded on the north by the parish of 
Strathfillan, in Perthshire ; on the south by the water 
of Douglass, and part of the parish of Luss ; on the east, 
by Loch Lomond ; and on the west, by Loch Long, and 
part of Argyllshire. The surface is altogether hilly and 
mountainous. It has about fourteen miles of coast 
bounding Loch Lomond, and a coast of three miles ex- 
tending along Loch Long : on the Lomond side, the 
shore is flat and sandy, and diversified by numerous 
bays and headlands. The mountain of Ben-Vorlich, 
clothed with rich pasture, is the most elevated in the 
parish, rising 3000 feet above the sea ; it is frequented 
by white hares, ptarmigan, and various kinds of wild 
fowl. There are four rivers, none of which are of large 
size ; viz., the Falloch, the Inveruglass, the Douglass, 
and the Linnhe, the three first of them running into 
Loch Lomond, and the last into Loch Long. Loch 
Lomond, which is twenty-four miles long, in some parts 
seven broad, and varies in depth from sixty to 100 
fathoms, abounds with bold and romantic scenery, and 
is considered the finest sheet of water throughout the 
country. It contains salmon, trout, pike, perch, eels, 
and also powans, generally called fresh-water herrings. 
Loch Long is about twenty-one miles in length and one 
and a half or two in breadth ; its depth is from ten to 
twenty fathoms. The fish found in it are halibut, soles, 
flounders, whitings, skate, lythe, sethe, cod, salmon, 
trout, herrings, &c. Its banks in some parts exhibit 
fine picturesque breaks, especially at the opening of 
Loch Goil ; and towards its head the scenery is equal 
to any part of Lomond. There are some beautiful cas- 
cades in the parish. 

The SOIL, except in some districts, is thin and poor, 
and only about 300 or 400 acres are arable ; a con- 
siderable number of acres are under wood, and on the 
shores of Loch Lomond are large plantations of oak, 
which are annually thinned ; the remaining land con- 
sists of indifferent pasture. The sheep are the black- 
faced, and the cattle comprise both the native breed 
and those introduced from Argyllshire. Some waste, 
to the extent of about fifty acres, has been reclaimed 
within these few years. The inclosures and farm-build- 
ings generally are in an indifferent state. The rocks 
consist for the most part of mica slate ; in some parts 
are traces of iron-ore, and there are two whinstone 
quarries near the whinstone dyke between Lochs Lo- 
mond and Long. The annual value of real property in 
the parish is £3096. 

The parish contains two small villages ; in addition 
to which, a considerable number of houses have been 
erected within the last few years for sea-bathing visiters. 
Among the inns is one which ranks with the most com- 
modious and excellent in Scotland, and which, before 
being converted to its present use, was the mansion of 
the chief of the Macfarlane clan. During the summer 
months, a coach runs daily from Inverary to Tarbet in 
the morning, and returns in the afternoon ; and vehicles 
of every description may be obtained at the inns of 
Tarbet and Arrochar, to which visiters come from all 



A SHK 



A SH K 



parts to view the scenery in the neighbourhood of the 
lakes. Steam-boats run on Loch Lomond and Loch 
Long from May till October. Another plies between 
Arrochar and Glasgow ; and ships with coal and lime 
from Glasgow and Ireland frequently come to the head 
of Loch Long, whence, also, wool is often sent to the 
market of Liverpool. A herring-fishery is carried on 
in Loch Long, with considerable profit, during the 
mouths of June and July, the boats afterwards proceed- 
ing successively to Loch Fine and the neighbourhood of 
Campbelltown, where they fish to the end of the season. 
Each boat contains about three men, and produces in 
the season from £30 to £60. 

Ecclesiastically the parish is within the bounds of the 
presbytery of Dumbarton and synod of Glasgow and 
Ayr ; the patronage belongs to Sir James Colquhoun, 
Bart., and the minister's stipend is £241, with a glebe 
worth £13 a year, and a manse erected in 183*. The 
church, situated in a corner of the parish, was built in 
1733, and is in indifferent repair; it contains 300 
sittings. A place of worship has been erected in con- 
nexion with the Free Church. There is a parochial 
school, in which the ordinary branches of education are 
taught ; the master has the maximum salary of £34. 4., 
with £8 fees, and a house. Another school, privately 
endowed, affords instruction in the classics, mathema- 
tics, and the other usual subjects ; the master receives 
£25 from the resident proprietor of land^and about £15 
or £20 fees. 

ARTHURLEE, CROSS, a village, in the former 
quoad sacra parish of Barrhead, parish of Neilston, 
Upper ward of the county of Renfrew ; containing 
663 inhabitants. This place owes its origin to the es- 
tablishment of a bleachfield in its vicinity, by a gentle- 
man named Adair, about the year 1773. It was chosen 
by him as a most suitable situation for works of this 
nature, and his example having been followed by others, 
the neighbourhood has since become a considerable 
bleaching district. The village is situated in the north- 
eastern part of the parish, and not far distant from the 
village of Barrhead. 

ARTHURLEE, WEST, a village, in the parish of 
Neilston, Upper ward of the county of Renfrew, 5 
a mile (W.) from the village of Barrhead ; containing 
441 inhabitants. This village, which is situated a little 
to the west of the road between Neilston and Barrhead, 
owes its origin to the introduction of the cotton manu- 
facture, and is chiefly inhabited by persons employed in 
the bleaching and printing establishments connected 
with that trade. 

ASHKIRK, a parish, partly in the county of Sel- 
kirk, but chiefly in the district of Hawick, county of 
Roxburgh, 6 miles (S.) from Selkirk ; containing 563 
inhabitants. The name of this place is said to have 
been derived from the great number of ash-trees with 
which the neighbourhood abounded, and of which a 
considerable number is still remaining. Ashkirk was 
formerly part of the see of Glasgow, and the occasional 
residence of the bishops, who had a palace here, some 
slight vestiges of which might lately be traced in a field 
retaining the name of Palace Walls. The parish is 
about seven miles in length, and three miles and a half 
in breadth, comprising about 3000 acres under cultiva- 
tion, 400 in woods and plantations, and a considerable 
portion of waste. The surface is generally hilly, with 
78 



tracts of level land in the intervals between the hills and 
the narrow valley of the Ale. The Ale has its source in 
the lakes of Alemoor and Shaws, and flowing through 
the parish in a direction from west to east, divides it 
into two nearly equal portions ; it abounds with trout of 
excellent quality, and a few sea-trout and small salmon 
are occasionally taken in it after floods. There were 
formerly numerous lakes in the parish, but from the 
practice of draining the lands, many of them have dis- 
appeared. The principal now remaining are, Essenside 
loch, covering about twenty acres of ground ; and the 
Sheilswood loch and Headshaw loch, both of which are 
of smaller dimensions : they all abound with perch, 
pike, and trout ; and afford good sport to the angler. 
Synton Moss, once a very extensive lake, has been com- 
pletely drained for the sake of obtaining the marl and 
peat with which it abounded, and which have been suc- 
cessfully applied to the improvement of the lands. In 
this moss, many interesting organic remains are occa- 
sionally dug up. 

The soil is generally light, in some places clay mixed 
with gravel, and in others a rich loam ; the chief crops 
being oats, barley, wheat, potatoes, and turnips. The sys- 
tem of agriculture is improved, and the farm-houses are 
tolerable, but the cottages are in general very wretched. 
Some few dairy-farms are managed with great care, and 
the butter produced here is of excellent quality. Con- 
siderable attention is paid to the rearing of live stock, 
upon which the main dependence is placed : the sheep 
are almost exclusively of the Cheviot breed, with occa- 
sionally a mixture of the Cheviot and the Leicestershire ; 
and the cattle are of the short-horned breed, which are 
found to be the best adapted to the lands. A few 
Highland cattle are pastured here during the winter. 
There appears to have been formerly a great abundance 
of natural wood, but very little ancient timber at pre- 
sent remains : the plantations are larch, spruce, and 
Scotch firs, intermixed with oak, ash, elm, and other 
forest-trees ; they are all of modern formation, and are 
in a thriving state. The annual value of real property 
in the Roxburgh portion of the parish is £3483, and in 
the Selkirk portion, £1510. The rocks belong to the 
transition series, and consist almost entirely of grey- 
wacke with a basis of clay-slate : the general direction 
of the stratification is from south-west to north-east. 

The parish is in the presbytery of Selkirk and synod 
of Merse and Teviotdale : the minister's stipend is 
£205. 12. 9., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £28 
per annum ; patron, the Earl of Minto. Ashkirk church, 
erected in 1791, is a plain substantial edifice adapted 
for about 200 persons. A place of worship has been 
erected in connexion with the Free Church. The 
parochial school is attended by about 80 children ; the 
master's salary is the maximum, with about £16 fees, 
and a house and garden. There are remains of two 
Danish encampments on the lands of Castleside, one of 
which is in good preservation, but the other is almost 
obliterated by the plough. On the lands of Salineside 
was formerly a very strong tower, of which there are 
scarcely more than some slight vestiges; and in various 
parts of the parish are remains of ancient encampments. 
The farm of Whitsled, in the parish, is the scene of the 
popular and very ancient Scottish song " The Ewe- 
buchts" : the "merry knows" mentioned in the song 
still retain the name. 



ASSY 



ATHE 



ASSYNT, a parish, in the county of Sutherland, 
30 miles (N. W. by W.) from Dornoch ; containing, 
with the former quoad sacra district of Stoer, and the 
village of Lochinver, 3178 inhabitants. This place is 
supposed to take its name from its irregular boundary 
line, the Gaelic term, as agus innle, signifying "out and 
in". It was once a forest of the ancient Thanes of 
Sutherland, one of whom gave it in vassalage to Mac-Kry- 
Cul, who held that part of the coast of Coigach after- 
wards called the village of Ullapool, as a reward for his 
having recovered a great number of cattle that had been 
carried off from the county of Sutherland by the Scandi- 
navians, who had also burnt the great fir forests on this 
and the neighbouring coast. Mac-Kry-Cul's family 
being reduced by the disasters of war to one heir female, 
she was given in marriage to a younger son of McLeod, 
laird of Lewis, with the consent of the Thane of Suther- 
land, who made this parish over to the newly-married 
couple, with its superiority. After this event, there 
were fourteen successive lairds of the name of McLeod. 
About 1660, the parish and its superiority became the 
property of the Earl of Seaforth, from whom it passed 
to a younger son of his family, whose successors pos- 
sessed it for three or four generations ; and it was after- 
wards purchased by Lady Strathnaver, who presented it 
to her grandson, William, Earl of Sutherland, from whom 
it has descended to the present Duke of Sutherland. 

The extreme length of the parish is about thirty-six 
miles, and its greatest breadth eighteen ; containing an 
area of 97,000 acres. It is situated in the north-west 
part of the county, and divided on the north from the 
parish of Eddrachillis, in the Reay country, by an arm 
of the sea called the Kyle : on the west it is bounded by 
the Atlantic Ocean. The coast, which is about thirty 
miles in extent, is bold, rocky, and dangerous, and has 
several extensive and interesting caves ; but in some 
places there is a fine sandy bottom, with safe landing. 
Attached to the parish are numerous islands, some of 
which are merely bare rocks affording neither pasture 
nor shelter : the most considerable is Oldney, which is 
about a mile long and a quarter of a mile wide, and is 
used for the pasturage of sheep ; the other islands are 
Crona, Soya, and Klett. The appearance of the district 
is altogether wild and mountainous, and its scenery ro- 
mantic ; the most remarkable heights are Benmore, 
Cuniack, Suilvhen, and Cannisb, of which Benmore, the 
highest mountain, rises about 3230 feet above the level 
of the sea. The hills, also, are very numerous, and 
most of them abound with springs of excellent water. 
There are several fine lakes, among which that of Assynt 
is pre-eminent : it is seven miles and a half long, and 
about a mile broad, with banks in most places covered 
with brushwood ; it abounds in trout, and is distin- 
guished for its striking and singularly picturesque 
scenery. 

The principal part of the parish is employed in sheep- 
farming, to which much attention is paid. The larger 
number of the population dwell along the shores, and 
avail themselves of the advantages offered for fishing, 
from which, together with their small allotments of land, 
they draw their subsistence. Game is plentiful. There 
is some sandst(me rock, but limestone is the prevailing 
formation, of which an immense ridge on the Strou- 
chrubie farm extends about a mile and a half, overhang- 
ing the public road, being mantled in many places with 
79 



ivy, and forming a covert for birds of prey. The annual 
value of real property in the parish is £1212. The vil- 
lage of Lochinver has several good houses and shops, 
and near it is a manufactory for preserving butcher's 
meat, fish, and vegetables, fresh, for the purpose of being 
carried out to sea ; there is a post-office here, and ano- 
ther near the church. Excellent roads have been formed, 
to the extent of forty miles, as well as numerous roads 
for local use. At Lochinver is a small harbour with a 
pier, and several creeks afford shelter and anchorage. 
There are two small fisheries let at a moderate rent, and 
one or two vessels belong to Assynt, besides which, seve- 
ral come in the herring season to fish on the coasts, and 
a few to take away the disposable produce of the parish, 
which consists chiefly of wool. An annual cattle-fair 
has been established at Inchnadaff. 

Ecclesiastically the parish is within the bounds of the 
presbytery of Dornoch and synod of Sutherland and 
Caithness ; the Duke of Sutherland is patron, and the 
stipend of the minister is £1.58. 6. 8., with a glebe worth 
about £36 per annum, and a manse. The church, a small 
building seating about 280 persons, is inconveniently 
situated nine miles from the southern boundary of the 
parish, the great bulk of the population residing at dis- 
tances of from twelve to eighteen miles ; it was built 
about sixty or seventy years since, and has been exten- 
sively repaired. There are two preaching stations, one 
at Lochinver, fourteen miles from the church, and the 
other at Kyle side, nearly the same distance, the services 
of which are performed by the parochial minister. At 
Stoer is a government church, built in 1829. A place of 
worship has been erected in the parish in connexion with 
the Free Church. Here is a parochial school, the mas- 
ter of which receives a salary of £34 ; and several other 
schools are supported by general societies for promoting 
education. Among the antiquities are, Ardvrack Castle, 
built by the Mc Leods about the year 1.590, and now in 
ruins ; Calda House, erected by the Mc Kenzies ; and a 
large Druidical temple. 

ATHELSTANEFORD, a parish, in the county of 
Haddington, 3 miles (N. E. by N.) from Haddington, 
and 9 (W.) from Dunbar; containing 991 inhabitants, 
of whom 274 are in the village. This place, which is 
noticed by Camden, is said to have derived its name 
from Athelstan, an English warrior, who was killed in 
battle together with the greater number of his forces, 
about the commencement of the ninth century, and was 
interred here. The parish is about four miles in length 
and three in breadth, and bounded on the north by the 
streamlet of the West Peffer. Its surface is abruptly irre- 
gular, consisting of large tracts of low land, and elevated 
ridges of rock sloping in some places gently towards the 
plain, and in others forming a nearly horizontal level of 
considerable height. The scenery is greatly diversified, 
affording in parts a striking contrast of richly cultivated 
fields and barren and rugged rocks. From the higher 
grounds are obtained extensive and interesting views of 
the Firth of Forth, the Bass rock, and the county of Fife. 
The lands are watered by the two branches of the Peffer 
stream, which rises in a meadow in the lowlands : the 
East Peffer joins the sea below Tynninghame bay; 
whilst the West Peffer, flowing westward, falls into 
Aberlady bay. The channel of the Peffer was widened, 
and made deeper, some years since, on which occasion 
several stags' horns were found, at a depth of nearly 



A THE 



AUCH 



three feet below the surface of its bed, and large oaks 
were discovered embedded in moss on the banks, which, 
previously to the practice of draining the lands, were 
nearly covered with the water that stagnated on the ad- 
joining woodlands. 

The number of acres in the parish has been estimated 
at more than 4000, of which nearly 3S00 are arable, and 
the remainder, with the exception of about fifty acres of 
hilly pasture, are in woods and plantations. The soil 
has been much improved by draining, and great quanti- 
ties of marshy and unprofitable land have been rendered 
fertile ; the chief crops are, wheat, for which the soil is 
extremely favourable, oats, barley, potatoes, and turnips. 
A considerable number of sheep are reared, and fed prin- 
cipally on turnips. The substrata are mostly whinstone 
and porphyry, of which the rocks consist : coal is sup- 
posed to exist, but it lies at so great a depth from the 
surface that none has yet been discovered. Some beau- 
tiful specimens of rock crystal are found in the quarries, 
which are wrouglit for building purposes and for the 
roads. The annual value of real property in the parish 
is £7996. Gilmerton House, the property of Sir David 
Kinlock, Bart., is a splendid seat. The only other resi- 
dence of note in the parish is an ancient baronial man- 
sion formerly belonging to the Earls of Winton, a 
quadrilateral building, of which a small part only is now 
inhabited, and the remainder is in ruins ; the principal 
room is still preserved, and attached to the house are a 
large garden and a bowling-green. Great facility of in- 
tercourse is afforded to the inhabitants by the North- 
British railway, and its North Berwick branch. 

For ecclesiastical purposes the parish is within the 
bounds of the presbytery of Haddington, synod of Lo- 
thian and Tweeddale. Sir David Kinloch, Bart., is 
patron, and the stipend of the incumbent is £262; the 
manse is a comfortable residence, and the glebe comprises 
five acres, valued at £15 per annum. The old church, 
which belonged to the monastery founded at Haddington 
by Ada, Countess of Northumberland, mother of Mal- 
colm IV., was used till the year 17SO, when, falling into 
a dilapidated state, the present church was erected, in a 
more convenient situation, for a congregation of 500 
persons. The parochial school affords education to about 
eighty scholars ; the master has a salary of £35. 10., 
with a house and garden, and the fees are £48 : the 
schoolroom is one of the best in the county. On the 
spot where Athelstan is said to have been buried, a stone 
coffin was found by some men who were cjuarrying stone 
for mending the roads, a few years since. This coffin, 
consisting of five stones cemented together, was lodged 
in the rock, which had been excavated for its reception, 
about two feet below the surface, and contained a human 
skeleton in a state of almost total decomposition. The 
lands on which the battle was fought, were anciently 
given by the king of Scotland to the Culdee priory of 
St. Andrew's, in acknowledgment of the victory obtained; 
and at the Revolution of I68S, they were bestowed upon 
the royal chapel of Holyrood House. On the lands con- 
stituting the barony of Drem are the remains of a Pictish 
town, consisting of various houses built round the brow 
of a low hill of conical form, which had been strongly 
fortified by three tiers of ramparts, with a deep circum- 
vallation below : these works are supposed to have been 
thrown up as a defence against the Romans, who had a 
station about half a mile distant, on the alleged site of 
80 



which, various Roman relics have been found, including 
an urn of superior workmanship containing burnt bones. 
There are some remains of the ancient church, built in 
the early part of the twelfth century by Ada, and in 
which service was originally performed by the monks of 
Haddington. 

Among the eminent men of the place, has been the 
Rev. Robert Blair, author of The Grave, who was for 
fifteen years incumbent, and was interred in the church- 
yard, in which a monument was erected to his memory. 
His son, the late Robert Blair, lord president of the court 
of session, was born here, during the incumbency of his 
father. John Home, author of the tragedy of Douglas, 
was incumbent after the death of the Rev. Robert Blair ; 
and Archibald Skirving, an eminent portrait painter, who, 
having perfected himself in the study of his profession 
at Rome, exercised it here for many years with great suc- 
cess, was a native of the parish. 

AUCHINBLAE, a village, in the parish of For- 
DouN, county of Kinc.\rdine, 5 miles (N. by E.) from 
Laurencekirk ; containing 643 inhabitants. This place, 
the name of which signifies " the field of blossoms ", is 
situated on the banks of the Luther water, and on the 
side of a fine valley, gently sloping to the south. It con- 
tains several well-built houses, and has risen into consi- 
deration within the last half century, the population 
finding employment from the increase of the trade and 
manufactures, the principal of which latter are yarn and 
brown linen. The place has been erected into a burgh of 
barony, and is governed by a baron-bailie appointed by 
the Earl of Kintore. Fairs are held in April and May, 
and, during the winter portion of the year, markets on 
every Friday, for the sale of cattle and grain. — See For- 

DOUN. 

AUCHINCAIRN, a village, in the parish of Rer- 
RiCK, stewartry of Kirkcudbright, 7 miles (E.) from 
Kirkcudbright; containing 373 inhabitants. It is seated 
at the north-western extremity of the fine bay of Auch- 
incairn, or Balcarry, which is about two miles in length 
and one in breadth. The bay has a beach of smooth and 
firm sand, and small vessels may load and unload on any 
part of it ; on the west side is a large natural basin, 
where ships of burthen find safe anchorage in the most 
stormy weather, and at every point of the wind. A post 
is established here, under the Castle-Douglas office ; and 
a fair is held annually in August, but very little business 
is now transacted at it. In the village are places of wor- 
ship for Baptists and the Free Church : here is one of 
the parochial schools, and children are also taught in the 
Baptist place of worship. 

AUCHINCRAW, a village, in the parish of Cold- 
iNGHAM, county of Berwick, 2 miles (N. W.) from 
Ayton ; containing 203 inhabitants. It is situated at 
the boundary of the parish ; and upon the height called 
Warlaw, to the west, is a camp of oval form covering an 
area of five or six acres of very poor moorland, but re- 
specting which both history and tradition are silent. In 
the village is a school connected with the Synod of 
United Original Seceders. 

AUCHINDOIR and KEARN, a parish, in the district 
of Alford, county of Aberdeen, 36 miles (W. N. W.) 
from Aberdeen; containing 1188 inhabitants. The 
name Auchindoir, which is of Gaelic origin, and signi- 
fies "the field of pursuit", is supposed to have been 
applied from the circumstance of Luthlac, sou of Mac- 



A U CH 



AUC H 



beth, having been pursued through the valley of Auch- 
indoir to that of Bogie, where he was overtaken and 
slain by Malcolm. Kearn is said to be a corruption of 
Cairn, there being a remarkable cairn or tumulus in that 
district, of the history of which nothing, however, is 
known. The two places were united in 181 1, previously 
to which Kearn was joined to Forbes. The length of 
the habitable part is about seven miles, the breadth 
nearly the same, and the parishes together contain 
about 15,600 acres under cultivation, and 2100 under 
plantaticm and natural wood, besides pasture and waste. 
The surface is varied and irregular, consisting of nume- 
rous hills and pleasing valleys, ridges, and mountains, 
some of which are covered with wood, and have a con- 
siderable elevation ; Correen, in the southern quarter, 
is about 13.50, and the Buck of the Cabrach, in the 
west, 'Z377 feet above the sea. In the higher parts the 
climate is cold and bleak, exposed to severe frosts and 
heavy falls of snow, but in the lower and more sheltered 
places it is temperate and salubrious. The river Bogie, 
which is formed by the junction of the Craig and Cor- 
chinan burns at the manse, after pursuing a serpentine 
course of about eleven miles through a fine valley, joins 
the Doveron at Huntly : it is plentifully supplied with 
fine trout. The Don runs for about two miles on the 
south-east ; and the small stream of Mossat divides the 
parish from Kildrummy on the south. 

The SOIL presents a considerable variety, consisting 
in some parts of a rich alluvial loam, and in other places 
of clay, with a large proportion of sand and pebbles. 
In the lower grounds it is in general sharp, dry, and 
fertile, but towards the hills mossy and poor. The 
quantity of arable land is on the increase ; much barren 
land has been reclaimed, and the method of cultivation 
has recently been considerably improved : the houses 
and cottages, also, are in a much better condition than 
they were thirty or forty years since. The annual value 
of real property in the parish is £3600. The plantations 
are numerous and extensive, and comprise trees of all 
the kinds usually reared. Sandstone of excellent quality 
is found, as well as limestone, and whinstone is also in 
great abundance. There are two gentlemen's seats, 
Craig and Druminnor, both of them of considerable 
antiquity, the former bearing the date 151S, and the 
latter, which was once the chief seat of the Forbes 
family, that of the year 15/7. Near the castle of Craig 
is the "Den", a celebrated spot in this part of the 
country, surrounded by scenery of a varied and beautiful 
description, and much resorted to by tourists as an 
object of curiosity. The only village is Lumsden, which 
is of recent growth, and contains about 300 persons, 
chiefly traders and handicraftsmen. The main popula- 
tion of the parish is agricultural, being employed in 
the rural districts in cultivating the land, and in rearing 
cattle, for the sale of which four markets are held during 
the year. Here is a post-office. Ecclesiastically the 
parish is within the bounds of the presbytery of Alford 
and synod of Aberdeen ; the Earl of Fife is patron. 
The minister's stipend is £158, part of which is received 
from the exchequer ; there is a manse, erected in 1843, 
and the glebe is valued at £10 a year. The church, 
which was built in 1811, accommodates 450 persons. 
At Lumsden is a place of worship belonging to the 
United Presbyterian Synod. A place of worship has 
been erected in connexion with the Free Church ; and 
Vol. I.— 81 



there is a parochial school, the master of which has a 
salary of £30, about £'20 fees, and a house and gar- 
den. The moat or mount where the ancient Castrum 
AuclnndoTM, mentioned by Boethius, seems to have 
stood, is still shown in the parish ; and another most 
interesting relic of antiquity, situated near it, is the old 
parochial church, now a venerable ruin, attracting atten- 
tion from its ivy-mantled walls, its fine Saxon gateway, 
and its inscriptions and sculpture. 

AUCHINDRYNE, a village, in the parish of Cra- 
THiE and Braemar, district of Kincardine O'Neil, 
county of Aberdeen; containing 1*4 inhabitants. 

AUCHINEARN, OLD and NEW, a village, in the 
parish of Cadder, Lower ward of the county of Lanark ; 
containing 561 inhabitants, chietly employed in agri- 
culture. In this village is situated one of the paro- 
chial schools, endowed with 1000 merks by the late 
Rev. James Warden, a former incumbent of the parish. 
In 1764 Dr. William Leechm.m, principal of the univer- 
sity of Glasgow, and then proprietor of this estate, gave 
in trust to the Kirk Session, a schoolroom and house 
for a teacher, with a small portion of land, on condition 
that they should appoint a master. The school-house 
was handsomely rebuilt in 18'26, by the late Charles 
Stirling, Esq., assisted by Archibald Lamont, Esq., and 
other heritors. The master receives a salary of £8. 10., 
with £12 fees, and the interest of the Rev. James War- 
den's bequest. A library has lately been established in 
the village. 

AUCHINLECK, a parish, in the district of Kyle, 
county of Ayr, 1^ mile (N. W.) from Old Cumnock; 
containing 1659 inhabitants, of whom about 600 are in 
the village. This place, the Celtic name of which is 
descriptive of its abounding with stone, is supposed to 
be of considerable antiquity. But little of its history is 
known prior to the commencement of the sixteenth 
century, when the manor, which belonged to a family 
of the same name, becoming forfeited to the crown, was 
granted by James IV. to Thomas Boswell, a branch of 
an ancient family in the county of Fife, ancestor of the 
biographer of Dr. Johnson, and who was killed at the 
battle of Flodden-field. The parish is about seventeen 
miles in length, from east to west, and not more than 
two miles in average breadth, comprising about 19,000 
acres, of which 5000 are arable, 300 woodland and 
plantations, and 13,000 natural pasture and waste. Its 
surface is generally elevated, and towards the east the 
hills rise to a height of upwards of 1000 feet. A moss seve- 
ral miles in length called Aird's Moss, nearly in the centre 
of the parish, gives it a barren appearance. The vale of 
Glenmore, also, of considerable extent, and in a state of 
nature, presents features of wild aspect ; but the more 
western portion of the parish, being wholly in cultiva- 
tion, has an air of cheerfulness and fertility. The river 
Ayr forms for a small space a boundary between this 
parish and that of Muirkirk,and pursues its course into 
the parish of Sorn ; while the Lugar, another river, 
separates Auchiideck for about five miles from Cum- 
nock, and for about two miles from the parish of 
Ochiltree, and flows into the river Ayr about a mile 
below this place, near the town of Mauchline. 

The SOIL is various, generally a stiff retentive clay, 
but by draining and good management has in many 
parts been rendered productive. Some progress has 
been made in furrow-draining, and a portion of the 

M 



AUC H 



A UCH 



mossy land has been reclaimed and bronght into cultiva- 
tion. The chief crops are oats, potatoes, beans, and 
turnips, and there are a few acres of bear, barley, and 
wheat. Ttie principal reliance of the farmers is on the 
dairy. A large number of milch-cows, mostly of the 
Ayrshire breed, are kept, and a great many young cattle 
are reared ; the milk is chiefly made into cheese of the 
Dunlop kind, and sent to the markets of Glasgow and 
other towns. A considerable number of sheep are also 
fed, of the black-faced breed. The woods contain many 
fine specimens of stately timber of ancient growth, and 
the plantations are in general thriving and ornamental. 
The annual value of real property in the parish is £7497. 
The substrata are limestone, coal, ironstone, sandstone, 
and freestone of various sorts. The limestone and coal 
have been long extensively wrought, and of the former 
there are two large quarries, one on the lands of Auchin- 
leck, producing annually about 50,000 bushels of excel- 
lent quality, and one belonging to the proprietor of Dal- 
blair, yielding also a fair quantity. Near these is an in- 
ferior kind of coal, used for burning the lime. Coal-pits 
have also been opened on the lands of Mr. Alexander of 
Ballochmyle, on which, as well as on the Auchinleck 
property, steam-engines have been erected ; the seams 
of coal vary in thickness, and in the depth at which 
they are found from the surface, and the average annual 
produce is about 8500 tons. Ironstone likewise abounds 
in the parish. Freestone, much esteemed for millstones, 
is quarried on the banks of the Lugar ; and at Wallace- 
town is found a stone which is fire-proof. The present 
house of Auchinleck is a handsome mansion in the Gre- 
cian style, erected by Lord Auchinleck, and is situated 
in a diversified demesne, comprehending much beautiful 
scenery, richly wooded. 

The village stands on the road from Glasgow to 
Carlisle, by Kilmarnock, and has a station on the 
Glasgow, Dumfries, and Carlisle railway. Many of the 
inhabitants are employed in weaving for the manu- 
facturers of Paisley and Glasgow ; the principal articles 
are light silks and muslins. Some females are also 
employed in flowering muslins in a variety of patterns, 
for which this neighbourhood is celebrated. The manu- 
facture of snuffboxes is carried on to a considerable 
extent ; it was introduced into this place from Cumnock, 
and the workmen here manufacture card and needle 
cases, and ornamental boxes of various descriptions. 
The wood used for this purpose is plane-tree, and many 
of the specimens are painted in devices, tartan plaiding, 
and other patterns, and, being well varnished, have a 
very handsome appearance. They are quite equal in 
point of workmanship to those made at Laurencekirk, 
though sold at an inferior price. About sixty dozens 
are sometimes finished weekly, and sent off, chiefly to 
the London market, but the demand for them is very 
fluctuating : the principal manufactory is now at 
Mauchline. A fair for lambs is held on the last 
Tuesday in August, and is numerously attended. For 
ecclesiastical purposes the parish is in the presbyterj' 
of Ayr, synod of Glasgow and Ayr, and in the patronage 
of Sir James Boswell, Bart. ; the minister's stipend is 
£161. 1. 11., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £10 
per annum. The old church is an ancient edifice, to 
which an aisle was added by Lord Auchinleck in 1*54 ; 
and underneath it is the burying-place of the Auchin- 
leck family, hewn out of the solid rock. A new church 
8-2 



has been erected, near the site of the former ; it is a 
substantial and handsome edifice, adapted for a con- 
gregation of 800 persons. There is a place of worship 
for the United Original Seceders. The parochial school 
is well attended ; the master has a salary of £34. 4. 4|., 
with £10 fees, and a house and garden. In the grounds 
of Auchinleck House are some remains of the ancient 
castle, in a greatly dilapidated condition ; and in the 
upper part of the parish, near the junction of the Gelt 
and Glenmore streams, are slight remains of the castle 
of Kyle, the history of which is involved in great uncer- 
tainty. On the banks of the Ayr, near the confines of 
the parish of Muirkirk, are tlie vestiges of some old iron- 
works, said to have been established bj' Lord Cathcart. 
William Murdoch, of the firm of Boulton and Watt, of 
Soho, near Birmingham, and who first applied gas for the 
illumination of buildings, was a native of this parish. 

AUCHINLOCH, a hamlet, in the former quoad sacra 
parish of Chryston, parish of Caddf.r, Lower ward of 
the county of Lanark, 2 miles (S.) from the town of 
Kirkintilloch; containing 13S inhabitants. This village 
has its name from a considerable loch now drained, 
and owes its origin to the mines of coal in its immediate 
vicinity, which have been worked on a moderate scale 
by its inhabitants, though the quality is scarcely good 
enough to remunerate the expense of obtaining it. 
There are also limestone-quarries, from which materials 
are raised for building and agricultural purposes, and for 
which works have been established at Garnkirk. In the 
village is a school endowed by Patrick Baird with £300, 
the interest whereof is paid annually to the master. 

AUCHINMULLY, a village, in the parish of Kil- 
syth, county of Stirling, 2 miles (E. N. E.) from 
Kilsj-th ; containing 212 inhabitants. It is also called 
Lower Banton, and is situated in the east barony divi- 
sion of the parish. On the south flows the river Kelvin, 
from which the village is distant about a mile. 

AUCHINRAITH, a hamlet, in the parish of Blan- 
TYRE, Middle ward of the county of Lanark ; contain- 
ing 77 inhabitants. It lies a short distance to the east 
of the village of Blantyre. The Alston family have a 
handsome seat here. 

AUCHINTIBER, a hamlet, in the parish of Blan- 
tyre, Middle ward of the county of Lanark ; contain- 
ing 73 inhabitants. It is situated in the western part 
of the parish, on which side the Rotten-Calder water 
forms the boundary, and separates the parish from that 
of Kilbride. 

AUCHLEVEN, a village, in the parish of Premnay, 
district of Gakioch, county of Aberdeen ; containing 
107 inhabitants. It is seated in the south of the parish, 
on the road from Insch to Keig, which at this place 
crosses the river Gady by a light bridge of two arches, 
built in 1836. The manufacture of woollen cloth is 
carried on here, on a small scale ; and a corn-mill in the 
village is turned by the water of Gady. 

AUCHMILLAX, a hamlet, in the parish of Mauch- 
line, district of Kyle, county of Ayr, '2 miles (N. by 
E.) from Mauchline ; containing 24 inhabitants. This 
place is situated, equidistantly, between the roads from 
Mauchline to Kilraallock and from Sorn Castle to Gal- 
ston. The number of the population has latterly de- 
cUned. 

AUCHMITHIE, a village, in the parish of St. Vi- 
gean's, county of Forfar, 3^ miles (N. E.) from Ar- 



A UC H 



A U C H 



broath ; containing 307 inhabitants. It stands upon the 
coast, on a high roclvy bank which rises nearly 120 feet 
above the sea ; and is irregularly built. There are 
several good houses, but the dwellings are chiefly those 
of fishermen, who form a large part of the population. 
The harbour is a level beach, formed by an opening be- 
tween the rocks that here surround the coast: near the 
village is the Gaylet Pot, a remarkable cavern into which 
the sea flows. Divine service is performed in a small 
chapel by a minister of the Established Church. 

AUCHNACRAIG, a village, in the parish of Toro- 
SAY, island of Mull, county of Argyll, 18 miles (S. E.) 
from Aros. It is situated on the eastern coast of the 
island, and has a post-office establishment. There is 
also a regular ferry, first to Kerrera, and thence to the 
main land near Oban, affording facility for the transport 
of horses and cattle to the several markets ; but the 
number at present ferried over is not so great as for- 
merly. — See ToROSAY. 

AUCHTERARDER, a town, the seat of a presbytery, 
and a parish, in the county of Perth, .54^ miles (N. W.) 
from Edinburgh; containing, with the village of Smithy- 
haugh, 3434 inhabitants, of whom 2068 are in the town. 
This place anciently belonged to the abbey of Inchaffray; 
and in 1328 the lands were granted by charter of Robert 
Bruce to Sir William Montifix, justiciary of Scotland, 
whose daughter and heiress conveyed them by marriage 
to Sir John Drummond, with whose descendants they 
remained till their forfeiture by the participation of that 
family in the rebellion of 1715. During that period of 
distraction, the town was laid waste and burnt by the 
Pretender's army, under the Earl of Mar, in order to 
check the progress of the royal forces. For this injury, 
indemnification was promised to the inhabitants, by 
proclamation issued from the ancient palace of Scone in 
1716; but the only compensation they received was from 
the reigning family, to such of them as had not been 
concerned in the rebellion. The commissioners appointed 
to take charge of the forfeited estates, made a survey of 
the barony of Auchterarder in 1778, by which it ap- 
pears that the inhabitants were in a very distressed con- 
dition, on account of the backward state of agriculture 
and the want of employment. From this depression, 
however, they have been gradually rising ; and since the 
purchase of the estate by Captain Hunter, the place has 
rapidly improved. 

This TOWN, which, upon disputed authority, is sup- 
posed to have been anciently a royal burgh, is situated 
on the turnpike-road from Glasgow to Perth, and has a 
station of the Scottish Central railway in its vicinity. 
It consists chiefly of one street, more than a mile in 
length, in which are some well-built houses, and nume- 
rous other dwellings of inferior appearance, occupied by 
weavers and manufacturers. The inhabitants are amply 
supplied with pure water, from a copious spring con- 
veyed by pipes into their houses, mainly through the 
exertions of Captain Aytoun, of the Royal Artillery, in 
1832. The chief trades are, the weaving of cotton for 
the manufacturers of Glasgow, in which more than .500 
looms are in constant operation ; and the making of 
shawls, blankets, and other articles of the woollen 
manufacture. There are two breweries for ale and beer; 
and a branch of the Central Bank of Scotland, and a 
branch of the National Savings' Bank, have been esta- 
blished. The town is supplied with gas. A market is 



held on Saturday, and is well supplied with provisions 
and with grain, for which it is the principal mart of 
the district. Fairs are held on the last Tuesday in 
March, for grain ; the Thursday after the last Tuesday 
in May, for cattle ; the Fridays before the Falkirk trysts 
in August, September, and October, for cattle and 
horses ; and the 6th of December, for cattle and general 
business. The post-office has two deliveries daily ; and 
facility of communication with Edinburgh, Glasgow, 
Perth, and Stirling, is maintained by railway. 

The PARISH includes the ancient parish of Aberuthven, 
united to Auchterarder prior to the Reformation. It is 
bounded on the north by the river Earn, and extends 
eight miles in length from north to south, and three 
miles in breadth from east to west, comprising 13,747 
acres, of which 7176 are arable, about 300 acres wood- 
land and plantations, and the remainder meadow, pas- 
ture, and waste. The surface is hilly, and rises from 
the banks of the Earn to the Ochil hills, of which the 
highest, Craig Rossie, 2359 feet above the level of the 
sea, is within the limits of the parish. The principal 
rivers are, the Earn, which rises in Loch Earn, and falls 
into the Tay ; and the Ruthven, which, after receiving 
the waters of several rivulets descending from the 
Ochils, flows through the parish, and falls into the Earn. 
In the Earn are found salmon and large white and 
yellow trout, and in the Ruthven a small species of 
trout remarkable for the delicacy of its flavour. The 
soil, in the eastern part of the parish, is light and 
sandy ; in the lower lands, a clayey loam ; and in the 
neighbourhood of the town, a rich black loam. The 
chief crops are oats, barley, wheat, potatoes, turnips, 
and peas, with the usual grasses. The system of hus- 
bandry has been greatly improved ; nuich waste land 
has been reclaimed by embankment from the overflow- 
ing of the Earn, and a considerable stimulus is afforded 
by the premiums awarded at an annual ploughing- 
match, by the agricultural society of the parish. Cows 
of the Ayrshire breed are kept on the dairy-farms ; the 
cattle on the pastures are generally the Teeswater, and 
on the lower lands sheep of the Leicestershire breed 
have been introduced. The annual value of real property 
in the parish is £8600. The substrata are mostly of the 
old red sandstone formation, grey slate of good quality 
for roofing, and limestone, which, from the scarcity of 
fuel, is not much wrought : a search has been made for 
coal, but without success. There is little old wood now 
remaining ; the plantations, which are principally of 
modern date, are chiefly larch and oak. Auchterarder 
House is a handsome mansion in the Elizabethan style, 
lately erected, and situated in grounds that have been 
greatly improved. 

For ecclesiastical purposes the parish is within the 
bounds of the presbytery of Auchterarder and synod of 
Perth and Stirling: the minister's stipend is £199. 14. 2., 
with a manse, and a glebe valued at £17 per annum; 
patron, the Earl of Kinnoul. The church, rebuilt in 
1784, and enlarged in 181 1, is a plain structure, situated 
in the town, and containing 930 sittings. In the aisle at 
Aberuthven is the mausoleum of the (iraham family, in 
which are several coffins containing the remains of de- 
parted Dukes of Montrose, and in the vault beneath 
have been interred many of their ancestors. There are 
places of worship in connexion with the United Presby- 
terian Synod and the Free Church. The parochial 

M 2 



A U C H 



AU C H 



school is well attended : the master has a salary of 
£34. 4. 4., with a house, and au allowance of £2 in lieu 
of a garden ; the fees average about £40 per annum. 
There is also a school for which a building was erected 
in 1811 by John Sheddan, Esq., who endowed it with 
property to the value of about £1000, the proceeds of 
which are paid to the master on condition of his teach- 
ing twelve children gratuitously. To the north of the 
town are the ruins of a building supposed to have been 
a hunting-scat of Malcolm Canmore's ; the walls, which 
are of great thickness, have been nearly demolished for 
building materials. Eastward of these ruins are the 
remains of the ancient church of St. Muugo, formerly 
the parish church, the cemetery of which is still used 
as a place of sepulture by the parishioners ; and in 
digging the foundation for the present church, a coin of 
the Emperor Titus Vespasian was found, in a very per- 
fect state. 

AUCHTERDERRAN, a parish, in the district of 
Kirkcaldy, county of Fife, 6 miles (N. W. by W.) 
from Kirkcaldy; containing 1913 inhabitants, of whom 
770 are in the village of Lochgelly. This parish derives 
its name from the Gaehc, uachdar darrein signifying 
" the height or ridge of oaks". It is about six miles in 
length, and varies from one to four in breadth. The 
surface is mostly flat, though varying in elevation, the 
lands near Lochgelly being more than 100 feet above 
the general level. The river Ore, ■which has its source 
in the parish of Ballingry, flows through this parish in 
its course to the Leven, and has two bridges, each of 
one arch. Viewed from the adjacent heights, the parish 
has a very interesting appearance, the scenery being 
greatly varied, especially near the lake of Lochgelly, a 
large sheet of water about three miles in circumference, 
the north side of which, being beautifully covered with 
wood, presents a rich and most picturesque scene, and 
forms a striking contrast to the south side, which is 
bleak and dreary, but might be much improved by 
planting. The soil is chiefly clay, interspersed with 
sand, and in several places are tracts of black loam, 
producing abundant crops : about one-third of the land 
is in pasture, about 500 acres wood, and the remainder 
arable in good cultivation. Great progress has been 
made in agricultural improvement, within the last few 
years, by some of the landed proprietors. A consider- 
able tract of waste land was reclaimed by the late pro- 
prietor of Raith, now forming the farm of New Cardon ; 
and Col. Ferguson, the present proprietor, has carried 
out all the new improvements, on an extensive scale, 
on the farm of Dothan. James Aytoun, Esq., of Capel- 
drae, has admirably exemplified the effect of thorough 
draining, on that part of his property called Harestanes. 
These improvements have had a most beneficial influ- 
ence, and the enterprising farmers are following the 
proprietors' example with great spirit. The crops raised 
in the parish are wheat, barley, oats, potatoes, beans, 
and peas ; the cattle are of the black Fifeshire breed, 
and much attention is paid to their improvement. The 
farm-buildings are commodious, and the lands are gene- 
rally enclosed with stone dykes. The annual value of 
real property in the parish is £5018. 

There is very little natural wood, and the plantations 

are mostly of recent growth ; about nineteen acres of 

moss have been lately planted with Scotch firs, which 

are thriving well. The substratum is mainly whiastone; 

84 



limestone of excellent quality is quarried in several 
places, and coal is every where abundant. The coal- 
mines at Clun}', belonging to Col. Ferguson, are very 
productive ; about 70,000 loads are annually raised for 
the supply of the neighbourhood, and more than seventy 
persons are employed in the works. The mines on 
Lord Miuto's lands of Lochgelly produce 50,000 loads 
annually, and aOFord constant occupation to about fifty 
persons ; while the works at Dundonald, belonging to 
R. W. Ramsay, Esq., produce about 7000 loads. Iron- 
works have lately been erected, and from the extent and 
quality of the mineral field the district promises to 
become of still greater mining importance. Facility of 
communication is afforded by the Dunfermline branch 
of the Edinburgh, Perth, and Dundee railway. 

The parish is in the presbytery of Kirkcaldy and synod 
of Fife : the minister's stipend is £237. H. 10., with a 
manse, and a glebe valued at £30 per annum ; patrons, 
the Boswell family of Balmuto. Half the barony of 
Auchterderran came into the possession of Roger de 
Boswell, in consequence of his having married the co- 
heiress of Sir William Lochore, of Lochore ; and thus 
the family have continued patrons of the parish, though 
they have ceased to be proprietors in it. The church 
was built in 1789. There is a place of worship for 
dissenters in the village of Lochgelly. The parochial 
school is attended by nearly 100 scholars; the master 
has a salary of £34. 4. 4., with £25 fees, and a good 
house, and £2. 2. 4. in lieu of a garden. The church, 
the manse, and school-house are beautifully situated 
near the east side of the parish ; immediately behind is 
the finely-wooded ridge from which the parish derives 
its name, and when the broom is in bloom, it is a scene 
of beauty. 

AUCHTERGAVEN, a parish, in the county of 
Perth, 85 miles (N. by W.) from Perth ; containing, 
with the villages of Bankfoot, Carnie-Hill, and Water- 
loo, and the greater part of Stanley, 3366 inhabitants. 
This place was distinguished in former times as the 
scene of some fierce contentions between the Bishop of 
Dunkeld and Sir James Crichton, of Strathford, in the 
parish, who had forcibly taken possession of the lands 
of Little Dunkeld, belonging to that see. In the rebel- 
lion of 1745, Lord Nairne, who owned considerable 
estates here, embarked in the cause of the Young Pre- 
tender, whom he joined at the city of Perth, and on his 
defeat accompanied him to the continent, where he con- 
tinued to reside. The title, upon his attainder, became 
forfeited ; and the splendid baronial mansion which he 
had nearly completed, to replace the former that had 
been destroyed by fire, was sold with the estates, and 
afterwards taken down by the Duke of Atholl, who be- 
came the proprietor by purchase. 

This parish, which derives its name from a Celtic term 
descriptive of its situation, is about ten miles in length, 
and of very irregular form, varying from less than two 
to six miles in breadth. It is bounded on the east by 
the river Tay, and on the west by a brook which sepa- 
rates it from Mulhon, a detached portion of the parish 
of Redgorton. Its natural limits comprehend an isolated 
tract four miles in length, but of very small breadth, 
called Tullybeagles, belonging to the parish of Methven. 
The surface is agreeably diversified with hills and dales, 
the land rising gradually from the banks of the Tay to 
a lofty range on the west and north-west, forming a 



A U C H 



A UC H 



portion of the Grampian heights, of which the highest 
within the parish is Birnani Hill, 1300 feet above the 
sea; the other hills are Craig-Obney, Craig-Gibbon, 
Tullybelton, and Corrody hills, which are not much 
inferior in elevation. On one of these hills, still called 
"Court Hill", the sheriff is said to have held his court, 
for the trial of a lawless set of banditti who committed 
great depredation on the lands ; and some trees on 
which the men were executed are styled " Hanged 
Men's Trees". Numerous streams descend from the 
mountains, affording an abundant supply of water, and 
adding to the beauty of the scenery, which is richly 
embellished with woods and plantations. Of these 
streams the principal is the Corral burn, which issues 
from a spring at the base of the Obney hills, flows 
through the village of Bankfoot, and falls into the Garry 
near the church, receiving in its course the waters of 
the Aldinny, which rises also in the Obney hills. The 
Garry, issuing from the head of Glen-Garr, flows be- 
tween the hills above Strathban, and after receiving the 
waters of the Corral, falls into the Ordie at Loak. The 
Ordie has its source in a lake in the hill of Tullybelton, 
and after traversing the centre of the parish, and re- 
ceiving the Wynnie, which rises in the district of Tully- 
beagles, flows into the Shochie in the parish of Red- 
gorton. The Shochie, which has its source in Glen-Shee, 
and is joined by the above-named tributary streams, falls 
into the Tay. 

The parish comprises 19,200 acres, of which about 
6000 are arable and in a high state of cultivation, 796 
woodland, and 1200 pasture. Considerable additions 
have been made to the arable and pasture lands by im- 
provements in draining and fencing, and an advanced 
state of agriculture ; and comparatively little of the 
moor and waste will remain long in an unproductive 
state. The soil is various in the different districts, but 
in general is a loam intermixed with sand and pebbles, 
and, on some of the farms, with large boulders of stone. 
In the upper lands it is very retentive of moisture, and 
in the lower grounds comparatively dry and light. The 
principal crops are oats, barley, wheat, potatoes, and 
turnips ; bone-dust has been introduced for manure on 
the turnip lands with very great success. Much atten- 
tion is paid to the rearing of live-stock : the cattle are 
mostly the Ayrshire, with a cross of the short-horned 
breed, and some few of the Angusshire ; the sheep are 
nearly all of the Scotch black-faced kind, which feed in 
the hills, and a few of the Leicestershire, which are 
pastured on the low lands. The annual value of real 
property in the parish is £9896. 

The woods mainly consist of oak, common and moun- 
tain ash, elm, and beech, and the plantations of larch, 
spruce, and Scotch firs; along the banks of the Tay are 
some remarkably fine beech-trees. In the lower lands 
the substratum is chiefly gravel of very great depth, 
intersected by a seam of whinstone, which is quarried 
for mending the roads, and alternated with strata of 
red sandstone ; the hills are principally of clay-slate 
and greywacke, in which masses of quartz are found. 
At Glen-Shee is a quarry of slate of good quality for 
roofing ; there are two varieties, blue and grey, the 
latter of which is the more durable : slate of a similar 
kind was formerly quarried at Obney and at Tully- 
beagles. The sandstime is quarried for building pur- 
poses at Stanley, and in other parts of the parish : the 
85 



finest quarry is at Speedy Hill ; the stone found here is 
of greenish hue, very compact, and susceptible of a fine 
polish, and was employed in the erection of the new 
castle of Dunkeld. Stanley House, an ancient mansion 
to which repeated additions have been made, and which 
is greatly modernised, is beautifully situated on the 
shore of the Tay, embosomed in a richly-wooded de- 
mesne, containing many stately trees. Airlywight House 
is a handsome residence of modern erection, on elevated 
ground commanding an extensive prospect, and forms 
an interesting and very prominent feature in the land- 
scape. A considerable number of the inhabitants are 
employed in weaving for the manufactures of Blair- 
gowrie, Dundee, Arbroath, Newburgh, and Cupar-An- 
gus ; the principal fabrics are white linens and dowlas, 
and in the weaving of these articles, and in spinning 
and winding, about 300 persons are engaged, of whom 
a large portion are females. More than 1000 persons 
are employed in the Stanley cotton-works, which are 
separately described. There are five corn and two lint 
mills. The road from Perth to Dunkeld, forming part 
of the road from Edinburgh to Inverness, passes for 
five miles through the parish, which is also intersected 
by the Perth and Forfar railway. A fair is held in the 
village of Auchtergaven, on the second Friday in No- 
vember, for the sale of cattle, sheep, and horses, and for 
agricultural produce. 

For ecclesiastical purposes Auchtergaven is within 
the bounds of the presbytery of Dunkeld and synod of 
Perth and Stirling ; patron, the Crown. It comprises 
the small ancient parish of Logiebride, which was united 
to it by act of parliament in I6l8, and subsequently 
severed from it by the Bishop of Dunkeld, but again 
united at the period of the Revolution in 1688 : the 
church of Logiebride stood on the bank of the Ordie, 
but has long since disappeared, though the ancient 
cemetery is still used as a place of sepulture. The 
stipend of the incumbent is £179. 6. 4. ; the manse is 
a plain building, erected within the last twenty or thirty 
years, and the glebe lands are valued at £1.5 per annum. 
The church, situated on an eminence rising from the 
road between Dunkeld and Perth, is a plain substantial 
edifice, with a western tower added by the Duke of 
Atholl, and is adapted for a congregation of 1200 per- 
sons. There are places of worship in connexion with 
the United Presbyterian Synod and the Free Church. 
The parochial school affords a liberal course of instruc- 
tion ; the master has a salary of £34. 4. 45., with a 
house and garden, and the fees average about £1.5 per 
annum. 

On the farm of Middle Blelock, and at Obney, are 
some large upright stones, concerning which nothing 
authentic is known. A vitrified fort has been disco- 
vered on Obney hill ; and near the ruins of an old 
chapel, at TuUybeagles, some ancient coins have been 
discovered, which are in the cabinet of the Literary and 
Antiquarian Society of Perth. Human bones have been 
found near the site of another chapel, on the lands of 
Berryhill farm, in the same district, on the banks of the 
Ordie. Near Stanley are the remains of a round tower 
called Inverbervie, or Inchbervis, which is said to have 
been originally a religious house, and a cell to the abbey 
of Dunfermline ; and at the Westertown of Kinglands 
is the site of a mound or a cairn, which has not yet 
been explored. 



A U C H 



A UC H 



AUCHTERHOUSE, a parish, in the county of For- 
far, T miles (N. W. by N.) from Dundee ; containing, 
with the villages of Droiiley and Kirkton, "69 inha- 
bitants. This parish, the name of which is of uncertain 
derivation, is nearly of triangular form, and in its 
northern portion includes part of the range of the Sid- 
law hills, separating it from Strathmore. Along its 
southern boundary runs the Dighty water, which falls 
into the Tay near the influx of the latter into the Ger- 
man Ocean. It has an undulated surface, and com- 
prises an area of about 5450 acres, of which 356" are 
in cultivation, 1406 in wood, and the remainder hill 
pasture. The ground rises from south to north, and 
the acclivities are under cultivation to the spot where 
the church stands, 800 feet above the level of the sea ; 
but more northward the land rises considerably, reach- 
ing at the White-Sheets of Sidlaw, the highest part of 
the parish, to about 1400 feet above the high- water 
mark at Dundee, and being there only fit for pasture and 
forest- planting. The burn of Dronley, and that of Auch- 
terhouse, turn several mills in their separate courses 
from the west and north-west, before their junction at 
the village of Dronley ; after which, the united streams 
take the name of Dighty, for the rest of their passage 
to the ocean. The climate, in the higher district, is 
cold and bracing : in the lower division it has been 
much improved within these few years by extensive 
draining, and is pure and salubrious. 

The soil of the uncultivated portions, with slight ex- 
ceptions, consists of a thin moorish earth, lying on a 
retentive tilly subsoil with a substratum of sandstone. 
The land under tillage is mostly a black mould, in some 
places sandy, resting on till or marl, and with skilful 
management yielding good average crops of oats and 
barley, with the usual green crops, and sometimes 
wheat, though this last has been nearly discontinued, 
not having in general succeeded. The dairy is much 
attended to. Subsoil-ploughing and furrow-draining 
are extensively practised, with great advantage ; and by 
the kindly feeling and steady co-operation of landlords 
and tenants, among many other improvements, nearly 
500 acres of moor, moss, and bog have been reclaimed 
within the present century, and now produce fair crops. 
The annual value of real property in the parish is £5316. 
The soil throughout the parish is underlaid with sand- 
stone very near the surface, and the Sidlaw hill consists 
of the same rock, occasionally intersected with trap 
dykes, and aifording good materials for many useful 
purposes : a quarry is in operation on the estate of 
Scotstown, giving employment to five or six hands. 
Plantations comprising larch, spruce, and Scotch fir, 
elm, ash, plane, and beech, have been formed on the 
hills, and on the moors of Dronley and Adamstown, 
by the Earl of Camperdown, to the extent of nearly 
300 acres ; the spruce and Scotch fir, however, alone 
being likely to succeed. The late Earl of Airlie planted 
above SOO acres of the hill of Sidlaw. The Hou.se of 
Auchterhouse, with its orchards in front, is the best relic 
of an old baronial residence now existing in this part of 
the country : it is the property of the Earl of Airlie. 
Facility of communication is offered by the Dundee and 
Newtyle turnpike-road, running through the parish from 
the south to the north-west ; and by the railway be- 
tween the same places. Dundee is the nearest market- 
town to Auchterhouse. 
86 



Ecclesiastically the parish is ii the presbytery of 
Dundee, synod of Angus and Mearns, and in the pa- 
tronage of the Earl of Airlie ; the minister's stipend is 
about £"200, with a manse, and a glebe of seven acres, 
valued at £15 per annum. Auchterhouse church was 
rebuilt in 1*75, and consists of portions both old and 
modern : it has on the west a steeple, and on the east a 
very ancient burying-place containing the remains of 
some members of the Erskine, Lyon, and Ogilvy fa- 
milies. The parochial school affords instruction in the 
usual branches ; the master has a salary of £34. 4. 4., 
with £20. 12. 4. fees. Near the mansion of Auchter- 
house are the ruins of a square building called Wallace 
Tower, supposed to have taken its name from a visit 
paid here to Sir John Ramsay, the proprietor, by the 
Scottish patriot. Sir William Wallace, after landing at 
Montrose with his French auxiliaries. Not far from 
this spot, and in other parts of the parish, are some of 
those caverns styled " Weems", in which various relics 
have been found, indicating their former use as abodes 
of men. On the south of the hill of Sidlaw is a Druidi- 
cal altar in good preservation. 

AUCHTERLESS, a parish, in the district of Tur- 
riff, county of Aberdeen, seven miles (S. by W.) 
from Turriff; containing 1685 inhabitants. The name 
of this place is derived from a Gaelic word signifying 
"a cultivated field on the side of a hill", and the appli- 
cation of the term is favoured by the general appearance 
of the surface. The parish is of an irregular oblong 
figure, about eight miles in length and four in breadth, 
and contains nearly 16,000 acres, of which two-thirds 
are cultivated, and nearly 500 acres are in plantation. 
It is bounded on the north by the county of Banff. 
The lands are watered by the river Ythan, the only 
considerable stream, which, rising about a mile from 
the boundary of Auchterless, and flowing through the 
vale in a north-eastern direction, discharges its waters 
into the German Ocean below Ellon. In some parts 
the soil is clayey, but more frequently consists of gravel, 
lying upon a bed of clay-slate, and is almost uniformly 
dry. The cattle are of the Aberdeenshire breed, which 
sprang from a cross between the native and the old Fife 
stock about seventy years since ; the sheep, which are 
not numerous, are the Cheviots. The husbandry is of 
the best kind, and the free use of lime, guano, compost 
manure, and bone-dust, has much contributed to the 
fertility of the soil. Almost every farm, too, of any 
extent, has a threshing- mill on the premises, turned by 
one of the tributary streams of the Ythan. The annual 
value of real property in the parish is £6*73. The 
prevailing rock is a clay-stone slate, which runs through 
the whole of the parish from north-east to south-west, 
but lies at too great a depth to be available for the 
purposes of quarrying. 

The villages are, Gordonstown, about two miles dis- 
tant from the church, and the little hamlet of Kirktown. 
At the latter a market is held on the Wednesday after 
the second Tuesday in April (O. S.) for the sale of 
sheep and cattle, which is called Donan fair from the 
ancient tutelary saint of the parish. The Aberdeen and 
Banff turnpike-road runs for nearly three miles along 
the eastern extremity of the parish, and a new turnpike- 
road from Inverury to Forgue passes along the south- 
west of the parish. At Badenscoth inn, on the latter 
road, markets for the sale of cattle and grain are held 



♦ 



A U C H 



A U C H 



on the second Mondays of December, January, Fe- 
bruary, and March. For ecclesiastical purposes Auch- 
terless is within the bounds of the presbytery of Turriff 
and synod of Aberdeen ; the patronage belongs to the 
family of Dulf of Hatton, and the minister's stipend is 
£191. 6. 5., with a good manse and offices, and a glebe 
of about six acres, valued at £18 per annum. The 
church, a plain edifice, built in 1780, and repaired in 
1832, seats '50 persons. There is a parochial school, 
affording instruction in Greek, Latin, and mathematics, 
with all the usual branches of education ; the master 
has a salary of £34, £'21 fees, and a house and garden. 
Near the farming-village of Glen-Mailen is the strong 
and extensive Roman camp called The Rae-Dykes, situ- 
ated on the south side of the Ythan, a mile below the 
two well-known springs of the river. According to Mr. 
Chalmers, it was undoubtedly the Ad Itunurn of Richard 
of Cirencester, which, from its central position, com- 
manded the ample extent of the shire of Aberdeen, the 
ancient country of the Taixali. In the vicinity of The 
Rae-Dykes are other remains, indicating the long re- 
sidence of a military people ; and the antiquities of 
Auchterless also comprise some Druidical circles. This 
parish has been famed for the longevity of several of 
its inhabitants, one of whom, Peter Garden, a farmer, 
died about the year 1/80 at the advanced age of 132, 
having lived under eight sovereigns, commencing with 
Charles I. : he was one of the garrison in the old castle 
of Towie Barclay when Montrose defended it against 
Argyll. 

AUCHTERMUCHTY, a 
royal burgh, and a parish, 
in the district of Cupar, 
county of Fife, 9 miles (W.) 
from Cupar ; containing, 
with the village of Duashelt, 
3356 inhabitants, of whom 
1340 are in the burgh. This 
place, the name of which in 
the Gaelic language signifies 
" the cottage of the king," 
is supposed, from that cir- 
cumstance, to have been ap- 
propriated to the accommodation of part of the royal 
household, during the kings' residence in the palace of 
Falkland, about three miles distant. The town is situ- 
ated on the road from Kinross to Cupar, and is irregu- 
larly built, consisting of several ill-formed streets and 
lanes of houses of mean appearance, many of them hav- 
ing thatched roofs, though intermixed with some of more 
modern and handsome character, with neat gardens 
attached. It is inhabited by an industrious and thriving 
population, and has a public library supported by sub- 
scription. The inhabitants are chiefly employed in hand- 
loom weaving for the manufacturers of Dunfermline, 
Newburgh, and Kirkcaldy ; the principal articles are 
linen goods, consisting of checks, drills, dowlas, sheetings, 
and other fabrics, in making which about 1000 persons 
are engaged. A considerable number were formerly 
occupied in these manufactures on their own account ; 
but only one or two establishments of the kind now 
remain. On the banks of a rivulet near the extremity 
of the town are a cloth and yarn bleach-field, a flour- 
mill, and saw-mill. There are also a thriving distillery 
and an extensive malting concern. A branch of the 
87 




Burgh Seal. 



Union Bank of Scotland has been established, as well as 
a savings' bank. The market, which is on Monday, is 
well supplied with grain and provisions of every kind ; 
and fairs are held on the 2.5th of March (O. S.), the 13th 
of July, and the 21st of August, for horses and cattle : 
the July fair is also a statute-fair. The inhabitants were 
first incorporated by charter of James IV., who erected 
the town into a royal burgh ; and its liberties, as such, 
were confirmed by James VI. : the right of sending a 
member to parliament was lost, from disuse, some time 
before the Union ; but it still retains its corporation, 
and most of its other privileges. The government is 
vested in three bailies, a treasurer, and a council of fifteen 
members, chosen under the authority of the Municipal 
Reform act. The magistrates have jurisdiction over the 
whole of the royalty, and hold courts for the determina- 
tion of civil pleas to any amount ; in criminal cases 
their jurisdiction is confined to misdemeanors. The 
post-office has two deliveries daily ; and facility of com- 
munication with the neighbouring places is afforded by 
good roads, of which the turnpike-road from Stirling to 
St. Andrew's passes through the southern extremity of 
the town. 

The PARISH is about four miles in length, from north- 
east to south-west, and extends from one to two miles 
in breadth, comprising about 2900 acres, of which 220 
are woodland and plantations, 90 undivided common, 
and the remainder arable land and pasture. Its surface 
is varied, in the south-east forming an extensive and 
richly fertile plain, and in other parts rising to a consi- 
derable elevation. In the level lands the soil is a deep 
loam, producing abundant crops of all kinds. Of late 
years, the system of agriculture has been brought to a 
state of great perfection under the encouragement of the 
Auchtermuchty Agricultural Society, which holds an 
annual meeting in the town, on the first Monday in 
October, for the distribution of premiums. The lands 
have been drained and inclosed, and the farm-buildings 
are substantial and well arranged. The pastures are 
luxuriantly fertile, and the cattle, which are chiefly of 
the Fifeshire black breed, bring a good price in the 
market. The annual value of real property in the parish 
is £6845. The substratum is mostly whinstone, which 
forms the basis of the higher grounds. The plantations, 
mainly of modern growth, are in a thriving state. Myres 
Castle, the principal mansion in the parish, was for many 
years the seat of the Moncrieffs, and now belongs to the 
family of Bruce of Falkland : the building, to which a 
considerable addition was made about the year 1830, is 
finely situated in a park of about thirty acres. Bellevue 
and Southfield are also pleasant residences. This jjarish 
is ecclesiastically within the bounds of the presbytery of 
Cupar and synod of Fife : the minister's stijiend is about 
£250, with a manse, garden, and a glebe valued at £30 
per annum ; patrons, the Bruce family. The church, a 
plain building erected in 1785, was enlarged by the pa- 
trons, in 1837, at a cost of £500, and now contains 1 100 
sittings. There are places of worship for the United 
Presbyterian Synod and the Free Church. The paro- 
chial school of Auchtermuchty is well attended ; th'e 
master has a salary of £34. 4. 4. per annum, with a 
house and garden. 

AUCHTERNUD, a village, in the parish of Fod- 
DERTY, county of Ross and Cromarty ; containing 1 LO 
inhabitants. 



A UC H 

AUCHTERTOOL, a parish, in the district of Kirk- 
caldy, county of Fife, 4 miles (W. by S.) from Kirk- 
caldy ; containing, with the village of Newbigging, 530 
inhabitants, of whom 239 are in the village of Auchter- 
tool. This place is supposed to derive its name, signif}'- 
ing in the Gaelic language " the high grounds on the 
river Tiel", from its elevated situation with respect to 
that stream. The parish is about three miles in length, 
one mile in average breadth, and comprises about 2500 
acres, of which 1700 are arable, and the remainder pas- 
ture, and waste land capable of being brought into culti- 
vation. Its surface is varied, and, towards the west, 
rises into a range of steep acclivities called the Cullalo 
hills, the highest of which has an elevation of "50 feet 
above the sea, commanding an extensive prospect over a 
richly-cultivated tract of country ; but the scenery within 
the parish is almost destitute of beauty, from the want 
of wood. The river Tiel has its source here ; and the 
parish is also intersected by two streamlets which, 
though very small, frequently, after continued rain, are 
greatly increased, and in their course through a narrow 
channel form beautiful cascades : one of these falls, near 
the end of a deep and narrow dell, is truly picturesque. 
Near the ancient mansion of Camilla, formerly the resi- 
dence of the Countess of Moray, is an extensive loch, 
bounded on the north side by a precipitous eminence 
covered with furze ; and not far from it are the ruins of 
the ancient mansion of Hallyards, still retaining traces 
of baronial grandeur, with some portion of the planta- 
tions of the demesne, forming a romantic feature in the 
scenery of the lake. This sheet of water is about 
eighteen acres in extent, and abounds with perch, eels, 
and pike ; its greatest depth is twenty-two feet. 

In the southern parts the soil is a rich loam, varying 
from one foot to five feet in depth ; and in the north 
and western parts-, clay, which by draining and good 
management has been rendered nearly as fertile as the 
loam ; and moss land, of which a large portion is of 
great depth, and apparently incapable of being brought 
into profitable cultivation. The chief crops are wheat, 
barley, oats, potatoes, and turnips. The system of agri- 
culture is in a very improved state, and draining has 
lately been carried on with success. Considerable at- 
tention has been paid to the rearing and feeding of 
live-stock : the cattle are generally of the black Fifeshire 
breed, with some of the Teeswater lately introduced ; 
and there are a few sheep, all of the Cheviot breed. The 
substratum is mostly whinstone, freestone, and lime- 
stone : the whinstone is quarried, chiefly for mending the 
roads, and occasionally for building ; the freestone is of 
very inferior quality, and is seldom worked ; the lime- 
stone, which is mainly found on the lands belonging to 
the Earl of Moray and Captain Wemyss, is quarried only 
by the tenants for their own immediate use. The village 
of Auchtertool is neatly built ; the houses are principally 
of stone and lime, and those of more recent erection are 
covered with blue slate. A parochial library has been 
established here, and a savings' bank. There was for- 
merly a brewery of porter, ale, and table-beer, in the vil- 
lage, for the supply of the neighbourhood ; it was long 
in very great repute, and a large quantity of the ale was 
sent to Kirkcaldy, and thence shipped lor the London 
market, but the buildings are now apparently in a state 
of decay. For ecclesiastical purposes the parish is in 
the piesbytery of Kirkcaldy, synod of Fife, and in the 
S8 



A UL D 

patronage of the Earl of Moray; the minister's stipend 
is £157. 18. 10., with a manse in the later English style, 
and the glebe is valued at £'20 per annum. The church, 
which was substantially repaired in 1S33, is situated 
within a mile of the village, and is adapted for a congre- 
gation of about 300 persons. The parochial school 
affords a liberal course of instruction ; the master has a 
salary of £33. 6. 8., with £2S fees, and a good dwelling- 
house and garden. At the west end of the loch of 
Camilla is a mineral spring. 

AUCKINGILL, a township, situated in the parish of 
Canisbay, county of Caithness; containing '209 inha- 
bitants. 

AULDEARN, a parish, in the county of Nairn, 2j 
miles (E. S. E.) from Nairn ; containing 1466 inhabit- 
ants, of whom 351 are in the village. This place is said 
by some to have derived its name, in the Gaelic supposed 
by them to be Alt-Em, from a brook which flows through 
it into the river Nairn, and the banks of which are 
thickly planted with alder-trees. Shaw, in his History 
of Moray, deduces the name of Auldearn from words 
signifying "the iron-coloured brook"; whilst common 
tradition derives it horn Auld A'airn, supposing the place 
to have been the original Nairn, and much more ancient 
than the present burgh of that name. Auldearn was the 
head of the deanery of Moray ; and up to a compara- 
tively recent period, Nairn was only a vicarage belonging 
to the deans. The parish was of much greater extent 
till the year 1650, when parts of it were annexed to the 
parishes of Nairn, Cawdor, and Ardclach. In 1645, a 
sanguinary battle took place near the village, between 
the forces under the Marquess of Montrose, and a de- 
tachment of the army of the Covenanters, commanded 
by Hurry, and consisting of about 4000 men, when the 
former, after an obstinate conflict, obtained a decisive 
victory. About 800 of the Covenanters fell, and a con- 
siderable number of the forces of the marquess ; the 
slain on both sides were interred in a field to the south- 
west of the village, and the spot, which has been since 
planted, is surrounded with a moat. The parish is 
bounded on the north by the Moray Firth, here about 
seven miles broad, along the coast of which it extends 
for four miles. It is six miles and a half in length from 
north to south, and about five miles in breadth from east 
to west, comprising 13,680 acres, of which 4778 are ara- 
ble, 5111 meadow and pasture, 3603 woodland and 
plantations, and 198 acres under water. The surface for 
nearly three miles from the shore, though varying in 
elevation, is low ; it thence rises to a considerable height 
for nearly two miles, where it is intersected by the valley 
of the INIuckle brook, beyond which it attains a more 
abrupt and precipitous elevation. About half a mile 
from the shore, to the west, is an island of sand called 
the Bar, which is formed at high water, and is constantly 
changing its position westward ; and opposite to it are 
two hills of sand, about 100 feet in height, which are 
continually changing their position towards the east, 
without any apparent alteration in their form. 

In the south-eastern part of the parish the soil is 
luxuriantly rich ; in the south-western, of very inferior 
quality ; and in the north-east and north-west, a heavy 
cold loam. There are two lakes of considerable extent, 
one of which, called Loch Lithy, covers an area of forty 
acres, and produces abundance of rich marl ; the other, 
Loch Loy, in the northern part of the parish, is about a 



I 
I 



A U LD 



A VOC 



mile in length and a quarter of a mile broad. There is 
also a large tract of moss called the Moss of Inshocb, in 
which vast quantities of roots, and sometimes entire fir- 
trees, are found embedded. The crops are grain of all 
kinds, potatoes, and turnips : the system of agriculture 
has been much improved ; waste land has been drained 
and brought into profitable cultivation, and much of the 
inferior soil been rendered more fertile by the use of 
marl, lime, and bone-dust manure. The cattle are of 
the Highland breed, and the sheep of the white-faced 
kind. The annual value of real property in the parish is 
£6148. The plantations are chiefly Scotch fir, larch, oak, 
beech, elm, and ash, of which three last there are some 
fine specimens at Boath and Lethen ; and to the east of 
Inshoch is a thriving plantation of birch. The substra- 
tum is principally sandstone, some of which is of excel- 
lent quality ; and from a quarry on the lands of Brodie, 
was raised the stone for the towers of the suspension 
bridge over the river Findhorn near Forres. Near Boath 
is found a black stone which, on the application of fire, 
emits a flame ; and at Clune, on the lands of James C. 
Brodie, Esq., of Lethen, are nodules of limestone, in 
which are fossils of various kinds of fishes. 

The prevailing scenery is of pleasing character, embel- 
lished with plantations ; and the views obtained from 
the higher grounds are extensive and richly diversified, 
commanding the wide expanse of the Firth, the rocky 
coasts and lofty mountains of Ross in combination with 
those of Sutherland, and numerous other deeply inter- 
esting features. Lethen, the seat of Mr. Brodie, is a 
spacious and handsome mansion, finely situated in the 
valley of the Muckle burn, and consisting of a centre 
and two wings, erected about the commencement of the 
last century ; the grounds are tastefully laid out, and 
the house is embosomed in a plantation of venerable 
beech-trees, on the summit of a thickly-wooded acclivity 
rising from the stream. Boath,the seat of Sir Frederick 
William Dunbar, Bart., is an elegant mansion of free- 
stone, erected in 1830, and beautifully situated in the 
valley of the Auldearn, near the junction of the two 
branches of that stream. The village is neatly built, 
and is inhabited chiefly by persons engaged in agricul- 
ture. Fairs are held annually, for cattle and horses on 
the first Wednesday after the 19th of June, and for 
agricultural produce on the first Tuesday after the Inver- 
ness fair at Martinmas ; the first of these is called St. 
Colin's market, and the other St. John's, following 
which are two fairs held respectively a fortnight and a 
month after. The turnpike-road from Elgin to Inver- 
ness passes for four miles through the parish ; and fur- 
ther facility of communication is afforded by good roads 
and bridges in almost every direction. 

Ecclesiastically the parish is within the bounds of the 
presbytery of Nairn and synod of Moray : the minister's 
stipend is £241. 5. 4., with a manse, and a glebe valued 
at £12 per annum ; patron, Mr. Brodie of Brodie. The 
church, built in 1751, and improved in 1816, is a neat 
structure, situated close to the village, and contains 63.5 
sittings. There are places of worship for Free Church 
and United Presbyterian congregations. The parochial 
school affords instruction to about 130 scholars; the 
master has a salary of £36. 7. 2., including an allowance 
for a garden, and the fees average £10 per annum. On 
the higher grounds in the parish are some Druidical 
remains, of which the most perfect, near the old castle 
Vol. I.— 89 



of Moyness, consists of two concentric circles, with a 
slightly-rocking stone weighing about four tons ; and on 
a small eminence designated the Black Hillock has been 
found a kistvaen, containing a human skeleton and 
several urns filled with ashes. Upon a farm called 
Knock-na-Gillan, the Cummings -of Rait once seized 
thirteen of the clan of Mackintosh who were passing 
through the parish, and put twelve of them to death ; 
and some time after, these hostile clans meeting at the 
castle of Rait, in the parish of Nairn, the Mackintoshes 
in retaliation put the whole clan of the Cummings to the 
sword, and burnt their castle. About a mile to the 
north of the church are the ruins of the ancient castle of 
Inshoch, the seat of the Hays of Loch Loy ; and a mile 
to the east of it were till lately the remains of the house 
of Penick, the residence of the deans of Moray. 

AULDFIELD, for a time a quoad sacra district, form- 
ing part of the town of Pollockshaws, in the parish 
of Eastwood, Upper ward of the county of Renfrew- ; 
containing 32.52 inhabitants. — See Pollockshaws. 

AUSKERRY isle, in the parish of Stronsay, 
county of Orkney. It is situated about two miles to 
the south of the island of Stronsay, and is small and 
uninhabited, and appropriated to the pasturage of cattle. 
There are some remains of a chapel, and the ruins of a 
dwelling which bears the name of the Monk's House. 
Kelp is manufactured in considerable quantity. 

AVOCH, a parish, in the county of Ross and Cro- 
marty, if mile (S. W. by W.) from Fortrose ; con- 
taining 1931 inhabitants, of whom 936 are in the 
village. This place apparently derives its name, said to 
signify in the Gaelic language " shallow waters ", from 
the small river on which the village is situated. The 
parish is bounded on the south and south-east by 
the Moray Firth, and on the south-west by the bay of 
Munlochy ; and is about four miles and a quarter in 
length, and three miles in extreme breadth, comprising 
6198 acres, of which about 2500 are arable, 1500 wood- 
land and plantations, and the remainder meadow, pasture, 
and waste. Its surface, though generally level, with a 
gentle acclivity from the shore of the Firth, contains a 
portion of the Milbuy hill, which has an elevation of 
nearly 500 feet ; and is also intersected, in the lower 
parts, by several prominent ridges. The river from which 
it is said to take its name rises within its limits, near a 
pool called the Littlemilstick, and after a beautifully 
winding course, in which the stream turns several mills, 
falls into the Firth near the village. The coast extends 
for about three miles, and is bounded by a high ridge of 
rocks, projecting slightly in two points, between which 
is a beach of sand and gravel. 

The soil, which comprises almost every variety, has 
been greatly improved, and the pastures are mostly rich ; 
the crops are wheat, oats, barley, potatoes, and turnips, 
with the usual grasses. Considerable attention has been 
for some time paid to the rearing of live-stock ; and the 
farms have been newly divided in portions adapted to 
the ability and resources of the various tenants, by 
which a much better system of management has been 
introduced. The annual value of real property in the 
parish is £3658. The substrata are generally of the red 
sandstone formation, interspersed with rocks of granite ; 
and indications of limestone occur, though none has yet 
been wrought : there are freestone quarries in several 
places from one of which, affording stone of a deep red 

N 



A VOC 



AVON 



colour, it is supposed that the materials were taken for 
the erection of the cathedral church of Chanonry. 
Rosehaugh, the seat of Sir James J. R. Mackenzie of 
Scatwell, Bart., is an elegant modern mansion, beau- 
tifully situated on an eminence about half a mile from 
the sea, and embellished with woods and thriving plan- 
tations. Avoch House, a handsome mansion embosomed 
in romantic scenery, was destroyed in 1833 by an ac- 
cidental fire. Bay Cottage is situated near, and derives 
its name from, the bay of Munlochy. 

The village stands on the river Avoch, near its influ.x 
into the Moray Firth, which is here about four miles in 
breadth, and, between the promontory of Fort-George 
on the east and the town of Inverness on the west, has 
the appearance of a beautiful inland lake. The inha- 
bitants are chiefly employed in fisheries, in which nine 
boats, having each a crew of ten men, are engaged in 
taking haddock, whiting, cod, and other fish, on the 
coasts of Sutherland and Caithness : in the Moray Firth 
are found oysters, flounders, and halibut. After sup- 
plying the neighbourhood, the remainder of the fish are 
sent to the Inverness market. During the season, com- 
mencing about the middle of July, the fishermen of this 
place send thirty-five boats to the herring-fishery at 
Caithness, from which they return some years with 
from £20 to £50 each of clear gain, while in other years 
few are able to cover the necessary expenses. In the 
intervals of the fishing season, the inhabitants are em- 
ployed in making nets, not only for their own use, but 
also for the fishing-stations in the north and west 
Highlands. The harbour that is formed near the 
mouth of the river affords good anchorage and shelter 
for the boats, and a substantial pier has been constructed, 
at which vessels of considerable burthen land cargoes of 
coal from Newcastle ; it is also safely accessible to 
trading vessels, which, from London, Leith, Aberdeen, 
and Dundee, regularly touch at the port. There are 
two salmon-fisheries, one on the estate of Rosehaugh, 
and the other on the estate of Avoch. In Munlochy 
bay, mussels are found in profusion. Facility of com- 
munication is afforded by the turnpike-road from Fort- 
George ferry to the western coast of Ross-shire, which 
passes through the village and the southern part of the 
parish, leading to Kessock ferry on the west, and to the 
town of Dingwall on the north-west. Ecclesiastically 
the parish is within the bounds of the presbytery of 
Chanonry and synod of Ross : the minister's stipend 
is £249. 9. 6., with a manse, and a glebe valued at 
£7. 10. per annum : patron. Sir J. J. R. Mackenzie. The 
church, a neat plain structure, erected in 16/0, enlarged 
in 1792, and repaired in 1833, is situated close to the 
village, and contains 600 sittings. There is a place of 
worship for Independents. The parochial school is well 
conducted ; the master has a salary of £30, with a house 
and garden, and the fees average between £20 and £30 
per annum. 

There are some slight remains of the ancient castle of 
Avoch, consisting chiefly of the site, occupying a rocky 
knoll on the northern promontory of the bay of Mun- 
lochy, and distinguished by the rubbish of ruined walls 
which surrounded the summit of the hill. It was the 
residence of the lord of Moray, who died in 133S. The 
castle subsequently passed to the Earls of Ross, on 
whose forfeiture it was annexed to the crown, and was 
granted by James III. to his second son, the Marquess 
90 



of Onnond, from which circumstance the knoll was 
called Ormoud's Mount. The lower story, or dungeon, 
of the Tower of Arkendeith, supposed to have been built 
by the Bruces of Kinloss, is also remaining. Chambers 
of Ormond, the Scottish historian, was born in the 
parish ; and Sir Alexander Mackenzie, who discovered 
the river in America which is called by his name, resided 
for many years at Avoch House, and was interred here. 
AVONDALE, a parish, in the Middle ward of the 
county of Lanark ; containing, with the market-town of 
Strathaven, 6180 inhabitants. The proper name of this 
parish, which, from its including the market-town, has 
been called sometimes Strathaven, and by contraction 
Straven, is Avondale, an appellation derived from its 
position on the river Avon, by which it is divided into 
two nearly equal parts. The barony of Avondale was 
anciently the property of the Baird family, and subse- 
quently belonged to the Earl of Douglas, on whose 
forfeiture in 1455 it was granted by James III. to 
Andrew Stewart, whom he created Lord Avondale, and 
who exchanged it for the barony of Ochiltree with Sir 
James Hamilton, in whose family it has ever since 
remained. The place has derived some historical cele- 
brity from the defeat of the troops under General 
Claverhouse, at Drumclog, by a congregation of Cove- 
nanters who had assembled there for public worship on 
Sunday, the 1st of June, 1679, and, anticipating an 
attack by the former, who were stationed at Strathaven, 
had provided themselves with arras for their defence. 
On the approach of Claverhouse with his dragoons, the 
armed part of the congregation went forward to meet 
him, and taking post on soft level ground, having before 
them a rivulet, over which the general had to pass, and 
of which the bank was from its softness impassable to 
the cavalry, defeated his forces with considerable loss, 
the general himself escaping with difficulty. In 1820, 
the place was disturbed by a few rioters (old men and 
boys) under the command of James Wilson, who, upon 
false intelligence that a rebellion against the government 
had broken out in Glasgow, marched thither to join the 
insurgents ; but they were instantly dispersed, and their 
leader, who was made prisoner, was brought to the 
scaffold, and suffered the penalty of his folly. 

The parish comprises about 32,000 acres, of which 
15,000 are arable, and the remainder, with the exception 
of some tracts of moss and marsh land, formerly more 
extensive, is in pasture. Its surface is generally level, 
rising gently from the banks of the river towards the 
south and west, and partially intersected with ridges and 
small hills, the highest of which, situated towards the 
borders of Ayrshire, scarcely attain an elevation of more 
than 900 feet above the sea. Of these the most pro- 
minent are Kype's rigg, and Hawkwood and Dungivel 
hills, with the picturesque but smaller eminences of 
Floors hills and Kirkhill. The Avon, which rises on 
the confines of Ayrshire, in its course through the parish 
receives numerous tributary streams, the chief being the 
Cadder and Pomilion on the north, and the Givel, the 
Lochan, and the Kype on the south : the waters of the 
Kype, about a mile south of the town, are precipitated 
from a height of nearly fifty feet, forming an interesting 
fall. In all these streams trout is abundant. Salmon 
were formerly found in the Avon, even at its source ; 
but latterly their progress upward has been intercepted. 
The scenery of the parish, though destitute of orna- 



AVON 



AYR 



mental wood, is pleasiugly varied, and in many parts 
picturesque. 

The soil is generally fertile. The crops comprise oats 
and barley, with some wheat ; potatoes are also raised 
in great quantities, and are sold for seed ; but though 
the soil is extremely favourable for turnips, they are not 
much cultivated. There are numerous dairy-farms, and 
the pastures throughout the parish are luxuriant ; great 
numbers of cows, principally of the Ayrshire breed, are 
pastured here, and there are at present not less than 
2000 acres of undivided common. The Clydesdale breed 
of horses is reared here in considerable numbers. Many 
improvements have been made in draining ; and the 
whole' of Strathaven moss, comprising above 200 acres 
of unprofitable land, has been reclaimed, affording more 
valuable crops than any other portion of the parish. 
The parish is capable of very great improvement : by 
judicious draining, and inclosing with hedge-rows and 
belts of planting, not only would its aspect be improved, 
but in twenty years the rental might be doubled. A 
tile-work has been built at Drumclog within the last 
few years. The annual value of real property in the 
parish is £24,785. Whinstone abounds, as does also 
ironstone ; and limestone is found in several parts, and 
burnt for agricultural purposes : coal is also found in 
the neighbourhood of the limekilns, in considerable 
quantity, and of a quality sufficient for burning the lime, 
but not adapted to household use. The moors abound 
with grouse and other game, and the Duke of Hamilton 
has an extensive tract of pasture land for sheep, which is 
kept for grouse shooting ; partridges are also numerous 
in the lower lands, and plovers and wild ducks are every 
where abundant. Besides the two turnpike-roads lead- 
ing westward towards Ayr and Muirkirk, there are 
parish roads with the necessary bridges, to the extent of 
sixty miles, all in good repair : the bridges, however, are 
in general too narrow. 

Ecclesiastically the parish is in the presbytery of 
Hamilton, synod of Glasgow and Ayr, and in the 
patronage of the Duke of Hamilton. The minister's 
stipend is £305. 2. 6., with a manse, and the glebe is 
valued at £24 per annum. There is also an assistant 
minister, appointed by his grace, to whom a stipend of 
500 marks is paid, according to the will of the late 
" good Duchess Anne "; he visits the sick, and catechises 
the parishioners. The church, erected in 1772, is a 
plain edifice with an unfinished spire, adapted for a 
congregation of 800 persons. Under the auspices of the 
present minister, an additional church has been erected 
for 900 persons, at an expense of £1400, to which a 
district called East Strathaven has been assigned, and 
which is supplied by a minister appointed by the con- 
gregation. There are places of worship for the United 
Presbyterian Synod. The parochial school affords an 
efficient education ; the master's salary is £34. 4. 4., 
with £36 from fees, and a good house and garden. 
There is also a parochial school for East Strathaven. 
Some remains of a Roman road may be traced on the 
south side of the river Avon, passing by the farm of 
Walesley ; and on the lands of Genncrhill, small coins 
and Roman sandals have been discovered. Roman coins 
have also been found on the lands of Torfoot, near 
Loudoun hill, supposed to have been in the line of the 
Romans, in their route through the Caledonian forest, 
towards the western coast. 
91 




Seal and Arms. 



AYR, a sea- port, burgh, 
and market-town, in the dis- 
trict of Kyle, county of 
Ayh, of which shire it is the 
capital, 87 miles (S. W.byW.) 
from Edinburgh, and 40 
(S. S. W.) from Glasgow ; 
containing 8264 inhabitants, 
and,includingNewton-upon- 
Ayr and Wallacetown on 
the opposite side of the river 
Ayr, which are within the 
parliamentary boundary of 
Ayr, upwards of 18,000 inhabitants. This place derives 
its name from the river on which it is situated, and 
appears to have attained a considerable degree of note 
at a very early period. A castle was erected here by 
■William the Lion, to which reference is made in the 
charter subsequently granted to the town by that 
monarch ; and from the importance of its situation, it 
was besieged and taken by Edward L during his inva- 
sion of Scotland. In 12S9, Robert Bruce, on the hostile 
approach of an English army towards the town, finding 
himself unable to withstand their progress, set fire to 
the castle, to prevent its falling into their hands ; and 
at present there are no vestiges of it remaining. During 
the usurpation of Cromwell, a very spacious and 
strongly-fortified citadel was erected here as a military 
station for his troops, for the maintenance and security 
of the town and harbour of Ayr, which at that time 
were of great importance, as enabling him to hold the 
western and southern parts of the county in subjec- 
tion ; and of this fort the greater part is still in good 
preservation. 

The TOWN is finely situated on a wide level plain, on 
the sea-coast, and at the head of the beautiful bay of 
Ayr, by which it is bounded on the west. The more 
ancient part consists of houses irregularly built, and of 
antique appearance ; but that portion which is of more 
modern origin contains numerous handsome ranges of 
buildings, among which may be noticed Wellington- 
square, Alloway-place, Barns-street, and a spacious and 
well-built street leading to the new bridge. 'Very great 
improvements have been made in the aspect of the town, 
which is seen to much advantage from the higher 
grounds, and more especially on the approach from the 
south ; and many agreeable villas have been erected in 
the vicinity, which are embellished with shrubs and 
trees. The principal streets are well paved, and lighted 
with gas ; and the inhabitants are amply supplied with 
water, partly from numerous wells opened in convenient 
situations, and partly from a softer spring, in Carrick, 
by pipes laid down for that purpose. The environs are 
extremely pleasing, abounding with richly-diversified 
scenery, embracing fine views of the sea, and many in- 
teresting features. There are two bridges over the river 
Ayr, celebrated by the poet Burns in his Twa Brigs of Ayr, 
one of which, erected about sixty or seventy years ago, 
is a very handsome structure, affording communication 
with the towns of Newton-upon-Ayr and 'Wallacetown. 
The beach, which is a fine level sand, is much frequented 
as a promenade, and contributes greatly to render the 
town desirable as a place of residence. 

There are two libraries supported by subscription, con- 
taining good collections of standard and periodical works, 

N2 



AYR 



AYR 



and newsrooms or reading-rooms well supplied with 
journals ; and a mechanics' institution established in 
1S25, with a library attached of more than 3000 volumes, 
for the increase of which a specific sum is annually 
appropriated. Races are annually held by the Western 
Meeting, in the first week in September, on an excellent 
course in the immediate vicinity of the town, comprising 
about fifty acres inclosed with a stone wall ; and the 
members of the Caledonian Hunt hold a meeting here 
once in five years. Two packs of fox-hounds, and a 
pack of harriers, are kept in the neighbourhood. As- 
semblies are held in an elegant and spacious suite of 
rooms, admirably adapted for that purpose, in the 
Town's Buildings, a stately edifice embellished with a 
spire (with clock) rising to the height of 226 feet : it 
contains, in addition to the assembly-rooms, two large 
newsrooms, rooms for town's meetings, and various 
apartments for public purposes. There is also a hand- 
some structure in the early English style called Wallace 
Tower, erected on the site of an ancient building that 
bore the same name : this tower is 1 15 feet in height, 
and is adorned in the front with a well-sculptured statue 
of Wallace by Thom ; it contains a clock, and forms a 
conspicuous object in the distant view of the town. The 
Ayrshire Horticultural and Agricultural Society was es- 
tablished in 1815, under the auspices and patronage of 
the late Lord Eglinton, for the distribution of prizes 
for the best specimens of flowers, fruit, and vegetables, 
and for improvements in husbandry and agricultural 
implements ; exhibitions are annually held, and attached 
to the institution is a library. A Medical Association 
has also been founded by members of that profession 
resident in the town and neighbourhood, the library of 
which contains a selection of the most valuable works 
on medical literature. The Barracks, an extensive range 
of building near the harbour, pleasantly situated on a 
fine level plain, are adapted for the reception of a regi- 
ment of infantry, and during the late war were fully 
occupied by the military stationed here ; but since the 
peace they have been unoccupied. There are public 
baths at Ayr. 

On the summit of the bank of the river Doon, about 
two miles from Ayr, is a stately monument in honour 
of the poet Burns, erected by subscription at an expense 
of £2000, and consisting of a circular building, rising 
from a triangular basement fifteen feet in height, to an 
elevation of more than sixty feet. It is surrounded by 
nine Corinthian pillars with an enriched cornice, sup- 
porting a cupola, which is surmounted by a gilt tripod 
resting upon dolphins ; and a window of stained glass 
gives light to a circular apartment eighteen feet in dia- 
meter, in which are a portrait of the poet, an elegant 
edition of his works, and various paintings illustrative 
of the principal scenes and descriptions in his poems. 
Opposite to the entrance is a semicircular recess deco- 
rated with columns of the Doric order, intended for the 
reception of his statue ; and in the grounds, comprising 
an area of about two acres, disposed in gravel-walks and 
shrubberies, and embellished with plantations of every 
variety of forest-trees, are placed in a handsome building 
for the purpose the well-known statues of Tam O'Shan- 
ter and Souter Johnny, executed by the late James 
Thom, and exhibited, previously to being deposited here, 
in almost every town of Britain. The Burns Monument 
was designed by Mr. Hamilton, and finished in 1823. 
9i 



Notwithstanding the very advantageous situation of 
the town, which stands in the midst of a richly-culti- 
vated district abounding in mineral wealth, and com- 
mands extensive means of communication both by sea 
and land, the town has never been much distinguished 
for its manufactures. A principal manufacture carried 
on here is that of shoes, which has for some years very 
much diminished, aEFordiug employment at present to 
little more than 200 persons. The working of muslins 
in varieties of patterns, for the Glasgow manufacturers, 
is carried on to a considerable extent, occupying about 
300 persons at their own dwellings. Weaving with the 
hand-loom, for manufacturers in distant towns, employs 
about 150 persons ; and tanning and currying are car- 
ried on upon a limited scale. A spacious factory for 
the spinning of wool and the manufacture of carpets, 
has been established by Mr. Templeton, which origi- 
nated in a small establishment for the spinning of cot- 
ton-yarn ; since its application to the present use, the 
building has been enlarged, and supplied with the most 
improved machinery of every kind, and the concern at 
present afiFords employment to 200 persons. A mill for 
carding, spinning, and weaving wool for plaids and 
blankets, has been also erected ; the machinery is im- 
pelled by water, and about thirty persons are employed. 

The foreign trade of the port consists almost entirely 
in the exportation of coal, and the importation of hemp, 
mats, tallow, tar, iron, pitch, timber, and other commo- 
dities ; the number of vessels engaged in this trade is 
about eighteen. About 300 vessels are employed in the 
coasting trade, which is carried on to a very considerable 
extent ; the imports are corn, groceries, hardware, iron, 
lead, haberdasheries, and other wares, and the exports 
are coal, corn, wool, and agricultural produce. In a 
late year, 739 vessels, of 62,730 tons' aggregate burthen, 
cleared out from the port, exclusively of steam-boats : 
3136 quarters of wheat, 306 cwt. of flour, 11,145 quar- 
ters of oats, 5623 cwt. of meal, 318 quarters of barley, 
643 quarters of beans, and fifty-one quarters of peas, 
were brought into the port in the year ; and 60,000 tons 
of coal, 55" 1 quarters of wheat, 5586 cwt. of flour, 
eighty-seven quarters of oats, 3178 cwt. of oatmeal, 
eighty- four quarters of barley, and 183 quarters of 
beans, were shipped coastwise. The port appears to 
have been distinguished at an early period, and ships 
are said to have been built here by several of the kings 
of Scotland. The harbour is capacious, and affords 
good accommodation for vessels, but the entrance is 
somewhat obstructed by a bar thrown up by the accu- 
mulation of alluvial deposit, for the removal of which 
considerable sums have been expended with great effect. 
A wall was raised, nearly twenty feet in height, taper- 
ing from a base nearly thirty feet in breadth to about 
eight feet on the summit, and extending nearly 300 
yards into the sea, on the south side ; and a similar 
pier on the north side, parallel to the former, was like- 
wise erected, at a very great expense, and recently 
enlarged. By these means the harbour has been con- 
siderably improved : and to render it still more com- 
plete, a breakwater has been partly erected at the mouth 
of the harbour, stretching still further into the sea, and 
which it is estimated will be completed at an expense of 
about £4000. The depth of w-ater is from fourteen to 
sixteen feet, at ordinary spring tides ; and about eighty 
sail of ships may lie in perfect safety within the bar. 



AYR 



AYR 



The rivers Ayr and Doon abound with excellent sal- 
mon, and considerable quantities are taken with drags, 
and afterwards with stake-nets, and, besides affording 
an abundant supply for the town and neighbourhood, 
are sent to the Glasgow, Edinburgh, and London mar- 
kets ; the fishery in the Doon is let for £235, and the 
other for £45 per annum. The fisheries off the coast 
are extensive, and at present twenty boats, each ma- 
naged by four men, are employed in taking cod, ling, 
haddock, whiting, turbot, skate, flounders, mackerel, 
and herrings, which last are taken only during the 
summer months : soles, red gurnet, and large conger- 
eels are found occasionally. The post-office has several 
deliveries daily, and the utmost facility of intercourse is 
maintained with the neighbouring towns, and with 
England and Ireland. The roads are kept in excellent 
order ; and the trade of the place has been much im- 
proved by the formation of a railroad to Glasgow, for 
which there is an appropriate station on the north bank 
of the river, near the new bridge, having a frontage of 
eighty-four feet, with every accommodation for goods 
and passengers. The market-days are Tuesday and 
Friday ; the markets are amply supplied with grain and 
provisions of every kind, and four annual fairs are held 
for cattle, horses, sheep, and agricultural produce. 

The charter of incorporation was first granted in 
the year 1202, by William the Lion, who conferred upon 
the burgesses the whole of the lands of the parish, with 
many valuable privileges. This charter was confirmed 
by Alexander II., who added the adjoining parish of 
Alloway, and extended the jurisdiction of the magistrates 
over the two parishes ; and Robert Bruce, by a charter 
dated at Dunfermline, ratified all the grants of his pre- 
decessors, and erected Alloway into a barony, of which 
the corporation were the lords. Under these charters, 
the government of the burgh is vested in a provost, two 
bailies, a dean of guild, a treasurer, and twelve council- 
lors, of which last number ten were formerly of the 
merchants' guild, and two of the trades'. The provost, 
bailies, and dean of guild are ex officio justices of the 
peace of the county. Until lately the burgh magistrates 
were elected from the guild brethren, who formed the 
council, by whom all the officers of the corporation were 
appointed ; but the magistrates and councillors are now 
chosen agreeably with the provisions of the Municipal 
Reform act, by the parliamentary voters within the limits 
of the municipal burgh. The incorporated trade guilds 
were nine in number, and were styled the squaremen, 
hammermen, tailors, skinners, coopers, weavers, shoe- 
makers, dyers, and butchers. The magistrates have 
jurisdiction in civil and criminal cases, but confine the 
latter to petty misdemeanors ; they hold courts weekly 
for civil and criminal causes. The more important 
cases are instituted in the sheriff's court, held every 
Tuesday from May to July, and from October to April : 
the number of causes in this court averages about 500 
in the year, and very few of them are removed into the 
court of session, or supreme court. A sheriff court for 
the recovery of debts not exceeding £8. 6. 8. is held 
every Thursday ; and a court every Monday chiefly for 
breaches of the peace. A dean-of-guild court is holden 
occasionally. These courts are held in the Court- House 
or County-Hall, on the north-west side of Wellington- 
square, a spacious and elegant building after the model 
of the temple of Isis at Rome, erected within the last 
93 



thirty or forty years, at an expense of more than £30,000. 
The front is embellished with a portico of massive 
circular columns, affording an entrance into a lobby, 
lighted by an ample and stately dome rising to a con- 
siderable height above the building, which consists of 
two stories. The interior comprises the requisite offices 
for persons connected with the proceedings, arranged on 
the ground floor ; while the upper story, to which is an 
ascent by a noble circular staircase, contains two spa- 
cious halls, with rooms for the judges and barristers, 
and retiring-rooms for the juries and witnesses. Of 
these halls, one is appropriated to the business of the 
courts, and the other chiefly used as a banqueting or 
assembly room ; the latter is splendidly fitted up, and 
is embellished with a portrait of the late Lord Eglinton 
as colonel of the Royal Highland regiment, of Lord 
Glasgow, late lord-lieutenant of Ayrshire, and Mr. Hamil- 
ton, late convener of the county. The prisons for the 
burgh and county are spacious and well ventilated, and 
the arrangement is adapted for the classification of the 
prisoners, who are regularly employed in various trades, 
and receive a portion of their earnings on leaving the 
prison. Ayr is the head of a parliamentary district 
comprising the burghs of Irvine, Campbelltown, In- 
verary, and Oban, which are associated with it in 
returning a member to the imperial parliament : the 
right of election, previously vested in the corporation, 
is now, by the act of William IV., extended to the £10 
proprietors and householders ; the sheriff is the return- 
ing officer, and the present number of voters in the 
parliamentary burgh of Ayr is about 420. 

The PARISH, including Alloway, forms part of an ex- 
tensive and richly-cultivated valley, and comprises about 
5000 acres. It is bounded on the north by the river 
Ayr, which separates it from the parishes of Newton 
and St. Quivox ; on the south-west by the river Doon ; 
and on the west by the sea. Towards the sea the 
surface is generally flat for about two miles, beyond 
which it rises by a gentle ascent to a considerable eleva- 
tion, forming a range of hills that inclose the vale, and 
terminate towards the south-west in the loftier chain of 
Brown Carrick, which projects into the sea in some 
precipitous rocky headlands called the Heads of Ayr. 
The river Ayr, which has its rise in the eastern extremity 
of the county, divides the valley in which the parish is 
situated into two nearly equal parts, and flows between 
banks richly embellished with plantations and pleasing 
villas. It is subject to violent floods, and in its course 
to the sea conveys great quantities of alluvial soil, 
which, accumulating at its mouth, and to some extent 
obstructing the entrance to the harbour, is removed by 
the means formerly mentioned. The river Doon has its 
source in a lake of that name, to the south-east, on the 
confines of the stewartry of Kirkcudbright, and in its 
progress displays many strikingly romantic features. A 
small stream called the Glengaiv burn flows between the 
ancient parishes of Ayr and Alloway ; and numerous 
springs are every where found, at a small depth from 
the surface, affording an abundant supply of water, but 
not well adapted for domestic use, containing carbonate 
and sulphate of lime, with some traces of iron in combi- 
nation. Close to the eastern border of the parish is 
Loch Fergus, about a mile in circumference, and abound- 
ing with pike : near the margin were formerly the ruins 
of an ancient building of a castellated form, which have 



AYR 



AYR 



been long since removed to furnish materials for the 
erection of farm-buildings, and in the centre of the lake 
is a small island, the resort of wild ducks and other aqua- 
tic fowl. 

The scenery is interspersed with numerous pleasing 
villas and stately residences. Among these are, Castle- 
hill, commanding a fine view of the town and bay ; 
Belmont Cottage, embosomed in trees ; Doonholme, with 
its richly-planted demesne extending along the banks 
of the river ; Rozelle, a stately mansion surrounded 
with trees of venerable growth ; Belle-isle, an elegant 
castellated mansion with turrets, rising above the trees 
by which it is surrounded ; and Mount Charles, with its 
flourishing plantations crowning the precipitous bank 
of the river Doon. The beautiful bay of Ayr is remark- 
able for the scenery it discloses. To the north are the 
islands of Cumbray, the Bute hills, and the Argyllshire 
mountains, with the summit of Ben-Lomond in the dis- 
tance. To the west are seen the coast of Ireland, and, 
near the Ayrshire coast, the Craig of Ailsa, rising pre- 
cipitously from a base two miles in circumference, to a 
height of 1000 feet above the level of the sea by which it 
is surrounded. The island of Arran with its lofty moun- 
tains, behind which is seen the Mull of Cantyre, also forms 
a conspicuous and interesting feature in the view. 

The soil, varies in different parts of the parish ; but 
from the progressive improvements in agriculture, and 
the extensively adopted practice of tile-draining, the 
lands have been rendered generally fertile, and a con- 
siderable quantity of unprofitable land has been made 
productive. The greater portion is under tillage, and 
produces abundant crops of grain of all kinds, with 
turnips and other green crops. Considerable attention 
is paid to the rearing of live-stock ; the sheep are chiefly 
of the Leicestershire and Cheviot breeds, and the cattle, 
with the exception of a few of the short-horned kind, 
are of the genuine Ayrshire breed, which has been 
brought to great perfection. The annual value of real 
property in the parish is £24,664. The substratum is 
mostly trap and whinstone, of which the rocks princi- 
pally consist. Coal is prevalent, but the working of it 
has not been found profitable in this parish, though it 
has been extensively wrought in the parishes adjoining. 
Red sandstone and freestone also exist, and the latter 
was formerly quarried. Some beautiful specimens of 
agate are found upon the shore ; and in the bed of the 
river occurs a peculiar species of claystone with small 
grains of dark felspar and mica, which is frequently 
used for polishing marble and metals, and as a hone for 
giving a fine edge to cutting tools. 

The parishes of Ayr and Alloway were united towards 
the close of the seventeenth century. The church of 
Ayr, which had been made collegiate in the reign of 
Mary, afforded sufficient accommodation for the whole 
population ; and divine service, which, for some time 
after the union of the parishes, was performed in the 
church of Alloway every third Sunday, was finally 
restricted to the church of Ayr. For ecclesiastical 
purposes the parish is within the bounds of the pres- 
bytery of Ayr and synod of Glasgow and Ayr. The 
stipend of the incumbent of the first charge is £1*8. 5., 
including half the interest of a sum of £1000 bequeathed 
for the equal benefit of both ministers ; with a manse, a 
comfortable modern residence. The second minister 
has also a stipend, including £20 interest money above 
94 



stated, £82. 15. 8. received from the public exchequer, 
and £108. 6. 8. paid from the funds of the burgh ; with 
an allowance for a manse. The Old church was erected 
about the middle of the seventeenth century, to supply 
the place of the church of St. John, which had been 
desecrated by Cromwell, and converted into an armoury 
for the fort that he erected around the site. It is a sub- 
stantial edifice, but greatly inferior to the original church 
in elegance of design. The New church was erected in 
1810, at an expense of nearly £6000, and is a handsome 
edifice. The two churches together are capable of 
accommodating from 2000 to 2500 persons. There are 
places of worship for members of the Free Church, the 
United Presbyterian Synod, Wesleyans, United Original 
Seceders, Reformed Congregation, Episcopalians, and 
Moravians. The parochial schools of the burgh, by a 
charter in 1*98, were incorporated into an institution 
called the Academy, and a handsome and capacious 
building was erected with funds raised by contributions 
from the heritors, and subscriptions. It is conducted 
under the superintendence of a committee of directors, 
by a rector who has a salary of £100 per annum, and 
three masters with salaries of about £20 each ; the 
course of instruction is comprehensive, and the number 
of pupils averages about 500. A school in which about 
200 children are taught, is supported by the produce of 
a bequest of £2000 by Captain Smith, under the direc- 
tion of the two ministers and the magistrates. 

The hospital for the poor, or Poor's House, was 
erected in 1*59, at the expense of the corporation, aided 
by subscription, for the reception of the infirm and 
helpless poor ; it is conducted by a master and mistress 
with a salary of £S0. A dispensary was estabhshed in 
1817, which afforded medical assistance to more than 
500 patients annually, and a fever hospital has been 
lately built, with which the dispensary is now conjoined : 
the subscriptions amount to about £300 per annum. A 
savings' bank was instituted in 1815; the present 
amount of deposits is about £3000, and the number of 
contributors *00 : the gross amount of deposits, since 
its commencement, exceeds £30,000. Numerous charita- 
ble benefactions have been made, the principal of which 
are, a bequest by Mr. Patterson, of Ayr, to the Glasgow 
Infirmary, of £500, in consideration of which the parish 
is privileged to send four patients to that institution ; 
an ann»ial income of £55, derived from a bequest left by 
Mr. Smith, a native of this town, and alderman of Lon- 
donderry in Ireland, distributed among poor persons ; 
a bequest of £300 by Mr. James Dick, the interest of 
which is similarly distributed among the poor ; the 
farm of Sessionfield, consisting of 100 acres, bequeathed 
by Sir Robert Blackwood, of Edinburgh, a native of this 
parish, the produce of which is distributed among poor 
householders; a bequest of £1000 by Mrs. Crawford, 
for reduced females ; a bequest of £300 by Captain 
Tennant, to the Poor-house ; a bequest of £5 annually 
to ten females, by Miss Ballantine, of Castle-hill ; and a 
bequest of £1000 to the poor of the parish, by Mr. Fer- 
guson of Doonholme. 

There are remains of the church of St. John, within 
the area of Cromwell's fort, consisting of the tower ; 
and also of the old church of Alloway, of which the 
walls are entire. The moat of Alloway may be traced, 
on the approach to Doonholme House : on its summit, 
according to ancient records, courts of justice were 



A Y R S 



A Y RS 



held for the trial of petty offences. There are evident 
traces of the old Roman road leading from Galloway 
into the county of Ayr, and passing within half a mile of 
the town : portions of it are still in tolerable preserva- 
tion. A tract on the coast, called the Battle Fields, is sup- 
posed to have been the scene of a fierce conflict between 
the natives and the Romans. Both Roman and British 
implements of war, urns of baked clay, and numerous 
other relics of Roman antiquity, have been found at this 
place. Coins of Charles II. were discovered under the 
foundation of the old market-cross, a handsome struc- 
ture of hexagonal form, removed in 178B. 

Johannes Scotus, who flourished in the ninth century, 
eminent for his proficiency in Greek and oriental litera- 
ture, and who was employed by Alfred the Great to 
restore learning at O.vford ; and Andrew Michael Ramsay, 
better known as the Chevalier Ramsay, the friend of 
Fenelon, Bishop of Cambray, were natives of Ayr. John 
Loudon McAdam, celebrated for his improvements in 
the construction of roads, and David Cathcart, Lord 
Allnway, one of the lords of session and of the high 
court of justiciary, were also natives j and John Mair, 
author of a system of book-keeping, and Dr. Thomas 
Jackson, professor of natural philosophy in the univer- 
sity of St. Andrew's, and author of several valuable 
works, were connected with the town. But the most 
celebrated name connected with the place, is that of 
Robert Burns, who was born at Alloway, in the 
parish, in a cottage which is still remaining. On the 
6th of August, 1844, the town of Ayr was the scene of 
great rejoicings, occasioned by a national festival being 
held in the neighbourhood, on that day, in honour of the 
memory of Burns, and to greet the three sons and the 
sister of the bard. At an early hour of the morning, 
visiters from all parts of Scotland and many from 
England and Ireland had arrived, to join in or be spec- 
tators of the proceedings ; and a grand procession was 
shortly formed, which passed from the town along a 
road thronged with people, to the more immediate scene 
of the events of the day, the banks of the river Doon. 
Here, in the vicinity of the poet's birth-place, beside the 
old kirk of Alloway which his muse has immortalized, 
and beneath the monument raised by his admiring 
countrymen, the procession closed ; and not long after- 
wards a banquet was partaken of by above 2000 persons, 
including many visiters of distinguished talent, in a 
large pavilion 120 feet square, that had been specially 
erected in a field adjoining the monument. Numerous 
appropriate speeches, some of considerable eloquence, 
were made upon the occasion. That of the Earl of 
Eglinton, lord-lieutenant of the county, who presided, 
and that of the croupier. Professor Wilson, were par- 
ticularly remarkable ; and the whole of the proceedings 
were characterized by the utmost enthusiasm, and by an 
universal desire to merge every individual feeling, that the 
day might be truly devoted to its own peculiar object. 

AYRSHIRE, an extensive county, on the western 
coast of Scotland, bounded on the north by Renfrew- 
shire, on the east by the counties of Lanark and Dum- 
fries, on the south by the stewartry of Kirkcudbright, 
and Wigtonshire, and on the west by the Firth of Clyde 
and the Irish Channel. It lies between 54° 40' and 55° 
52' (N. lat.), and 4° and 5° (W. long.), and is about 
sixty miles in length and nearly thirty in extreme 
breadth, comprising an area of about 1600 square miles, 
95 



or 1,024,000 acres; containing 31,497 houses, of which 
30,125 are inhabited ; and a population of 164,356, of 
whom 7S,9S3 are males, and 85,373 females. This 
county, which includes the three districts of Carrick, 
Kyle, and Cunninghame, was originally inhabited by 
the Damnii, with whom, after the departure of the 
Romans, were mingled a colony of Scots, who emigrated 
from Ireland, and settled in the peninsula of Cantyre, 
in the county of Argyll. In the eighth century, the 
Saxon kings of Northumbria obtained possession of this 
part of the country ; and in the reign of David I., Hugh 
de Morville, who had emigrated from England, and was 
made by that monarch constable of Scotland, received 
a grant of the whole district of Cunninghame, in which 
he placed many of his English vassals. Previously to 
their final defeat at the battle of Largs, in 1263, the 
county was frequently invaded by the Danes ; and 
during the wars with Edward of England, it was the 
scene of many of the exploits of William Wallace in 
favour of Robert Bruce, who was a native of the county, 
and obtained by marriage the earldom of Carrick, which, 
on his accession to the throne, merged into the property 
of the crown. The change in the principles of religion, 
which led to the Reformation, appears to have first de- 
veloped itself in this county ; and Kyle is noticed by 
the reformer Knox as having at a very early period em- 
braced the reformed doctrine. 

Before episcopacy was abolished, the county was in- 
cluded in the diocese of Glasgow ; it is now almost 
entirely in the synod of Glasgow and Ayr, and comprises 
several presbyteries, and forty-six parishes. Within its 
limits are the royal burghs of Ayr (which is the county 
town) and Irvine ; the towns of Largs, Beith, Ardros- 
san, Saltcoats, Kilwinning, Kilmarnock, Mauchline, 
Catrine, Old and New Cumnock, Muirkirk, Maybole, 
and Girvan ; and numerous large and populous villages. 
Under the act of the 2nd of William IV., the county 
returns one member to the imperial parliament. The 
surface is varied. In the district of Cunninghame, 
which includes the northern portion, it is comparatively 
level ; in Kyle, which occupies the central portion, it is 
hilly and uneven, though containing some large tracts 
of fertile and well cultivated land ; and the district of 
Carrick, in the south, is wild and mountainous. The 
principal mountains are, Knockdolian, which has an 
elevation of 2000 feet above the sea ; Cairntable, rising 
to the height of 1650 feet ; Knoekdow and Carleton, 
each 1554 feet high ; and Knocknounan, 1540 feet. 
The chief rivers are the Ayr, the Doon, the Garnock, 
the Girvan, and the Stinchar; and the county is inter- 
sected by numerous smaller streams, the principal of 
which are the Rye water, the Irvine, and the Kilmar- 
nock water. There are also numerous small lakes, espe- 
cially in the district of Carrick ; but the only one of 
any extent is Loch Doon, from which issues the river 
of that name. The coast, particularly that of Carrick, 
is precipitous, rocky, and dangerous, and possesses few 
good harbours ; towards the extremities it is almost in- 
accessible owing to rocks in the offing, and towards the 
centre the beach is sandy, and the water so shallow as 
generally to preclude the approach of vessels of any 
considerable burthen. 

About one-third of the land is arable and in culti- 
vation, and the remainder, of which a very large portion 
is mountain waste, is chiefly meadow and pasture. The 



AY TO 



A YTO 



soil is in some parts light and sandy, and in others a 
rich clay, and nearly the whole of the district of Cun- 
ninghame is a rich and fruitful vale. The dairies are 
well managed, and their produce is in very high repute ; 
the county is distinguished for its excellent breed of 
cattle. The moors abound with all kinds of game, and 
the rivers with salmon and trout. The minerals are, 
coal, ironstone, lead and copper ore, black-lead, and 
gypsum, the two first of which are largely wrought ; 
the coal is very abundant, and the working of it for ex- 
portation is daily increasing, for which purpose tram- 
roads have been laid down, and harbours have been 
constructed. There are also extensive quarries of free- 
stone and marble. The ancient forests of Ayrshire 
have long since disappeared ; and the plantations, which 
are extensive, are mostly of recent growth. In this 
county the seats are Kelburn House, Eglinton Castle, 
Culzean Castle, Loudoun Castle, Fairley Castle, Dalqu- 
harran, Blairquhan, Bargeny, Fullarton House, Dumfries 
House, Stair House, Auchincruive, Auchinleck, and 
many others. The manufactures comprise the various 
branches of the woollen, the linen, cotton, and thread 
manufactures, for which there are extensive works at 
Kilmarnock and Catrine ; the weaving of muslin is also 
general throughout the county, and the Ayrshire needle- 
work has long been distinguished for its elegance. 
There are tanneries and potteries, iron-foundries, and 
some very large iron-works, of which those at Muirkirk, 
Dairy, and Glengarnock are among the most celebrated 
in the country. Along the coast are valuable fisheries, 
and salt-works, and works for kelp and soda. Facility 
of communication is maintained by excellent roads, and 
bridges kept in good repair ; also by the railway from 
Ayr to Glasgow, with its different branches. The annual 
value of real property in the county is £531,319, of 
which £390,278 are returned for lands, £86,430 are for 
houses, £27,851 for mines, £11,313 for railway com- 
munication, £1301 for quarries, £843 for fisheries, £507 
for iron-works, and the remainder for other species of 
real property. There are numerous remains of anti- 
quity, consisting of the ruins of fortresses and religious 
houses, in various parts of the county ; all of which are 
described in the articles on the several parishes where 
they are situated. 

AYTON, a post-town and parish, in the county of 
Berwick, 9 miles (X. \v. by N.) from Berwick-on- 
Tweed, and 47| (E. by S.) from the city of Edinburgh ; 
containing about I7OO inhabitants. This place, which 
takes its name from the water of Eye, on whose banks 
it is situated, is intimately connected with important 
transactions of early times. It was formerly dependent 
on the monastery of Coldingham, upon the settlement 
of which, between the years 1098 and 1 107, under the 
auspices of King Edgar, that monarch made several 
grants to the monks, including " Eytun" and " aliam 
Eytun", the latter being Nether Ayton, on the opposite 
side of the river. Ayton then belonged to the parish of 
Coldingham ; and it is considered that its church was 
founded about that time, as a chapel to the neighbour- 
ing priory, to which use it was appropriated till the 
Reformation, when this district was disjoined from 
Coldingham, and united to Lamberton on the south- 
east, a short time after which it was erected into a 
parish of itself. The Castle of Ayton, a place of some 
consequence in turbulent times, but long since demo- 
96 



lished, is supposed to have been founded by a Norman 
called De Vescie, whose family afterwards changed their 
name to De Eitun, and of whom the Aytons of Inch- 
darney in Fife are said to be the lineal descendants. 
This castle was subjected to a siege by Surrey, the 
famous general of Henry TIL, in 1497. It appears that 
the village of Ayton sprang up in its vicinity for the 
sake of the protection which it afforded in times of 
danger. The estate of Prenderguest, a distinct and very 
ancient portion of the parish, in the reign of David I. 
partly belonged to Sw-ain, priest of Fishwick on the 
banks of the Tweed, who afterwards renounced his 
claim to it in favour of the Coldingham monks. A 
truce between the hostile kingdoms was signed in the 
church in 1384 ; and another in 1497, for seven years, 
after the capture of the castle in July in the same year. 

The p.\RisH is bounded on the east by the sea. It is 
about four miles in length, the same in breadth, and 
contains an area of about 7050 acres, of which 6OOO are 
arable, 250 pasture, and 800 plantation. The surface is 
most elevated in the southern part, which consists of a 
sloping range of high land, adorned with beautiful 
copses, and reaching at its highest elevation to about 
660 feet above the level of the sea : on the northern 
side the ground is lower, but has some very fine lofty 
undulations. The sea-coast extends between two and 
three miles, and is abrupt and steep, one point, called 
Blaiky's, rising to a height of 350 feet. There are one 
or two caves on the shore, accessible only by sea, and 
which, it is supposed, were formerly used for smuggling; 
they are the resort of marine fowls and shell-fish. At 
the south-eastern point of the boundary is a rocky bay, 
approached from land by a deep ravine, at the foot of 
which stand the little fishing-village of Burnmouth, and 
a singular rock called the Maiden Stone, insulated at 
high water, and which has been separated from the 
precipice above by the undermining of the sea. At the 
north-eastern point of the parish are two or three islets 
called the Harker rocks, over which the sea continually 
rolls, and, when driven by strong east winds, exhibits a 
succession of waves of sweeping foam. The chief rivers 
are the Eye and the Ale, the former of which rises in 
the Lammermoor hills, and after flowing for nearly 
twelve miles, enters the parish by a right-angled flexure 
on its western side, and at length falls into the sea. 
The scenery of the valley through which it flows, if 
viewed from Millerton hill, the old western approach to 
Ayton, is of singular interest and beauty : the nearer 
prospect consists of the village, manse, and church, 
Ayton House with its beautiful plantations, and the 
commanding house and grounds of Peelwalls ; a number 
of mansions and farm-houses appear in various parts on 
the right, skirted by a range of hill country, and the 
expansive and restless sea closes the prospect on the 
north-east. The Ale rises in Coldingham parish, and 
after running two or three miles, forms the north- 
eastern boundary of this parish, separating it from 
Coldingham and Eyemouth for about two miles, when 
it falls into the Eye at a romantic elevation called the 
Kip-rock. 

The soil is in general good, consisting in the southern 
part of a fertile loam, and in the northern exhibiting a 
light earth, with a considerable admixture of gravel in 
many places. The finest crops, both white and green, 
are raised in the parish ; the land is in a high state of 



A Y T O 



BACK 



cnltivation, and every improvement in agriculture has 
been introduced, the most prominent signs of advance 
being the adoption of a complete system of draining, 
and the plentiful use of bone-dust as turnip manure. 
The annual value of real property in the parish is 
£12,970. The prevailing rock in the district is the 
greywacke and greywacke slate, of which formation 
large supplies of sandstone of good quality are quarried 
for building. Considerable deposits of coarse alabaster, 
or gypsum, have been dug up near the hamlet of Burn- 
mouth ; and in the vicinity of the Eye are large quan- 
tities of coarse gravel, boulders, and of rolled blocks 
under the soil, apparently alluvial, and rounded by the 
perpetual action of water. 

The mansion-house of Ayton, which was destroyed by 
fire in 1834, was afterwards sold as a ruin with the ad- 
joining property for £170,000, and has been rebuilt on 
a scale of architectural splendour: it is situated on a 
beautiful acclivity, near the great London road, on the 
bank of the Eye, and is surrounded by extensive 
grounds. The house of Preuderguest is a modern build- 
ing of superior construction ; and at Peelwalls is an 
elegant residence, lately built of the celebrated stone 
from the quarries of Killala, in Fifeshire : it is situated 
in grounds which vie in beauty with the mansion. Guns- 
green House, standing by the sea-side and harbour of 
Eyemouth, is also a fine mansion, erected by a wealthy 
smuggler, who caused many concealments to be con- 
structed in the house, and under the grounds, for the 
purpose of carrying on his contraband traffic. A new 
and elegant seat was lately erected on the estate of 
Netherbyres, by Capt. Sir Samuel Brown, with an ap- 
proach from the north side by means of a tension- 
bridge over the Eye, by which, with many other im- 
provements, this valuable property has been rendered 
more attractive. 

The village of Ayton contains about "00 persons, and 
the village of Burnmouth a third of that number. At 
the former, a recently established cattle-market takes 
place monthly, which is well supported ; and fairs have 
long been held twice a year, which at present are not of 
much importance. Numerous buildings have been 
erected upon the new line of the London road, under 
leases granted by the proprietor ; and the village has 
thus been very considerably improved. There are 
several manufactories, the principal of which is a paper- 
mill, where pasteboard and coloured papers are chiefly 
prepared : it possesses new and greatly improved machi- 
nery, the drying process being effected by the application 
of the paper to large cylinders heated by steam ; about 
£800 are annually paid to the workmen, and the excise 
duties amount to upwards of £3000 per annum. A 
tannery, which is at present on a small scale, but pro- 
gressively increasing, was commenced in the village a 
few years since ; and at Gunsgreen is a distillery, not 
now at work, that yielded about 1500 gallons of aqua 
weekly, chiefly derived from potatoes, 6000 cwt. of 
which were sometimes consumed in two months. Kelp 
has occasionally been made on the shore, at Burnmouth j 
but the return is too small to induce the inhabitants to 
prosecute the manufacture with vigour. A harbour has 
been lately constructed at Burnmouth, as a security 
against the violence of the sea : it is of sandstone found 
in the parish, and was completed at a cost of £1600, 
three-fourths defrayed by the commissioners for fisheries. 
Vol. L — 97 



and one-fourth by the fishermen. Large quantities of 
white fish and occasionally of red, of very fine quality, 
are taken off the coast; and cod, ling, and herrings are 
cured for distant markets : lobsters are sometimes sent 
to London ; and periwinkles, with which the rocks 
abound, are likewise an article of trade, for the use of 
those fishmongers who convert them into sauce. There 
is the greatest facility of communication, the London 
road and the North-British railway intersecting the 
parish, and another road crossing the London line 
nearly at right angles, and leading from Eyemouth into 
the interior of the county. 

For ecclesiastical purposes the parish is within the 
bounds of the presbytery of Chirnside and synod of 
Merse and Teviotdale; the patronage is possessed by 
the Crown, and the minister's stipend is about £9,18, 
with a glebe valued at £35 per annum, and a manse on 
the bank of the river Eye, erected at the close of the 
last century. The church is conveniently situated 
about half a mile from the village, in a romantic and 
sweetly secluded spot, near the river Eye, commanding 
a fine view of Ayton House. It consists partly of the 
walls of the ancient church, built about the twelfth 
century by the monks of Coldingham, and which was 
of very considerable dimensions. The old south tran- 
sept is still entire, shrouded with mantling ivy, and 
converted into a burying-place for the Ayton family ; 
the gable of the chancel is also remaining, but its side 
walls have been removed for the sake of the sandstone 
material, which appears to have been cut from the 
quarry at Greystonlees. The present building was re- 
paired and enlarged about twenty-five years since, and 
contains 456 sittings. There are two places of worship 
belonging to the United Presbyterian Synod. The pa- 
rochial school affords instruction in the usual branches 
of education, with the classics, mathematics, and French 
if required ; the master has a salary of £34. 4. 4., and a 
good house and garden, with fees and other emoluments 
to the amount of £84 a year. 

On the highest point of the southern extremity of the 
parish is the round camp of Drumaw, or Habchester, 
which, before recent mutilations by the plough, was a 
fine specimen of ancient British encampments. It com- 
mands an extensive prospect both by sea and land ; and 
from its situation on the northern side of the hill, and 
its use for observation and defence, it is thought to have 
been constructed by South Britons in order to watch 
the movements and repel the attacks of their north- 
ern neighbours. In the vicinity are remains of other 
camps, all of which, in process of time, yielded to the 
more efficient and permanent defence of castles, re- 
mains of which are still visible in many parts. The 
encampment of Drumaw was situated near the Roman 
road which extended from the wall of Severus, and, after 
crossing the country at Newcastle, terminated at the 
Roman camp near St. Abb's Head in this district. 



B 



BACHIES, a village, in the parish of Golspie, 
county of Sutherland; containing 145 inhabitants. 

BACKDEAN, a hamlet, in the parish of Newton, 
county of Edinburgh ; containing 45 inhabitants. 

O 



BALE 



BALD 



This hamlet lies near the source of a small tributary to 
the Esk water, and borders upon the parish of luveresk, 
which is situated to the north-east of Backdean. 

BACKMUIR, a hamlet, in the parish of Liff, Ben- 
vie, and Invergovvrie, county of Forfar ; containing 
166 inhabitants. It is situated in the north-western 
extremity of the parish, upon the border of the county 
of Perth, and close to the Dighty water ; and the road 
from Dundee to this place here branches off into two 
roads, one leading to Cupar-Angus, and the other to 
Meigle. 

BAILLIESTON, a village, in the former quoad sacra 
parish of Crossbill, parish of Old Monkland, Middle 
ward of the county of Lanark, 4|- miles (E. by S.) 
from Glasgow ; containing 639 inhabitants. This is 
the principal village of Crossbill district, and is situ- 
ated in the western part of the parish of Old Monkland, 
on the border of that of Barony, and near the roads 
from Glasgow to Airdrie and to Hamilton. For many 
years past, the Monkland, Bothwell, Barony, and Gad- 
der Farming Society have held their annual exhibition 
of live stock in the village. The show is considered to 
be in Scotland second only to the exhibitions of the 
Highland Society ; the description of stock is of the 
first class, and prizes are frequently obtained by agri- 
culturists of this neighbourhood at the latter exhibitions, 
where the competition is open to England and Scotland. 
A subscription library is supported here. 

BAINSFORD, a village, in the parish of Falkirk, 
county of Stirling, 1 mile (N.) from Falkirk. This 
village forms part of the suburbs of the town of Fal- 
kirk, and is included within the parliamentary boun- 
dary. It is situated on the north side of the Forth and 
Clyde canal, over which is a drawbridge, affording 
access to the village of Grahamston. The inhabitants 
are chiefly employed in the Carron iron-works, and 
the proprietors of that establishment have a basin here, 
communicating with the canal, and which is connected 
with the works in the adjoining parish of Larbert, by a 
railway. There is a rope-walk, where several persons 
are employed ; and in the village, which is neatly built, 
is a well-conducted school. 

BALBEGGIE, a village, in the parish of Kinnoull, 
county of Perth, 5 miles (N. E.) from Perth ; contain- 
ing 'i'i'i inhabitants. This village is situated in the 
northern extremity of the parish, on the road to Cupar- 
Angus ; and the United Presbyterian Synod have a 
place of worship here, with a residence for the minister, 
and a garden attached. 

BALBIRNE, a hamlet, in the parish of Ruthven, 
county of Forfar ; containing 43 inhabitants. 

BALBIRNIE, county of Fife. — See Markinch. 

BALBLAIR, an island, in the parish of Fodderty, 
county of Ross and Cromarty ; containing 7 inhabit- 
ants. 

BALBROGIE, a village, in the parish of Cupar- 
Angus, county of Perth, I5 mile (N. N. E.) from the 
town of Cupar- Angus ; containing 80 inhabitants. A 
weekly market has been established at this place, which 
is conveniently situated near the road from Cupar-Angus 
to Meigle, about midway between it and the river Isla. 

BALBUNNO, a village, in the parish of Longfor- 

GAN, county of Perth ; containing 'iOQ inhabitants. 

This village, which stands entirely upon the lands of 

Mylnefield, is neatly built, and inhabited chiefly by per- 

9S 



sons employed in a bleachfield in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood, though not within the limits of the parish of 
Longforgan. The bleachfield has been established with- 
in the last few years, and to it the origin of the village 
may be attributed. 

BALCHULLISH.— See Ballichulish. 

BALCURVIE, a village, in that part of the parish 
of Markinch which formed the quoad sacra parish of 
Milton of Balgonie, county of Fife ; containing 186 
inhabitants. 

BALDERNOCK, a parish, in the county of Stir- 
ling, 7 miles (N.) from Glasgow ; containing, with the 
villages of Balmore, Barraston, and Fluchter, about SOO 
inhabitants. The name is corrupted, as is supposed, 
from the Celtic term Baldruinick, signifying " Druid's 
town"; an opinion which receives strong support from 
the numerous remains found here, pertaining to the 
ancient order of Druids. This parish, of which the 
eastern half was in that of Campsie till 1649, is situated 
at the southern extremity of the county, where it is 
bounded by the river Kelvin, which flows towards the 
west ; and by the Allander, a tributary of the Kelvin. 
It comprehends 3800 acres, of which 3100 are under 
cultivation or in pasture, '240 in wood, and the remain- 
der occupied by roads and water. About equal parts 
are appropriated for grain, green crops, &c. ; and for 
pasture. The surface is greatly diversified, consisting 
of three distinct portions succeeding each other on a 
gradual rise from south to north ; each varying exceed- 
ingly from the others in soil, produce, and scenery ; and 
the whole circumscribed by an outline somewhat irre- 
gular, but approaching in form to a square, the sides 
severally measuring about two miles. The northern 
tract, situated at an elevation of 300 feet above the sea, 
and embracing fine views in all directions, contains a 
few isolated spots under tillage, surrounded by moss 
land, with a light sharp soil incumbent on whinstone. 
Below this, the surface of the second tract assumes an 
entirely different appearance, being marked by many 
beautifully picturesque knolls, and having a clayey soil 
resting on a tilly retentive subsoil. To this portion 
succeeds the lowest land in the parish, and by far the 
richest, comprising 7OO or 800 acres along the bank of 
the river Kelvin, formed of a soil of dark loam, supposed 
to have been washed down gradually from the higher 
grounds : this division is called the Balmore haughs. 

Oats and barley are the prevailing crops of grain, and 
all the ordinary green crops are raised : little wheat is 
grown. Draining is extensively carried on, but there 
is still much land in want of this necessary process. 
The inundations from the river Kelvin, formerly often 
destructive to the crops on the lower grounds, are now 
to a great extent prevented by a strong embankment, and 
by a tunnel at the entrance of a tributary of the river, 
by which the torrents that once poured forth, in rainy 
weather, uncontrolled, are so checked as to obviate 
danger. The annual value of real property in the parish 
is £5713. The rock consists of trap in the southern 
and midland portions ; but in the northern district 
limestone, ironstone, pyrites, alum, and fire-clay are 
abundant : there are lime-works, collieries, and an alum- 
work, in the parish, all in the neighbourhood of Bar- 
raston. Iron-ore has lately been discovered in the coal- 
mines of Barraston, unlike the common argillaceous 
kind formerly known to exist; it consists of a mixture 



B A L F 



B A L F 



of iron with carbonaceous substances, similar to that 
found in the mines near Airdrie, but no iron is wrought 
in the parish. The coal and limestone that have been ob- 
tained, for 150 years, from this locality, lie in beds from 
three to four feet thick, and from twelve to twenty-four 
feet under the surface, the superincumbent strata J|eing 
formed of argillaceous slate, calcareous freestone, and 
ironstone : the lime is excellent, and sent in large quan- 
tities to Glasgow and many other places in the country. 
Bardowie, a very ancient mansion, once fortified, and a 
considerable part of which is now modernised, is orna- 
mented in front with a beautiful loch a mile long : it is 
the seat of the chief of the clan Buchanan. Towards the 
north-west of the parish, on an eminence, are the remains 
of a tower once a family-mansion ; near this is the seat 
of Craigmaddie, and, in another direction, the mansion of 
Glenorchard. The parish is traversed by a high road 
from east to west, and the Forth and Clyde canal passes 
within a small distance of the south-eastern boundary. 
A fair used to be held in the summer for cattle and 
horses, but it has fallen into disuse. 

Baldernock is ecclesiastically in the presbytery of 
Dumbarton, synod of Glasgow and Ayr, and in the 
patronage of the Crown : the minister's stipend is about 
£157, part of which is received from the exchequer; 
with a manse, and a glebe valued at £19 per annum. 
The church is a plain edifice, built in 1*95, and con- 
tains 406 sittings. There is a place of worship for 
members of the Free Church. The parochial school 
affords instruction in reading, writing, and arithmetic ; 
the master has a salary of £34. 4. 4., and the fees. In 
the vicinity of Blochairn farm, near which a battle is 
said to have been fought with the Danes, are several 
cairns, and, not far from these, three stones called " the 
Auld Wives' Lifts", supposed to be Druidical. 

BALDOVAN, a hamlet, in the parish of Strath- 
MARTiNE, county of Forfar ; containing 44 inhabitants. 
It is in the south-eastern part of the parish, near the 
Dighty water. 

BALEDGARNO, a village, in the parish of Inch- 
TURE and RossiE, county of Perth, 9 miles (W.) from 
Dundee; containing 110 inhabitants. It is situated in 
the Carse of Gowrie, and southern portion of the parish, 
and is a neat and thriving place, the property of Lord 
Kinnaird. The hill of Baledgarno is finely planted with 
various kinds of timber. 

BALERNO, a village, in the parish of Currie, 
county of Edinburgh, 7 milts (S. \V.) from Edinburgh; 
containing 303 inhabitants. This place is situated on 
the Leith water, on which are some mills for the manu- 
facture of paper. A freestone-quarry has been worked 
in the vicinity for a number of years, and many of the 
buildings of the New Town of Edinburgh have been 
erected with materials from it. 

BALFIELD, a hamlet, in the parish of Lethnott 
and Navar, county of Forfar ; containing 41 inhabit- 
ants. It lies in the south-eastern portion of the parish, 
a little to the north of the West water. 

BALFRON, a parish, in the county of Stirling; 
containing 1970 inhabitants, of whom 156S are in the 
village. It has been supposed by some that this place 
derived its name, which is said to signify " the town of 
sorrow" or "mourning", from a dreadful calamity expe- 
rienced by the original inhabitants, who, having left 
their children in their tents, and departed to a spot at a 
99 



short distance for the performance of religious rites, 
found upon returning that they had been all destroyed 
by wolves, with which the neighbourhood was infested. 
Others, however, interpret the name " the town of 
burns", and imagine that it arose from the situation of 
the original village, now fallen to decay, at the conflu- 
ence of two small streams. The parish is eleven miles 
in length from east to west, and three miles in breadth, 
comprising 14,080 acres, of which 3320 are under culti- 
vation, 1 05 in plantations, and the remainder waste. Its 
surface is diversified with pleasing eminences, on one of 
which, gently sloping to the south, stands the neatly- 
built and interesting village, enlivened by the stream of 
the Endrick, winding through a richly-wooded vale at 
its foot, and supplying to the lovers of angling an ample 
stock of trout of a peculiarly fine flavour. The loftv 
hills called the Lennox fells, rising 1500 feet above the 
level of the sea, form a singularly striking feature here, 
bounding the scenery in one direction ; and the distant 
view embraces the Grampian range, presenting to great 
advantage the majestic Ben-Lomond, with many subor- 
dinate yet imposing elevations. 

The farms in general are of small size, and the soil, 
which in some places is light and sandy, but more fre- 
quently wet and tilly, is cultivated with much skill. 
Dairy-farming is a favourite branch of husbandry, and 
the stock, consisting of the Ayrshire breed, has been very 
much improved, as has also the stock of sheep, in conse- 
quence of the liberal patronage of the Strath-Endrick 
Agricultural Club. The annual value of real property 
in the parish is £4704. Limestone is abundant; but it 
has not been wrought to any extent, through the want of 
coal for burning it into lime : coal is supposed to exist 
here, on account of the usual accompanying trap-rocks 
having been found ; but all attempts to discover it have 
hitherto failed. The ancient mansion of Ballindalloch, 
in the parish, formerly belonged to the Glencairn family, 
celebrated in Scottish history, and of whom Alexander, 
the fifth Earl of Glencairn, was the friend, associate, and 
patron of John Knox. The population was once entirely 
rural, and the chief point of interest was the old village 
with its spreading oak-tree, where the church and bury- 
ing-ground are situated ; but about seventy years since, 
manufactures were introduced, and a new village quickly 
sprang up. In 1780 the manufacture of calicoes was 
commenced, and in 1789 cotton-spinning succeeded, 
when a mill was erected, known by the name of the 
Ballindalloch cotton-works, now employing upwards of 
250 hands, chiefly females, and driven by a stream sup- 
plied by the Endrick, augmented in case of failure by 
the water of a large reservoir in Dundaff moor. There 
are between 300 and 400 hand-looms in the village, em- 
ploying the larger part of the population in making light 
jaconets and lawns, and all kinds of fancy dresses and 
shawl patterns : these branches, however, have been for 
some time greatly depressed. Facility of communication 
is afforded by good roads that run to Stirling and Glas- 
gow, from which towns Balfron is nearly equidistant, and 
with which latter the chief communication is carried on. 
A large cattle-fair is held at Balgair on the last Tuesday 
in March, and another in the last week in June. 

Ecclesiastically the parish is in the presbytery of 
Dumbarton, synod of Glasgow and Ayr, and in the pa- 
tronage of the Earl of Kinnoull : the minister's stipend 
is £158. 6. 8., above half of which is paid from the 

0'2 



BALL 



BALL 



exchequer ; with a manse, and a glebe of seventeen acres, 
valued at £'25 per annum. Balfron church is a very 
plain structure, built in ISS^, at a cost of £930 ; it con- 
tains 690 sittings, and is conveniently situated in the 
\illage, but being remote from the eastern quarter, the 
minister preaches there once every six weeks in summer, 
and once a quarter in winter. There are places of wor- 
ship for the United Presbyterian Synod and United 
Original Seceders. The parochial school affords instruc- 
tion in the ordinary branches; the master has a salary 
of £25, and £10 fees. The parish contains a library of 
400 volumes in miscellaneous literature, and one of reli- 
gious books, consisting of about 150 volumes. This 
place, with some others, asserts a claim to the honour 
of being the birthplace of Napier, the inventor of Loga- 
rithms. 

BALGONIE, in the county of Fife.— See Coal- 
town, and M.^RKiNCH. 

BALGRAY, a hamlet, in the parish of Tealing, 
county of Forf.\r ; containing 63 inhabitants. It is 
situated in the south-eastern part of the parish, near 
the church, from which it is divided by a small rivulet 
that rises within the limits of Tealing. 

BALHADDIE, a hamlet, in the parish of Dunblane, 
forming part of the late quoad sacra parish of Ardoch, 
county of Perth ; and containing 33 inhabitants. 

BALIXTORE, a village, in the parish of Fearn, 
county of Ross and Cromarty, ^i miles (E. by S.) 
from Fearn ; containing 313 inhabitants. This is a fish- 
ing-village, situated on the coast of the Moray Firth, 
which has here a flat and generally sandy shore. On 
the south is the ferry of Cromarty, distant about four 
miles. 

BALISHEAR, an island, in the parish of North 
UiST, county of Lnverness ; containing 15' inhabitants. 
It is situated in the channel between the islands of 
North Uist and Benbecula, and has a small village on 
the east side. 

BALKELLO, a hamlet, in the parish of Tealing, 
county of Forfar ; containing 88 inhabitants. 

BALLANTRAE, a parish, in the district of Car- 
rick, county of Ayr, 13 miles (S. by W.) from Girvan ; 
containing 1651 inhabitants, of whom 605 are in the 
village. This place, anciently called Kirkcndbright- 
Innertig, derived that appellation from the position of 
its church at the mouth of the river Tig; and, on the 
removal of the church from the old site to the town of 
Ballantrae, assumed its present name, which in the 
Celtic language is descriptive of its situation on the sea- 
shore. The parish is bounded on the west by the Irish 
Sea, and comprises nearly 25,000 acres, of which about 
7000 are arable, 400 woodland and plantations, and the 
remainder rough moorland, affording scanty pasture. 
Its surface is greatly diversified with hills and dales, 
and is intersected by a series of four parallel ridges, 
increasing in elevation as they recede from the shore, 
and of which the third and highest is distinguished by 
a hill 1430 feet above the sea, that was selected as one 
of the stations for carrj'ing on the late trigonometrical 
survey of this part of the coast. From this point is 
obtained an extensive and beautiful prospect, embracing 
the Isle of Man, the north-east coast of Ireland, Cantyre, 
the isles of Ailsa and Arran, and the Ayrshire coast, 
terminated by the West Highland mountains in the back- 
ground ; while in another direction appear the Dum- 
100 



fries-shire hills, the Cumberland and Westmorland moun- 
tains, and Solway Firth. The coast extends for about 
ten miles ; the shore is bold, and interspersed with 
rocks, except for about three miles near the village. 
The principal river is the Stinchar ; it rises in the 
pari|^ of Barr, flows south-west, crosses Colmonell, 
forms the northern boundary of part of Ballantrae, then 
runs through it for about three miles, and discharges 
itself after a course of about thirty miles into the sea. 
The Tig, rising in the high grounds, after a short course 
flows into the Stinchar ; and the App, a very inconsi- 
derable stream, flows westward, aloug the picturesque 
dell of Glen-App, into Loch Ryan. Tiiese streams all 
abound with common and sea trout, par, and occasionally 
salmon, which last are plentiful in the Stinchar. 

The SOIL is chiefly of a light and gravelly quality ; 
near the shore, sandy ; and in the level lands, especially 
near the rivers, a rich and fertile loam. The crops are 
oats, wheat, bear, potatoes, turnips, and a few acres of 
beans and peas. Bone-dust has been introduced as 
manure; the lands have been drained, and other consi- 
derable improvements were made under the auspices of 
the late Stinchar Agricultural Association, which in- 
cluded this parish, where it originated. There are seve- 
ral dairy-farms, all of them well managed, and in the 
aggregate producing annually about 5000 stone of sweet- 
milk cheese, under the designation of Dunlop cheese. 
The annual value of real property in the parish is £7265. 
The natural woods are very inconsiderable, though, from 
the number of trees found embedded in the soil, they 
would appear to have been formerly extensive ; they 
consist mostly of oak, ash, and birch, and on the banks 
of the Stinchar and the Tig are some valuable trees. The 
plantations are of comparatively recent formation; they 
are in a thriving condition, and some which have been 
laid down in Glen-App, and on the ridge to the north of 
it, by the Earl of Orkney, promise to become a great 
ornament in the scenery of the parish. 

The VILLAGE, which was once a burgh of barony by 
charter of James V., is pleasantly situated on the north 
bank of the river Stinchar, about half a mile from its 
influx into the sea ; a public hbrary is here supported 
by subscription, and a post-office has been estabhshed. 
A considerable salmon-fishery is prosecuted at the mouth 
of the Stinchar : the fish are sent chiefly to the markets 
of Ayr and Kilmarnock, and the annual produce may be 
estimated at about £500 ; the season generally com- 
mences in February, and closes in September. The 
white-fishery is carried on extensively, employing twenty 
boats, to each of which four men are assigned : the fish 
are principally cod and turbot.and in some seasons her- 
rings are also taken in abundance ; the annual produce 
may be estimated at about £2000, and the season usually 
commences in January, and ends in April. A court of 
petty-sessiou was formerly held in the village every alter- 
nate month, at which two of the county magistrates pre- 
sided. The Glasgow and Stranraer steam-boat calls at 
this place, and a facility of intercourse is also afforded by 
excellent roads. 

Ecclesiastically the parish is in the presbyter)' of 
Stranraer, synod of Galloway, and in the patronage of 
the Duchess de Coigny ; the minister's stipend is 
£248. 1. 3., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £15 
per annum. The present church, erected in 1S19, is a 
substantial edifice, adapted for a congregation of 600 



I 



BALL 



BALL 



persons : the former church of Ballantrae, together with 
a manse, was erected in 1617, at the sole expense of the 
laird of Bargany. There are still some remains of the 
original church at Innertig. A place of worship has been 
erected in connexion with the Free Church. The paro- 
chial school is well conducted ; the master has a salary 
of £34. 4. 4^., with £16 fees, and a house and garden, 
and he receives the interest of a bequest of £400 for the 
instruction of an additional number of poor scholars. 
The late Mrs. Caddall bequeathed £4500, and fifteen 
acres of land, for the endowment and erection of a chapel 
and school in Glen-App, in connexion with the Esta- 
blished Church ; the trustees have established the school 
and selected land for the glebe, and intend to build the 
chapel, when the funds shall have accumulated suffi- 
ciently to provide for the endowment of a minister after 
defraying the expense of its erection. On a rock near 
the village, and within the precincts of the parish glebe, 
are the remains of the ancient castle of Ardstinchar, for- 
merly belonging to the Bargany family. 

BALLATER, a village, in the parish of Glenmuick, 
TuLLiCH, and Glengairn, district of Kincardine 
O'Neil, county of Aberdeen ; containing 3*1 inhabit- 
ants. This place, which is situated in a beautiful valley, 
on the north bank of the Dee, was formed about the 
beginning of the present century, by the late proprietor, 
William Farquharson, Esq., of Monaltrie, by whose 
directions the site was laid out for the erection of regu- 
lar streets and squares. The streets cross each other at 
right angles ; the squares, with allotments of ground, have 
been let out in perpetual feu tenements. Besides the 
numerous well-constructed private houses, the village 
contains an excellent inn, some good shops, a circulat- 
ing library, and a post-oflRce communicating with Aber- 
deen, to which place there is a daily mail-coach, together 
with several weekly carriers. The salubrity of the air, 
and the imposing scenery of the locality, draw many 
visiters from Aberdeen and other parts in the summer 
months ; but the chief attraction is the chalybeate 
waters of Pananich, in the vicinity, which hold in solu- 
tion carbonate of iron, lime, magnesia, &c., and are con- 
sidered of much efficacy in scorbutic and nephritic 
complaints. There are superior hot, cold, and shower 
baths, and many convenient lodging-houses. In a square 
in the village stand the parish church, and, at a short 
distance, the parochial school. Over the Dee is a good 
wooden bridge of four arches, erected in 1834 at a cost of 
upwards of £2000. 

BALLEN DEAN, a hamlet, in the parish of Inchture 
and RossiE, county of Perth ; containing 80 inhabit- 
ants. This place is situated in the Carse of Gowrie, 
near Ballendean hill, which is of considerable elevation, 
and also near the mansion of Ballendean House. 

BALLENLUIG, a village, in the parish of Logie- 
rait, county of Perth; containing 114 inhabitants. 
It is in the north-eastern portion of the parish, near the 
river Tummel, which flows on the northeast. 

BALLICHULISH, a quoad sacra parish, in the pa- 
rish of KiLMALiE, partly in the district and county of 
Argyll, and partly in the county of Inverness, U 
miles (S. by W.) from Fort-William ; containing 123.5 
inhabitants. The village of Ballichulish, or North 
Ballichulish, consisting of about forty families, stands on 
the Loehaberor Inverness-shire side of Loch Leven, near 
its junction with Loch Linuhe, where is a ferry between 
101 



the opposite coasts of Lochaber and Appin, a distance of 
three miles below South Ballichulish, a large village in 
the Argyllshire parish of Lismore and Appin. On each 
side of this ferry across Loch Leven is an inn, the 
prospect from which is of the most imposing character, 
embracing mountains of towering height and rugged 
grandeur, relieved by water, woods, and pastures, and 
other interesting features. The quoad sacra parish of 
Ballichulish, or rather Ballichulish and Corran of Ard- 
gour, consists of two distinct districts, separated from 
each other by Loch Linnhe, and having a church in 
each of them. The district connected with the church 
at North Ballichulish, in the county of Inverness, ex- 
tends seventeen miles by seven, or 119 square miles; 
while that connected with the church at Ardgour, in the 
county of Argyll, extends fourteen miles by six miles, or 
eighty-four square miles, making a total area of 203 
square miles. Both the churches were built in the year 
1829, and they are about four miles apart ; the church 
of Ballichulish contains 300 sittings, and that of Ardgour 
210 : divine service is performed once a fortnight in each. 
A school is supported by government in the former 
district ; and another, in the latter, by the Society for 
the Propagation of Christian Knowledge. At Corran of 
Ardgour is a ferry connecting the two divisions, with an 
inn on each side : the inn on the Ardgour shore is very 
comfortable, and much frequented in summer. Cuil 
House, the residence of the chief of Ardgour, Colonel 
Mc Lean, stands at the foot of a range of lofty mountains, 
and at the edge of an extensive flat, and commands one 
of the grandest prospects in this part of the county. 

BALLINGRY, a parish, in the district of Kirk- 
caldy, county of Fife, 2 miles (N. E. by E.) from 
Blair-Adam Inn ; containing 436 inhabitants. This 
place is supposed to have derived its name, of Gaelic 
origin, from its having at one time been an occasional 
residence of the Scottish kings. During the invasion of 
Britain by the Romans under Agricola, the neighbour- 
hood is conjectured by some to have been the scene of 
the battle between the Caledonians under Galgacus, and 
the IX. legion, which may have been stationed here. 
The Romans were totally defeated ; but Agricola, upon 
receiving intelligence of the event, put the whole of his 
army in motion, and, falling upon the rear of the 
Caledonians, compelled them to yield to superior num- 
bers, and retire from the field. The latter, however, 
retreated in good order, bravely defending the fords of 
Loch Leven, it is said, against the invaders, and ob- 
stinately disputing every inch of ground. Numerous 
memorials of a contest have been met with : at the east 
end of the loch, and also where Auchmnir bridge now 
crosses that ancient ford, Caledonian battle-axes and 
Roman weapons have bee* discovered ; and a few years 
since, a Caledonian battle-axe of polished stone, firmly 
fixed in an oaken handle, twenty-two inches long, was 
found near the spot. No vestige remains of the supposed 
Roman camp in the jjarish : near its site is now the 
steading of the Chapel farm. 

This parish, which is of very irregular form, comprises 
about 3700 acres, whereof 1394 arc arable, 1874 meadow 
and pasture, 242 woodland and plantations, and the re- 
mainder common and waste. The surface is in part a 
level, broken by the hill of Binarty, the southern acclivity 
of which has been richly planted, forming an interesting 
feature in the scenery. In the northern portion of the 



B A L INI 



B A l:\i 



parish the soil is rich, dry, and fertile, but in other 
parts of inferior quality ; the crops are oats and barley, 
with some wheat, beans, and potatoes. Great im- 
provement has been made by draining, but in rainy 
seasons the drains are insufficient to carry off the water ; 
much more draining is necessary, and stones in many 
places still encumber the ground : the loch on the estate 
of Lochore has been drained, and now produces ex- 
cellent crops of grain. The annual value of real pro- 
perty in the parish is £4611. Limestone and coal are 
found in various parts ; the former is of inferior quality, 
and not worked, but the latter is wrought on the Earl 
of Zetland's property, and also on the Earl of Minto's, 
with success : whinstone and freestone are also found 
here, and, on the hill of Binarty, basaltic whinstone. 
Facility of communication is afforded by the Dunferm- 
line branch of the Edinburgh, Perth, and Dundee 
railway. The parish is in the presbytery of Kirkcaldy, 
s5-nod of Fife, and in the gift of Lady Scott of Abbots- 
ford ; the minister's stipend is about £150, with a 
manse valued at £10, and a glebe at £"20, per annum. 
The church is a substantial and neat structure, erected 
in 1831. The parochial schoolmaster's salary is £34. 4. 
4., with about £4 fees, a house, and an allowance in lieu 
of garden. The poor are partly supported by the rent of 
land producing £^1, and by the proceeds of a bequest 
of £100 by William Jobson, Esq., of Lochore. 

BALLOCH, a village, in the parish and county of 
Inverness; containing 104 inhabitants. 

BALLOCHNEY, a village, in that part of the parish 
of New Mgnkland which formed the quoad sacra 
parish of Clarkston, Middle ward of the county of 
Lanark ; containing 559 inhabitants. This place, which 
is situated in the southern part of the parish, in an im- 
portant coal and ironstone district, gives name to a line 
of railway extending from it, for about four miles west- 
ward, to the southern terminus of the Monkland and 
Kirkintilloch, and the eastern terminus of the Glasgow 
and Garnkirk, railroad. The capital of the company, 
which was incorporated in 1 826, was originally £ 1 8,000 j 
but power was acquired in the session of 1S35 to in- 
crease it to £28,000 ; and by an act passed July 1, 1839, 
the capital was further augmented to £70,000, for the 
purpose of improving the line, which now has several 
branches. In 1843 the company was empowered to in- 
crease its capital to £110,000. An act was passed in 
1S46 enabling it to improve the gauge of the rails ; and in 
1848 an act was obtained to amalgamate the Ballochney, 
the Monkland and Kirkintilloch, and the Slamannan 
railways. 

BALMACLELLAN, a parish, in the stewartry of 
Kirkcudbright, § a mile (N. E.) from New Galloway; 
containing 1134 inhabitants, of whom 113 are in the 
village. This place takes its name from its ancient 
proprietors, a branch of the family of Maclellan of 
Bombie, lords of Kirkcudbright, who flourished here for 
man)' generations. The parish is bounded on the west 
by the river Ken, and on the east by the river Urr. It 
is of an irregularly oblong figure, comprising about 
23,737 acres, of which 4000 are arable, 300 wood and 
plantation, and the remainder, with the exception of 
some extensive tracts of moorland and moss, meadow 
and pasture. The surface is varied with hills, some of 
which rise to a considerable height, and is interspersed 
with small valleys of different degrees of fertility, and 
102 



great variety of aspect. The lower grounds are watered 
by the Craig and Crogo rivulets, issuing from a range of 
hills in opposite directions, and dividing the parish from 
that of Parton on the south : on the north lie the 
parishes of Dairy and Glencairn, the Garple burn 
dividing Balmaclellan from the former, and the Castle- 
fern burn from the latter. Along the banks of the Ken, 
a range of mounts called Drums extends for two or 
three miles into the interior of the parish, beyond which 
the country assumes a more wild and rugged aspect, 
consisting of large tracts of moor and peat moss, in- 
terspersed with a few detached portions of cultivated 
land. In the upper parts of the parish are numerous 
lakes, of which Loch Breck, Loch Barscobe, Loch Skae, 
and Loch Lowes are the principal ; but the most ex- 
tensive and beautiful lake is Loch Ken, on the western 
border of the parish, into which runs the river Ken, a 
stream that frequently overflows its banks. The several 
streams and lakes abound with trout, and more es- 
pecially Loch Breck, in which are yellow trout equal in 
quality to those of Lochinvar ; pike are also found in 
most of them, and in Loch Ken one was taken that 
weighed 721b. The Garple burn forms in its course 
numerous picturesque cascades, of which the most in- 
teresting and most romantic is that called the Holy Linn. 
The scenery is in many parts diversified, and, particularly 
around the village, is beautifully picturesque. 

The soil is extremely various : the lands under cul- 
tivation have been much improved, and considerable 
tracts towards the east, hitherto unprofitable, are gra- 
dually becoming of value ; but there is still much moor 
and moss, scarcely susceptible of improvement. The 
chief crops are grain of all kinds, with potatoes and 
turnips. The cattle are generally of the Galloway breed, 
except a few cows of the Ayrshire kind on one of the 
dairy-farms; and the sheep are of the black-faced breed, 
except on one farm, which is stocked with a cross 
between the black and the white faced, and a few of the 
Cheviot. A very considerable number of pigs are 
reared, and sent to the Dumfries market. The farm- 
buildings on some of the lands are substantial and com- 
modious, but on others of a very inferior order. The 
annual value of real property in the parish is £5115. 
The substratum is almost wholly whinstone, of which 
the rocks chiefly consist, and of which great quantities 
are raised, affording excellent materials for the roads ; 
slate is found, and till lately there were two quarries of 
it in operation. The plantations, which are mostly oak, 
ash, and fir, are distributed throughout the lands, in 
detached portions of ten or twelve acres each. Holm is 
a handsome residence in the parish ; and there are also 
the houses of Craig and Craigmuie. The chief village 
stands on the turnpike-road leading from Edinburgh to 
Wigtown ; the small village of Crogo is a retired hamlet 
in the south of the parish, containing about sixty in- 
habitants, and takes its name from the rivulet on which 
it is situated. In 1822 a substantial bridge of granite, 
of five arches, was built over the river Ken, by the floods 
of which stream two several bridges had been previously 
swept away; the central arch has a span of 100 feet. 

For ecclesiastical purposes Balmaclellan is within the 
bounds of the presbytery of Kirkcudbright and synod of 
Galloway : the minister's stipend is £222, with a manse 
and glebe valued at £60 per annum ; patron, the Crown. 
The church is a plain structure, built in 1772, and 



BALM 



BALM 



enlarged and repaired in 1833, and contains 370 sittings ; 
tbe churchyard is spacious, aiid commands a fine view 
extending over the whole vale of the Ken. There are 
two parochial schools, the masters of which have each a 
salary of £17- 2. 2., with fees averaging about £8 per 
annum. A free school is supported by an endowment 
of £70 per annum, arising from land purchased with a 
bequest of £500 by Edward Murdoch, Esq., in 1788 ; 
the school-house was built about fifteen years ago, with a 
dwelling-house for the master, who has a salary of 
£17. 2. 'i., but, in consideration of the endowment, re- 
ceives no fees from the pupils. Barscobe Castle, an- 
ciently a seat of the Maclellans, is little more than a 
heap of ruins. On Dalarran Holm is an erect stone of 
great size, without inscription, supposed to mark out 
the spot where some Danish chief fell in battle. A large 
ball of oak, and a set of bowling-pins, all of which, 
except two, were standing erect, were discovered some 
years since in the parish, by persons cutting peat, at a 
depth of about twelve feet below the surface. 

BALMAGHIE, a parish, in the stewartry of Kirk- 
cudbright, four miles (N. VV.) from Castle-Douglas ; 
containing 1252 inhabitants, of whom 275 are in the 
village of Laurieston, and 243 in that of Bridge of Dee. 
This place takes its name from its ancient proprietors 
the Mc Ghies, whose ancestor, an Irish chieftain, settled 
here at an early period, and who retained possession of 
the chief estate in the parish till near the close of the 
last century, when the Balmaghie property was pur- 
chased by the present family. The celebrated castle of 
Threave, anciently the baronial residence of the family 
of Douglas, was built upon the site of a more ancient 
structure belonging to the lords of Galloway, who for 
many years exercised a kind of sovereignty independent 
of the crown of Scotland. In 1451, the eighth Earl of 
Douglas, in retaliation of some aggression on his terri- 
tories, seized Sir Patrick Maclellan of Bombie, and 
detained him prisoner in the castle of Threave, intending 
to bring him to trial by right of his hereditary jurisdic- 
tion ; and on the arrival of Sir Patrick Grey of Foulis, 
commander of the body-guard of James II., with a 
warrant from the king demanding his release, Douglas, 
suspecting his errand, instantly ordered Maclellan to be 
beheaded in the court-yard. A succeeding Earl of 
Douglas, levying war against his sovereign, was worsted 
in the conflict ; and the castle was eventually besieged 
by the king in person. On this occasion, the artillery 
making no impression upon the walls, which were of 
extraordinary thickness, a blacksmith who witnessed the 
assault offered to make a cannon of sufficient power for 
the purpose ; and the family of Maclellan providing him 
with iron for the work, he constructed the enormous 
cannon afterwards called Mons Meg, weighing more 
than six tons and a half. This formidable engine, which 
was made in the vicinity of the royal camp, being with 
great difficulty dragged to a commanding position in 
front of the castle, the first shot spread consternation 
among the besieged, and the second pierced through the 
wall of the castle, and entering the banquet-hall, carried 
away the right hand of the countess, who at the moment 
was raising a goblet of wine to her mouth. The garrison 
immediately surrendered, and the king presented to the 
blacksmith, whose name was Mc Kim or Mc Min, the 
lands of MoUance, as a reward for his ingenuity in 
devising and accomplishing the means of his success. 
103 



This castle was the last of the various fortresses that 
held out for the Earls of Douglas, after their rebellion in 
1453 ; and subsequently to the fall of that family, and 
the consequent annexation of Galloway to the crown of 
Scotland, which took place in 1455, the castle was 
granted by the sovereign to the family of Maxwell, who 
became hereditary stewards of Kirkcudbright, and after- 
wards Earls of Nithsdale. During the parliamentary 
war in the reign of Charles I., the Earl of Nithsdale, 
who held the castle for the king, kept up in it a garrison 
of eighty men, with their officers, at his own expense ; 
and when no longer able to maintain it against its as- 
sailants, the king, who could send him no assistance, 
recommended him to make the best terms that were 
possible for the garrison and himself. As hereditary 
keepers of the castle, the earls used to receive a fat cow 
annually from each parish in the stewartry ; and on 
selling the estate in 1704, they reserved the castle and 
the island, to which they appointed a captain in order 
to secure their right to the cattle, which were regularly 
paid till the attainder of the earl for rebellion in 1715. 
There are still some very conspicuous remains of the 
ancient castle, situated on an island about twenty acres 
in extent, formed by the Dee, at the south-eastern angle 
of the parish ; they are the most striking object in the 
landscape, and consist chiefly of the keep, which was 
surrounded by an outer wall, with four circular turrets, 
one only of which is standing. Several stone balls 
weighing from one to three pounds and a half, and a gold 
ring supposed to be that worn by the countess when 
her hand was shot off, were found in the castle in 1843 ; 
and in the year preceding, a large ball of granite nine- 
teen inches in diameter, thought to be that discharged 
from Mons Meg, was found by some labourers who 
were clearing the ground. 

The PARISH, which is situated nearly in the centre of 
the county, is bounded on the north by the Black- 
water of Dee, and on the east by the river Dee. It is 
about nine miles in length, and seven in extreme 
breadth, comprising 22,000 acres, of which nearly 7000 
are arable, and the remainder meadow, pasture, and 
waste, with a moderate proportion of woodland and plan- 
tations. Towards the south-east the surface is tolerably 
level, but in all other parts hilly, though not strictly 
mountainous : the higher grounds command extensive 
views, including the Carsphaira and Minnigaff hills to 
the north-west, and to the south-east those of Cumber- 
land, with the Isle of Man in clear weather. In the 
uplands are several lakes, of which Loch Grannoch, or 
Woodhall, the largest, is about two miles and a half in 
length and half a mile in breadth 5 and with the excep- 
tion of Lochinbreck, which abounds in trout, they are 
all well stored with pike and perch. 

In the valley of the Dee the soil is fertile, and there 
arc extensive and productive tracts of meadow adjoining 
the river ; the principal crops grown are oats, barley, 
potatoes, and turnips. The system of agriculture is 
improved ; the farm-buildings are generally substantial 
and commodious, and those on the lands of Balmaghie 
are all of recent erection, and of a very superior order. 
Bone-dust is used as manure for turnips ; the lands 
have been well drained, and arc mostly inclosed with 
stone dykes. The moorlands afford tolerable pasture 
for sheep, of which about 4000, of the black-faced breed, 
are annually reared ; and about 350 of the white-faced, 



BALM 



BALM 



a cross between the Leicestershire and the Cheviot, are 
annually reared on the low grounds. The cattle, of 
which about 1000 are fed every year on the uplands, 
are of the Galloway and Highland breeds ; and on the 
lowland farms are numerous cows, principally Galloways, 
although the Ayrshire breed is being more and more 
introduced. The annual value of real property in the 
parish is £6603. The substrata are chiefly greywacke 
or whinstone, and in the higher lauds granite is found 
m abundance ; but there is no limestone, so that what 
is required for building or agricultural purposes is 
brought from Cumberland. The plantations are not 
extensive, but thrive well ; they consist mainly of larch 
and oak, which appear adapted to the soil. Balmaghie 
House, an ancient mansion, in which parts of an older 
building have been incorporated, is pleasantly seated 
near the river Dee, in grounds beautifully undulated, 
and embellished with plantations. Duchrae House, a 
handsome mansion of grauite, built in the old English 
style, about the year 1S24, is finely situated near the 
confluence of the Dee and the Ken. Ecclesiastically the 
parish is within the bounds of the presbytery of Kirk- 
cudbright and synod of Galloway : the minister's sti- 
pend is about £23.5, with a manse and glebe rated 
together at £42. 10. per annum ; patron, Capt. Gordon, 
R.N. The church, built in 1794, is situated near the 
Dee : it is in good repair, and contains 400 sittings. 
There are two parochial schools ; one at the village of 
Laurieston, the master of which has a house, and a 
salary of £30, with fees averaging nearly an equal sum ; 
and the other at Glenlochar, the master of which has a 
salary of £21. 6. 6., with fees amounting to about £14. 
Besides these, is a third school, endowed by the Society 
for Propagating Christian Knowledge. 

BALMALCOLM, a village, in the parish of Kettle, 
district of Cupar, county of Fife, 1 mile (S. E.) from 
Kettle; containing 113 inhabitants. It is a small 
place, on the road between Cupar and Leslie, and a 
short distance south of the river Eden. 

BALMBRAE, a village, in the parish of Falkland, 
district of Cupar, county of Fife ; containing 114 in- 
habitants, employed in agriculture, and in hand-loom 
weaving at their own dwellings. 

BALMERINO, a parish, in the district of Cupar, 
county of Fife, 5 miles (W.) from Newport ; containing, 
with the villages of Balmerino, Kirkton, and Galdry, 
993 inhabitants, of whom 62 are in the village of Bal- 
merino. This place, the name of which, of Celtic origin, 
signifies " the town of the sea", or " sailor's town", most 
probably derived the appellation from its position on 
the estuary of the river Tay. It appears to have been 
distinguished at a very ancient period for the mild tem- 
perature of its climate, and early in the thirteenth cen- 
tury was selected by Queen Ermengard, widow of 
'V\^illiam the Lion, and mother of Alexander II., as a 
place of occasional resort, for the benefit of her health : 
and subsequently by Magdalene, queen of James V., for 
the same purpose. A monastery for Cistercian monks 
was founded here by Alexander II. in 1230, at the 
solicitation of Ermengard, in gratitude for the benefit 
she received while resident here; which monastery he 
dedicated to the Virgin Mary and to St. Edward the 
Confessor, and in which he placed monks from the 
abbey of Melrose. This estabhshraent was endowed by 
Queen Ermengard with lands in the countv, purchased 
104 



from Adam de Stawell, to which Alexander added the 
church and lands of Lochmure in Angus, and those of 
Petgornoc and Drumdol in the county of Fife. It con- 
tinued to increase in wealth, by the liberality of subse- 
quent benefactors, till the Dissolution, when its revenues 
amounted to £704. 2. IO5. in money, exclusively of a 
considerable income in grain and other agricultural pro- 
duce. The abbey was demolished in 155S, by the 
lords of the congregation, on their route from St. An- 
drew's : the site, with the lands appertaining to it, was 
subsequently granted to Sir James Elphinstone, of 
Barnton ; and after the P.eformation, the estates were 
constituted a lordship in favour of Sir James, who was 
raised to the Scottish peerage in 1604 by the title of 
Lord Balmerino, which became extinct in 1745 by the 
attainder and execution of his descendant, the then 
lord. 

The parish is bounded on the north by the Firth of 
Tay, along the shore of which it extends from Birkhill 
to Wormit bay ; and comprises an area of 3400 acres, 
of which nearly 2700 are arable and in profitable culti- 
vation, 500 in woods and plantations, and the remainder 
pasture and waste. Its surface is greatly varied, and 
traversed by two nearly parallel ridges, extending from 
east to west, and inclosing a lovely valley, in which the 
village is situated. The highest points of these ridges 
are, the Scurr hill on the north, which has an elevation 
of 400 feet ; and the Coultry hill on the south, which 
rises to the height of 500 feet above the sea. There is 
also a considerable portion of high table land on the 
southern ridge, on which the village of Galdry stands. 
The scenery abounds with romantic features, and is 
every where enriched with woods and thriving planta- 
tions : a little to the east of the church, and nearly in 
the centre of the valley, is a small elevation, on the 
brow of which is Naughton House, and on the summit 
are the ruins of an ancient castle ; beneath is a pictu- 
resque dell, from which a mass of rock rises abruptly 
to the height nearly of 100 feet. The shores of the 
Tay are bold and rocky, having in some parts precipi- 
tous and lofty cliffs ; and on that portion of the shore 
which rises more gradually are the picturesque ruins of 
the abbey, overlooking the river. The Tay affords 
excellent facilities for bathing, being strongly impreg- 
nated with saline particles. There are no other rivers 
in the parish, but the lands are well watered by nume- 
rous jprings, many of which appear from their names 
to have been formerly of great notoriety, and from 
which issue various small streams that attain sufficient 
power to turn several mills. 

The SOIL is generally light ; in some parts, a rich 
black loam ; and in others, gravelly ; but, under good 
management, is rendered fertile and productive. The 
crops are grain of all kinds, potatoes, and turnips : the 
system of agriculture is improved ; the farm-buildings 
are substantial and commodious, and on all the farms 
are threshing-machines, some of which are driven by 
water. The annual value of real property in the parish 
is £4962. The substrata are chiefly sandstone and 
whinstone, of the former of which there are two varie- 
ties, one extremely compact, and well adapted for build- 
ing purposes ; the other more friable, and abounding 
with nodules of quartz, and other substances. The 
whinstone is of different qualities, comprising amygda- 
loid, trap tuffa, felspar, and clay-stone porphyry ; that 






BALM 



B A LQ 



which is of coarser grain contains amethyst, calcareous 
spar, chalcedony, and agates. The Scurr hill abounds 
with mineral varieties ; the most beautiful agates occur 
there, and boulders of primitive rock are found along 
the shore of the parish, and on the highest ridges. 
Naughton House was erected towards the commence- 
ment of the present century, and has since been enlarged 
and improved. Birkhill is an elegant and spacious 
mansion, on the bank of the river, and embosomed in 
rich and beautiful plantations. 

A salmon-fishery was formerly carried on in the Tay, 
to a large extent, and proved a source of great gain ; 
but since the prohibition of the use of stake-nets, in 
1816, it has materially declined. The quantity pre- 
viously taken in the firth was, on an average, about 
30,000 in the season ; at present, the number of fish 
scarcely amounts to one-tenth part. Since this altera- 
tion, several who were once employed in the fishery are 
now engaged in weaving at their own houses, for the 
manufacturers of Dundee ; the principal articles woven 
are dowlas and Osnaburghs, and about 1.50 persons are 
thus engaged, of whom a large portion are women. 
Great quantities of grain were formerly shipped from 
the harbour of this place, which was the chief port on 
the south side of the Tay for that article ; but at pre- 
sent only small quantities of wheat are sent by the 
farmers here, to the bakers of Dundee, by a passage-boat 
which is kept up by subscription of the parishioners. 
Considerable quantities of potatoes are sent to the 
London market ; and many vessels with coal land their 
cargoes here. The village of Balmerino is pleasantly 
situated on the western declivity of the Scurr hill, al- 
ready mentioned. 

For ecclesiastical purposes the parish is in the pres- 
bytery of Cupar and synod of Fife ; the minister's sti- 
pend is £"239. 9., with a manse, and the glebe is valued 
at £18 per annum. Balmerino church, a neat and sub- 
stantial edifice of stone, erected in 1811, is nearly in the 
centre of the parish. The parochial school affords in- 
struction to about 130 scholars ; the master's salary is 
£34. 4. 4., with £28 fees, and a house and garden. The 
ruins of Balmerino Abbey consist chiefly of a small 
portion of the walls, with some clustered columns, and 
part of the corbels from which sprang the arches that 
supported the roof, and which are in the decorated 
English style ; and of one cell, still in tolerable pre- 
servation. There are also remains of the ancient castle 
of Naughton, said to have been built soon after the 
Conquest, by Robert de Lundon ; they comprise only 
some fragments of the side walls, which derive their 
chief importance from their situation, on the summit of 
a lofty crag rising almost perpendicularly from a deep 
and richly-wooded dell. An establishment of Culdees 
is said to have existed here, in connexion with that at 
St. Andrew's ; and in a field in the parisli, still called 
the Battle Law, an engagement is reported to have taken 
place between the Scots and the Danes, the latter of 
whom were driven to their ships : stone coflins, broken 
armour, and bones have been discovered near the spot. 
Some years since, two pieces of gold were found in a 
field on the farm of Peashills, which appear to have 
formed ornaments of some kind, and were of the value 
of £14. 

BALMORE, a village, in the parish of Balder- 
nock, county of Stirling ; containing 158 inhabitants. 
Vol. L— 105 



It lies in the south-eastern portion of the parish, on the 
road between Torrance and Bardowie, and about half a 
mile south of the Kelvin water. 

BALMULLO, a village, in the parish of Leuchars, 
district of St. Andrew's, county of Fife, 6 miles (E. S. 
E.) from St. Andrew's ; containing 2*4 inhabitant.'. 
This village is pleasantly situated on the road to Dundee, 
and chiefly inhabited by persons employed in weaving 
and in agriculture. There is a place of worship for 
United Original Seceders. 

BALNABRUACH, a village, in the parish of Tar- 
bat, county of Ross and Cromarty ; containing 167 
inhabitants. . It is a small place, situated on the eastern 
coast, and chiefly inhabited by fishermen. 

BALNA-HUAIGH ISLE, one of the Hebrides, in 
the parish of Jura, district of Islay, county of Ar- 
gyll. It is north of the island of Jura, and of Luing 
Sound. The isle is about a mile in circumference, and 
entirely composed of a bluish-coloured slate, of good 
quality. A number of families who derive their sub- 
sistence from the quarry, reside upon the isle. 

BALNASUIM, a village, in the parish of Wee«i, 
county of Perth ; containing 48 inhabitants. 

BALQ,UHIDDER,a parish, in the county of Perth, 
9 miles (S. by W.) from Killin ; containing, with the 
villages of Strathyre and Lochearnhead, 87 1 inhabitants. 
This parish, whose name, descriptive of its situation in 
the county, is derived from the Gaelic, is about eighteen 
miles in length, and rather more than six miles in 
breadth. The surface is very irregular, and compre- 
hends a rich variety of valleys and hills, of level lands 
and deep glens, and of lofty rocks rising abruptly from 
the plains. The principal hills are Benvorlich, Ben- 
chroin, Benvane, Binean, Benchoin, and Bentallachan. 
In the hill of Craigruigh, Robert Bruce is said to have 
concealed himself after the defeat of his forces in the 
battle of Dalrey. The river Balvag, over which are two 
bridges in good repair, rises in Loch Voil, winds for 
several miles through the parish, and falls into Loch 
Lubnaig ; and the small river Calair, which issues from 
Glenbuckie, though generally a peaceful stream, at times 
overflows its banks, and acquires the rapidity of a 
torrent. There are numerous lakes in the parish, the 
principal of which are Loch Voil, Loch Doine, and parts 
of Loch Lubnaig and Loch Earn. The scenery is also 
richly embellished with woods, consisting mostly of oak, 
birch, alder, and common and mountain ash ; and with 
thriving plantations, chiefly of Scotch and spruce firs, 
and larch-trees, for all of which the ground is well 
adapted. At Edinample is an ancient castle belonging 
to the Marquess of Breadalbane, embosomed in a wood 
of lofty plane-trees, near which is a beautiful cascade. 

The soil in the lower lands is fertile ; the hills alford 
pasture, and there are considerable tracts of good mea- 
dow. The system of agriculture is improved, and great 
attention is paid to the improvement of the breeds of 
cattle and sheep ; the former are chiefly of the 'West 
Highland breed, and the latter, which are of the black- 
faced kind, command a ready sale in the neighbouring 
markets. The annual value of real property in the 
parish is £6100. The rocks are mainly mica and clay 
slate, with quartz, porphyry, and primitive greenstone. 
Edinample Castle, an ancient mansion romantically 
situated, and Glenbuckie House, a handsome modern 
residence, are the only houses of distinction. Ecclesi- 



BANC 



BANC 



astically the parish is within the bounds of the pres- 
bytery of Dunblane and synod of Perth and Stirling : 
the stipend of the incumbent is £275. 15. 11.; the 
manse is a comfortable residence, and the glebe is of the 
annual value of £20. The church, situated nearly in 
the centre of the parish, is an ancient edifice, adapted 
for a congregation of 4'25 persons. The parochial school 
affords a liberal course of instruction ; the master has a 
salary of £34. 4. 4^., with £8 fees, a house, and two 
bolls of meal in lieu of a garden. In a field near the 
manse is an upright stone, about five feet in height, 
called Puidrac ; but nothing of its history is known : to 
the east of it is a spot celebrated as the scene of a despe- 
rate battle between the families of McLaren and Leney. 
The late Sir John Mac Gregor Murray, Bart., an eminent 
Gaelic scholar, and an indefatigable collector of the 
writings of the ancient Gaelic bards, and who, holding 
the rank of colonel in the British army, raised at his own 
expense a regiment of infantry for the service of his 
country, which was commanded by his brother Colonel 
Alexander Mac Gregor Murray, was, together with his 
brother, buried in the family vault in this parish. 

BALTA, a small islet, in the parish of Unst, county 
of Shetland. This is nearly the northernmost isle of 
the Shetland range. It is situated in the latitude of 
60° 4*' north, and on the east side of Unst island, the 
sea between being called Balta Sound. Here the shore 
of Unst forms a fine and safe inland harbour, stretching 
east to west about two miles, protected at its mouth by 
the isle of Balta. 

BALWAHANAID, a hamlet, in the parish of Weem, 
county of Perth ; containing 23 inhabitants. 

BALWHERNE, a hamlet, in the parish of Meth- 
VEN, county of Perth ; containing 60 inhabitants. 

BANCHORY-DEVEMCK, a parish, partly within, 
and partly without, the city of Aberdeen, district and 
county of Aberdeen, but mostly in the county of Kin- 
cardine ; including the villages of Downies, Findon, 
and Portlethen, and containing 2736 inhabitants. The 
distinctive appellation of Devenick is derived from a 
celebrated saint of that name, who flourished about the 
year S87, and at one time ministered in this parish. 
The figure of the parish is extremely irregular ; its ex- 
tent from north-east to the southernmost point at the 
sea is about eight miles, and its breadth varies from two 
miles and a half to four miles. The river Dee, which 
passes through it, and here divides the two counties, 
rises among the highest of the mountains of Aberdeen- 
shire, and after a course of upwards of sixty miles, falls 
into the bay of Aberdeen, about a mile and a half 
below the eastern extremity of the parish. Its span 
near the church is from ISO to 250 feet. Some years 
ago, a handsome suspension foot-bridge, connecting the 
parishioners of the Aberdeenshire district with the 
church and school, was erected over the river, at an 
expense of about £1450, by the Rev. Dr. Morison, the 
late venerable incumbent of the parish, and father of 
the Church of Scotland. The Kincardineshire district 
is bisected by the eastern range of the Grampians, the 
most elevated part of which afforded a station for the 
persons who were employed a short time since, by 
government, to make a trigonometrical survey of the 
island. For a distance of about three miles this district 
is bounded on the south by the sea, the coast of which is 
bold, rocky, and in many parts highly picturesque. 
106 



The soil is diversified, running through all the varie- 
ties, from pure alluvial to hard till, and from rich loam 
to deep moss. Agriculture is much attended to ; the 
farms are generally small, and the farmers supply the 
town of Aberdeen with agricultural produce. The 
population is entirely rural, and has been much in- 
creased of late years by the allotment of portions ot 
uncultivated land to small tenants, who hold their 
farms under improving leases, and by whose means the 
greater part of the waste ground in the parish has been 
reclaimed. These tenants are mainly supported by the 
sale of peat from the extensive mosses in the parish, the 
preparation of peat forming a lucrative occupation to a 
considerable portion of the population, during the 
summer. Abundance of blue granite is to be found in 
the hilly parts : owing, however, to the hardness of its 
quality, it is not quarried to any extent, but is chiefly 
used as paving-stones for home use and for the London 
market. There are several plantations in the parish, 
one of them covering 250 acres ; but those which are 
near the sea are not in a thriving state, as there is no 
shelter against the blighting influence of the east wind. 
In former times, it appears that forests of oak extended 
to the sea-shore, where no tree can now be raised. The 
annual value of real property in Banchory-Devenick is 
£6946. On the coast are three harbours for fishing- 
boats, Findon, Portlethen, and Downies : the villages 
thus named, conjointh' contain a population of about 
600 ; they send to sea about eighteen boats manned by 
from four to five men each, and are celebrated for the 
smoked fish w-ell known by the general name of Finnan 
(Findon) haddocks. The great road from Edinburgh to 
Aberdeen passes through the parish, at about the dis- 
tance of a mile from the three villages; and the line 
of railway from the south to Aberdeen runs between the 
above road and the sea. A beautiful line of turnpike- 
road extends along the south side of the river Dee, from 
the old Dee bridge nearly to Banchory-Ternan ; and an- 
other turnpike-road, from Aberdeen to Ballater, runs 
through the Aberdeenshire division of the parish. 

Banchory-Devenick is within the bounds of the pres- 
bytery and synod of Aberdeen, and in the patronage of 
the Crown: the minister's stipend is £150, being made 
up to that sum by an annual allowance from the ex- 
chequer of £22. IS. 10. The church, which contains 
900 sittings, was built in the year 1822, on the site of 
a former edifice, the bell of which bears the date of 
1597 : the coping-stone of the old churchyard is dated 
1608. At Portlethen, four miles from the church, is a 
church in connexion with the Establishment, with a 
minister of its own ; and two Free churches have been 
raised in the parish, one in the Kincardineshire and the 
other in the Aberdeenshire division, and each about half 
a mile from the parish church. The former of these Free 
churches has a settled minister, but none has been 
provided as yet for the latter. The parochial school is 
situated near the church : the master has a salary of 
£30 from the heritors ; £20 from a bequest left by 
Dr. Milne, of India, for educating twenty-five poor 
children nominated by the kirk-session ; a third of the 
usual allowance from Dick's bequest, and other per- 
quisites. There is a school at Portlethen, which is 
noticed under the head of that place : and at Cults, in 
the Aberdeenshire division, is a school erected by 
Mr. Symmers, late proprietor at Cults, and endowed by 



■if 



BANC 



BANC 



him to the amount of about £'25 a year. A school is 
hltewise held in connexion with the Free Church, and 
there is a female school, erected by the late Mr. Hogg, 
of Shannaburn, partly endowed by him, and partly by 
Dr. Morison. Sabbath schools are taught by the 
teachers of all these schools, except the female school. 
There is a parish library, consisting of a good many 
volumes ; also a parish savings' bank, instituted in 
1S16, of which the minister is treasurer, and which con- 
tains deposits from the parishioners to the amount of 
nearly £5000. The antiquities of the parish consist of 
twoDruidical circles, in a fine state of preservation; and 
of three very large tumuli, in an elevated situation, on the 
north side of the river. In Her Majesty's visit to Scot- 
land in September 1S48, the royal family, after landing 
at Aberdeen, passed through this parish on their way to 
Balmoral. 

BANCHORY-TERNAN, a parish, in the county of 
Kincardine, 15 miles (N. W.) from Stonehaven; con- 
taining, with the villages of Arbeadie and Banchory, 
'2'341 inhabitants, of whom 66 are in Banchory. This 
place, the name of which, signifying "a fine choir", 
has reference to some ancient religiovis establishment, 
and the adjunct Ternan most probably to its patron 
saint, is of very remote antiquity. St. Terne, or Ter- 
nanus, who is said to have been a native of Mearns, 
flourished about the middle of the fifth century. He 
accompanied Palladius in his mission to the Irish Scots ; 
and by him he was ordained, and commissioned to ex- 
tirpate the Pelagian heresy, and to establish the true 
faith among his own countrymen. In this undertaking, 
his eminent success and the sanctity of his life obtained 
for him a high degree of veneration ; and many churches 
were afterwards erected and dedicated to his memory, 
among which was the church of this parish. In 156*2, a 
battle took place between the army of Mary, Queen of 
Scots, under the Earl of Moray, and the forces of the 
Earl of Huntly, at the Howe of Corrichie, a glen in the 
hill of Faro, towards the northern boundary of the 
parish. The latter were defeated with great slaughter, 
and the Earl of Huntly, who was taken prisoner, died 
before he was removed from the field of battle. In the 
bottom of the glen are several tumuli, raised over the 
bodies of the slain ; and a recess among the rocks over- 
looking the glen, in which Mary is said to have wit- 
nessed the engagement, is still called the Queen's Chair. 
There are also numerous tumuli on the north side of 
Glassel, where the chief carnage took place. In 1644, 
the Duke of Montrose, having crossed the river Dee at 
a ford near the Mills of Drum, in this parish, passed a 
night at the house of Leys, and next day proceeded to 
Aberdeen, where he encountered and defeated an army 
of the Covenanters ; and the remains of his encampment 
on a subsequent occasion, on his route to Strathbogie, 
are still pointed out, under the appellation of Montrose's 
Dyke, near the entrance of the Howe of Corrichie. 

The PARISH is situated on the river Dee, which inter- 
sects the southern portion of it, from west to cast, 
throughout its whole extent. It is nearly ten miles in 
length and about nine miles in breadth, of irregular 
form, and comprises an area of "21,600 acres, of which 
rather more than 6000 are arable, 5230 woodland and 
plantations, and the remainder, a considerable portion 
of which might be brought into cultivation, is ni(^dow, 
pasture, and waste. The surface is strikingly diversified 
107 



with hill and dale, and with wood and water. The hill 
of Fare, on the north, has an elevation of 1793 feet : 
that of Kerloack, on the south, forming a part of the 
Grampian range, and extending eastward to the sea at 
Aberdeen, is 1890 feet high; and between these is a 
lower ridge, of which the greatest elevation is not more 
than 1000 feet. That portion of the parish which is on 
the south side of the Dee is intersected by the river 
Feugh, and is richly wooded, and interspersed with 
masses of barren and precipitous rock ; the scenery is 
bold, enlivened with numerous rivulets, and embellished 
with handsome mansions. At the eastern extremity is 
Loch Drum, in the adjoining parish of Drumoak, which 
has been nearly exhausted by draining ; and in the cen- 
tral portion is Loch Leys, containing an artificial island, 
formed on piles of oak, with remains on it of ancient 
houses that appear to have been fortified. The river 
Dee, which enters the parish near Trustach Hill, flows 
along a rocky channel ; and its stream is divided by 
two small islands, one of which, about eight acres in 
extent, is covered with furze and heath, and the other, 
of about one acre, and of greater elevation above the 
stream, is planted with trees. The Feugh, after form- 
ing various pleasing falls, divides into two channels, 
which, reuniting, flow into the Dee nearly in the centre 
of the parish. Before it joins the Dee, the Feugh is 
spanned by a bridge of two arches, on the south of 
which is a ledge of rocks twenty feet in height, forming 
a very beautiful waterfall during the floodings of the 
river. 

The SOIL varies greatly in different parts, but is gene- 
rally light, and not naturally fertile ; towards the river, 
gravelly ; on the higher grounds, a strong loam ; and 
on the lower, a species of moss, intermixed with gravel. 
The system of agriculture is improved ; the chief crops 
are oats, barley, and some wheat, with potatoes, tur- 
nips, and hay. The moorlands afford tolerable pas- 
ture for sheep and cattle, to the improvement of which 
much attention has been excited by the Deeside Agricul- 
tural Association, which holds its annual meeting here, 
and awards prizes to the amount of £70 to the most 
successful competitors at the show of cattle. The 
dairy-farms are more carefully attended to than for- ' 
merly. The buildings are substantial and commodious, 
and threshing-mills have been erected on most of the 
farms. The annual value of real property in the parish 
is £7479. The hills are principally of red granite, tra- 
versed by veins of sulphate of barytes ; and limestone, 
in some parts of coarse and inferior quality, and in 
others compact and highly crystallized, is found in 
abundance, and is extensively quarried on the lands of 
TilwliiJly for agricultural purposes. 

The plantations, which are of very great extent, con- 
sist chiefly of pine and larch, interspersed with birch, 
oak, beech, ash, and a few other trees. They are of 
comparatively modern growth, and considerable addi- 
tions have within the last few years been made to the 
number of forest-trees, of which nearly 70,000 oaks 
have been planted on the lands of Leys. On the road 
to Aberdeen is a remarkably fine holly of more than 
twenty stems, springing from the crevices of a rock ; 
and in the grounds of Crathes Castle is a beech-tree 
twenty-five feet in girth and sixty feet high. Crathes 
Castle, the seat of Sir Alexander Burnett, Bart., a hand- 
some baronial mansion erected about the year 1512, is 

P'2 



BANC 



B AN F 



finely situated on a gentle acclivity, at the extremity of 
a rocky and richly-wooded ridge, on the north bank of 
the Dee. It is a spacious structure, with a lofty square 
tower crowned by embattled turrets, and many modern 
additions have been made. The ancient hall is still 
entire, and contains some family portraits, among which 
is a portrait of Dr. Gilbert Burnett, Bishop of Salisbury, 
by Sir Godfrey Kneller. The castle of Tihvhilly, on the 
opposite bank of the river, is an ancient massive build- 
ing, in the occupation of the tenant of the farm. Ban- 
chory Lodge, a few hundred yards from the church, was 
erected by the late General Burnett. Inchmarlo is a 
handsome mansion, erected in ISOO; and Glassel and 
Raenioir are also good modern houses. The village of 
Banchory, or the Kirktown, which was anciently a 
burgh of barony, and is noticed in 1324 as a place of 
considerable importance, has almost disappeared ; and 
only a few houses in the vicinity of the churchyard, 
called the Town Head, are now remaining, and the 
shaft of a broken stone cross. A small woollen-factory 
has been established, and there are likewise two small 
bobbin-factories. Salmon are taken in the Dee, but there 
is no regular fishery. Fairs, chiefly for horses, cattle, 
and sheep, are held on the second Tuesday in February, 
the last Thursday in March, the third Tuesday in June, 
the first Tuesday in July, the second Tuesday in August, 
and the first Wednesday in December. 

For ECCLESIASTICAL purposes the parish is within the 
bounds of the presbytery of Kincardine O'Neil and synod 
of Aberdeen; Sir Alexander Burnett, Bart., is patron, and 
the minister's stipend is £"287 . 10. 9-, with a manse, and a 
glebe valued at £10 per annum. The church, rebuilt in 
1824, is a handsome structure in the later English 
style, and contains 1300 sittings. A place of worship 
has been erected in connexion with the Free Church ; 
and in the village of Arbeadie is a meeting-house for 
Independents. There are three parochial schools, the 
masters of which divide among them £51. 6. 6|-., in 
addition to a house and garden for each, and the fees 
average respectively £20, £16, and £10 per annum. A 
school was founded and endowed in 1638, by Sir Thomas 
, Burnett in conjunction with Dr. Alexander Reid, and 
is conducted by one of the parochial schoolmasters, who 
derives an additional salary of £16 from the endowment. 
A parochial library has also been established, which has 
a collection of more than 400 volumes, chiefly on reli- 
gious subjects. At Cairnton, on the hill of Trustach, 
are some remains of an old intrenchment, now covered 
with birch, about 1.50 yards square, defended by two 
ramparts of earth 300 yards in length, extending from 
the inclosure in a converging direction, leaving an 
opening of about twenty yards in width at their ex- 
tremities : it is supposed to have been a Roman camp. 
Near Kerloack are Druidical remains consisting of three 
circles of upright stones, nearly entire, the largest of 
which is about twenty-five yards in diameter, and the 
others about fifteen yards : in each of them are vestiges 
of an inner circle inclosing a small cairn. Bishops 
Burnett and Douglas, both of the see of Salisbury, 
were descended from families connected with this parish ; 
and Dr. George Campbell, author of the celebrated 
Dissertation on Miracles, The Philosophy of Rhetoric, &c., 
was for some years minister of it. In Her Majesty's 
visit to Scotland in September 1848, the royal party 
passed through Banchory on their way from Aberdeen 
108 




Seal and Arms. 



to Balmoral, and here a loyal address was presented to 
the queen from the nobility and gentry of the county of 
Kincardine. 

BANETON, or B.wnton, a village, in the parish of 
Kennoway, district of Kirkcaldy, county of Fife, 
1 mile (N. N. E.) from Kennoway ; containing 204 in- 
habitants. It is in the north-eastern portion of the 
parish, and a little north of the road between Kennoway 
and Cupar. 

BANFF, asea-port, burgh, 
market-town, and parish, in 
the county of Banff, of which 
it is the chief town, 165 miles 
(N. by E.) from Edinburgh, 
and on the road from Aber- 
deen to Inverness ; contain- 
ing 3958 inhabitants. This 
place, called in ancient re- 
cords Bainiffe, Boineffe, &c., 
appears to have derived its 
name from the district in 
which it issituated,andwhich 
obtained the appellation of Boyn from the Gaelic, signi- 
fying " a stream ", in reference to the river Boyn, by 
which the district is intersected. The town, previously 
to the middle of the I6th century, was little more than 
a small fishing-village. It seems to have owed its 
origin to the foundation of a Carmelite monastery, 
that was occasionally the residence of some of the 
Scottish kings ; and to the erection of a castle, governed 
by a thane, or constable, who administered justice, and 
of which the only vestiges now remaining are, a portion 
of the outer walls, and the ditch whereby it was sur- 
rounded. Few transactions of historical importance 
occur with reference to the place. In 1644, the lairds 
of Gight, Newtow'ii, and Ardlogie, with a party of horse 
and foot, made an irruption into the town, levying ex- 
actions upon the bailies, in the absence of the provost, 
who had taken flight, and compelling them and the 
townsmen to abjure the covenant, and acknowledge 
submission to the king and his deputies, as formerly. 
In the following year, the Marquess of Montrose entered 
the town with a hostile force, plundered the inhabitants, 
and burnt several of their houses, in compensation for 
which losses, they obtained, on their petition to parlia- 
ment, a grant of their own excise. In 1*46, the Duke 
of Cumberland's troops, on their march to Culloden, 
passed through the town, burnt the episcopal chapel, 
and hanged one of the inhabitants, whom they suspected 
of being a spy ; and in 1759, a French fleet under the 
command of Thurot appeared off the coast ; but the 
apprehensions of the inhabitants were relieved by the 
dispersion of the vessels in a storm, before the enemy 
attempted to effect a landing. A battery of eighteen and 
twenty-four pounders was subsequently erected on the 
heights immediately above the harbour, at an expense 
of £400, defrayed by the inhabitants ; but soon after 
the peace, it was dismounted, and the cannon returned 
to the government, by whom they had been supplied. 

The TOWN consists of two portions, detached from 
each other ; one of which, constituting the port, stands 
on an elevated level, terminating abruptly towards the 
Moray Firth, and having the battery at its northern 
extremity. Between this and the other portion, which 
is partly on the plain, and partly on the declivity of 



I 



I 

I 



B A N F 



B A N F 



the bank of the river Doverou, is the present castle, a 
plain modern building occupying an elevated site, and 
commanding the sweep of the river, with the fine slope 
on the opposite side, surmounted with the woods of 
Mountcoffer. The streets are regular and spacious, and 
the houses, though unequal in size, are in general neatly 
built ; most of the older houses have been taken down, 
and rebuilt in a modern style, and the town retains few 
indications of its real antiquity. The streets are lighted 
with gas by a joint-stock company established in 1831 ; 
the inhabitants are supplied with water, conveyed into 
the town by pipes laid down in ISIO at an expense of 
£1100, and there are pumps attached to several of the 
houses. Hot, cold, and shower baths, fitted up with 
every accommodation, have been established by a com- 
pany. In connexion with a literary society founded in 
ISIO, and which has a library of 2000 volumes, is a 
reading room, well supplied with newspapers and the 
most popular periodical prints. An institution for the 
cultivation of science and the encouragement of native 
talent, was founded in 18'28, and has collected a museum 
of natural history, antiquities, and curiosities, among 
which is a very e.vtensive collection of the most beauti- 
ful shells found in Java and in the Eastern Archipelago. 
A room in the academy buildings is appropriated to the 
use of the scientific institution, and the literary society 
occupies a room in the town-house. 

A principal tr,\de of the port is the herring-fishery, 
which, within the last thirty or forty years, has been 
established on the shores of the Firth with considerable 
success, and is still very prosperous. The quantity of 
fish cured in the district of Banff, which extends from 
Gardenstown to Portsoy, is in favourable seasons about 
30,000 barrels, of which one-half are sent to Germany, 
a considerable quantity to London, and the remainder 
to Ireland. The number of herring-boats from the port 
of BanlF alone, has fluctuated exceedingly, and is at pre- 
sent very much reduced, probably from the want of 
room near the harbour for the erection of the requisite 
buildings, and from the higher rate of dues ; but the 
general herring-trade of the district is still flourishing. 
Cod, ling, and turbot are found in abundance off the 
coast, and if prosecuted with spirit, the fishery of them 
might add greatly to the trade of the port. Lobsters, 
crabs, shrimps, and other fish are brought to the 
markets, but only for home consumption, though the 
bay abounds with shrimps, which might be made a 
profitable branch of trade. The salmon-fishery in the 
river Doveron, which is the property of Lord Fife, is 
let for £1600 per annum, and on each side of the estuary 
is a fishery in the open sea, one being let by the cor- 
poration for £191 per annum; the salmon are sent, 
either packed in ice or pickled, principally to the London 
market. A very considerable trade is also carried on in 
the exportation of grain, live cattle, and cured pork ; 
and in the importation of coal, groceries, and other 
commodities. During a late year, 29,790 quarters of 
oats, 1 174 quarters of wheat, 976 quarters of barley and 
bear, and 194 bags of potato-flour, were shipped from 
the port, chiefly for London and Leith ; and 440 head 
of live cattle, 911 pigs, and 156 sheep and lambs, for 
the London market alone. The trade in cattle has since 
greatly increased ; and in 1841 not less than 1792 head 
of cattle were sent to London. More grain is sent to 
London from the port of Banff than from all Scotland 
109 



besides. The number of vessels registered at Banff as 
the head of the district, some years ago, was sixty-seven, 
of the aggregate burthen of 4301 tons; of these, ten 
schooners of 878 tons', and eleven sloops of 657 tons' 
aggregate burthen, belonged to this port, and the re- 
mainder to the several creeks of Fraserburgh, Gardens- 
town, Macduff, Portsoy, Port-Gordon, and Garmouth. 
In 1847 the number of registered vessels had increased 
to 114, of the aggregate burthen of 9396 tons. Seve- 
ral of these vessels make voyages to Sweden, for iron 
and deals ; to Russia, for hemp ; and to Holland, for 
flax ; and, in the autumn, frequently to Hamburgh 
and Stettin, with cargoes of herrings, bringing in return 
grain, wool, bark, and hides. 

The HARBOUR is situated at the western extremity of 
a circular bay, at the opposite extremity of which are 
the town and harbour of Macduff ; both these extremi- 
ties' are rocky, and between them is a beach of sand. 
The old or inner harbour, completed in 1775, was 
formed by two piers and the land, inclosing a triangular 
area, having at the angle towards the north-north-east 
an entrance which, in I8I6, was protected by a new- 
pier and breakwater, forming a basin or outer harbour 
to the north of the former. This addition was made 
under the superintendence of the late Mr. Telford, at an 
expense of £18,000, one-half of which was defrayed by 
government ; and though not productive of all the bene- 
fit expected from it, ships having since been wrecked in 
the new basin, it has still materially diminished the 
swell in the old harbour, now one of the safest in the 
Moray Firth, and has afforded additional facilities for 
the entrance and departure of vessels. A vessel drawing 
twelve feet water can enter the new basin at high- water 
of neap tides, and one drawing fifteen feet, at spring 
tides ; and vessels drawing respectively eight feet and ten 
and a half feet water, may enter the old harbour at high- 
water of neap and of spring tides. A patent slip on 
Morton's principle has been constructed. 

Ship-building is occasionally carried on ; and there is 
a small manufactory for ropes and sails, chiefly for home 
use. The thread and stocking manufacture, formerly 
pursued here, has been discontinued some years. A 
public brewery, erected on the high ground above the 
harbour, was once conducted on a large scale, but of 
late it has been confined to the supply of the immediate 
neighbourhood : a distillery at the Mill of Banff, about 
a mile from the town, produces on an average from 
11,000 to 12,000 gallons of proof spirits annually. A 
foundry for machinery, grates, ploughshares, and various 
kinds of cast- metal work, was established about twenty 
years since by Messrs. Fraser, and affords employment 
to ten men ; the works are set in motion by a steam- 
engine of six-horse power, constructed by the propri- 
etors. The market is on Friday, and is well supplied 
with fish of every kind ; there are no cattle-markets, 
and though by charter the inhabitants are allowed seven 
or eight fairs, only four are held, and of these the Whit- 
sun fair alone is of any consideration. Coaches pass 
daily to and from Aberdeen and Elgin, and to and from 
Peterhead. In 1846 an act was obtained authorizing 
the construction of a railway from Aberdeen to Inverness, 
with branches to Banff and other places. 

From a grant of a toft and garden in the burgh by 
William the Lion, in 1165, to his chaplain, Douglas, 
Bishop of Moray, the town appears to have been pre- 



B A NF 

viously a royal burgh ; and according to tradition, it 
received from Malcolm Canmore those privileges which 
were ratified by Robert Bruce, and subsequently, in 
137'2, by Robert 11. , who also conferred upon the inha- 
bitants liberties equal to those of Aberdeen, which were 
afterwards confirmed by James VI. and Charles II. 
The government is vested in a provost, four bailies, a 
dean of guild, a treasurer, and ten councillors, all elected 
by the £10 constituency. The corporation revenue is 
about £935. The taxes and assessments for the burgh 
are not imposed as in other burghs, by the magistrates 
and council, but by the inhabitants themselves, assem- 
bled in a special court for that purpose. The affairs of 
police are under the management of commissioners, who 
are elected in accordance with the provisions of a parti- 
cular act of parliament, and by whose authority the 
police rates are levied and expended. No one, legally 
speaking, can carry on business without becoming a 
member of the merchant-guildry of Banff, or of the in- 
corporated trades, which are six in number, namely, the 
hammermen, wrights, shoemakers, tailors, coopers, and 
weavers, who all claim exclusive privileges. In practice, 
however, for some years past, the burgh has been per- 
fectly open in this respect, and all exclusive privileges 
and monopolies are abolished. It is classed with 
Elgin, Cullen, Inverury, Kintore, and Peterhead, in re- 
turning a member to the imperial parliament ; and the 
parliamentary constituency of Banff includes the qualified 
voters in the neighbouring, and otherwise independent, 
burgh of Macduff. The town-hall, a spacious but plain 
building, erected within the last sixty or seventy years, 
occupies two sides of a quadrangle, with a tower at the 
external angle, of older date, surmounted by a spire of 
graceful proportion, together 100 feet high ; the build- 
ing is of hewn stone, three stories in height, and contains 
a hall, two large drawing-rooms, a council-chamber, a 
court-room for the sheriff's court, offices for the cham- 
berlain and sheriff clerks, &c. The old prison contained 
two apartments, each nineteen feet square, for the recep- 
tion of civil prisoners ; and two cells for criminals ; but 
it was badly arranged, and totally inadequate for the 
purpose of classification. The new jail, by which the 
old one has been superseded, is built on the most ap- 
proved principles. 

The PARISH formed part of that of Boindie from the 
Reformation until about 1634. It measures about six 
miles and a half in length, and is two miles and a half 
in breadth in the centre, from which, towards each ex- 
tremity, it diminishes materially; comprehending about 
6312 acres, of which 3778 are good arable land, 1161 
uncultivated and in pasture, and about '2'20 wood. It is 
bounded on the east by the river Doveron, which has its 
source on the confines of the counties of Aberdeen and 
Banff, and falls into the sea at the town ; and on the 
west, by the burn of Boindie, by which it is separated 
from the parish of that name. Over the former of these 
rivers, close to the town, is a substantial stone bridge of 
seven semicircular arches, erected at the expense of go- 
vernment, in 1*79; and over the latter, are two stone 
bridges of two arches each. The surface is very uneven, 
rising in the lower part of the parish from 200 to 300 
feet above the sea, and forming an eminence called the 
Gallow Hill ; while in the upper part of the parish are 
eminences of much greater elevation, though less raised 
above the surface of the adjacent lands. The svstcm of 
110 



B A N F 

agriculture is improved ; and within the last forty or 
fifty years a large tract of land, previously in pasture, 
has been brought under tillage. Draining has also been 
carried on to a very considerable extent, and the greater 
portion of the land is inclosed with fences of stone ; the 
farm-houses and offices are generally well built, and 
many of them afford superior accommodations. The 
annual value of real property in the parish is £12,889, 
including £6977 for the burgh. The substrata are 
chiefly clay-slate and greywacke. At Cairn of Ord, in the 
south-western part of the parish, is found granite, which 
in some places rises to the surface ; it is of excellent 
quality for building, and has been quarried for that pur- 
pose, but on account of its distance from the sea, it has 
not been worked to any great extent. 

In several parts the scenery is pleasing, and in others 
romantic and picturesque. The river Doveron, on its 
first entering the parish, winds into a rocky glen, whose 
steep sides, crowned with luxuriant wood, are connected 
by a circular arch of stone. Beyond this point, the glen 
gradually expands into an open valley, round the eastern 
side of which the river forms a graceful curve, inclosing 
the plain whereon Duff House is situated. The road 
from Aberdeen winds round the verge of a verdant hill, 
on the extremity of which, sloping towards the sea, and 
stretching into the bay, is the town of Macduff; and on 
the western side, near the bend of the river, rises a pre- 
cipitous bank, on whose summit is to be seen the mau- 
soleum of the Duff family, embosomed in sheltering 
woods, and near it a funereal urn containing some hu- 
man bones that were found on the spot, which was 
the cemetery of the ancient Carmelite monastery. Duff 
House, the splendid residence of the Earl of Fife, occu- 
pies the grounds formerly belonging to the monastery, 
which were conveyed in 1630 to Lord Airlie, and in 1690 
to the Duff family, who in 1752 purchased the superi- 
ority, which had been granted by James VI. to King's 
College, Aberdeen. The mansion was erected about the 
middle of the last century, by Lord Braco, after a design 
by Adam, the first of the celebrated architects of that 
name, at an expense of £70,000. It is a spacious qua- 
drilateral structure of freestone, in the Roman style of 
architecture, and contains a choice collection of paintings 
of the Flemish and Italian schools, and numerous por- 
traits by the most eminent masters. The demesne is 
richly planted ; it comprehends much interesting scenery, 
and from many points commands extensive and varied 
prospects. 

The parish is ecclesiastically in the presbytery of 
Fordyce and synod of Aberdeen : the minister's stipend 
is £245. 19- 9-, with a manse, and the glebe is valued at 
£45 ; patron, the Earl of Seafield. Banff church, situ- 
ated on the south side of the town, is a plain struc- 
ture, erected in 1790, and capable of containing 1500 
persons. The interior is chastely decorated, and has 
some handsome monuments of marble, one of which, by 
Bacon, representing a soldier weeping over a funereal 
vase, is finely executed, and was erected by Sir David 
Ochterlony, and the army under his command, to the 
memory of Lieut. -Col. Peter Lawtie, a native of this place. 
A chapel in connexion with the Established Church, for 
a district including the more remote portion of the parish 
and others adjoining, and a manse, have been erected at 
the upper end of the parish, at an expense of £600 ; the 
stipend of the minister is derived from the seat-rents. 



t 



B A N F 



B A N F 



augmented with £20 Royal bounty. There are places of 
worship for members of the Free Church, Episcopalians, 
the United Presbyterian Synod, Independents, and Wes- 
leyans, and a Roman Catholic chapel. 

A grammar school was founded in 17S6, under the 
direction of Dr. Chapman, formerly rector of the gram- 
mar school of Dumfries ; the number of boys usually 
attending is about 1 70, and the rector, who is obliged to 
employ two qualified assistants, has a considerable salary 
from the town. This school is endowed with funds, the 
interest of which is regularly appropriated to the main- 
tenance of sixteen bursaries; one, in the gift of the 
presbytery of Fordyce, is worth about £30, and the 
others are from £2 to £3 per annum. A free school was 
founded by Mr. Alexander Pirie, who in 1804 bequeathed 
to the town-council and kirk-session £1100 for that pur- 
pose, with a tenement, and £100 for the erection of a 
school-house and house for the master. Mr. George 
Smith, a native of Fordyce, by will dated at Bombay, in 
1769, vested in the magistrates of Banff the residue of 
his estate, amounting to £10,297. 16. 6., of which he 
appropriated £1000 to the endowment of an infirmary 
in this town or at Fordyce, and £40 per annum to a 
schoolmaster to educate as many boys of the name of 
Smith as the funds would maintain, at £25 per annum 
each. The dividends, amounting to £308. 18. 8., are 
applied according to the will, and nine boys are main- 
tained and educated. Mr. Ja7nes h'ilsoti, of Grenada, 
vested the whole of his stock, after the decease of certain 
annuitants, in the magistrates of Banff, to be appropri- 
ated to charitable purposes, according to their discretion. 
This estate, which ultimately produced £3561. 16. 1. 
three per cents and £2647 in cash, was appropriated to 
the erection of a splendid building, for an infant school, 
a free school on the Madras system, and class-rooms for 
the grammar school teachers, with a library and museum. 
Mr. Alexander Cassy, a native of the town, then resident 
in Pentouville, in 1S19, bequeathed the residue of his 
estates to the magistrates, to be appropriated to the half- 
yearly relief of aged and infirm persons and helpless or- 
phans : of this property, £10,000 three per cents have 
already fallen to the disposal of the trustees, who apply 
the dividends. Mins Elizabeth Wilson, in 1825, bequeathed 
to trustees the whole property of which she should die pos- 
sessed, the produce to be appropriated to six poor trades- 
men and six poor maidens : the annuitants receive from 
£9 to £10 each per annum. Alexander Chalmers, Esq., of 
Cluny, in 1834 bequeathed property which will amount 
to £40,000, in trust, to the lord-lieutenant and member 
for the county, the minister and magistrates of Banff, 
and others, for the erection and endowment of an hos- 
pital and dispensary, to be called Chalmers' Hospital, 
for the county of Banff; the hospital to be erected on 
the site of the residence of the founder. 

Scarcely any vestiges of the ancient Carmelite monas- 
tery arc remaining ; some arches, apparently parts of 
cells, are still to be traced in the yard of the inn called 
the Royal Oak, and near the foundry is a vaulted cham- 
ber, now occupied by the boiler of the steam-engine be- 
longing to that establishment. The building occupied 
by Sir George Ogilvy, afterwards Lord Banff, and which 
appears to have been regarded as a palace, from the oc- 
casional visits to it by the Scottish kings, was destroyed 
in 1640 by (liencral Monro, who, having marched into 
the town, encamped in the gardens of the house, and 
111 



destroyed both them and the building, carrying away the 
timber and iron-work, and leaving only the shattered walls, 
a heap of ruins. That part of the town which is called the 
Sea-town, is supposed to occupy the lands of the chapels 
of the Holy Rood, St. Catherine, and St. Mary : a chapel 
dedicated to St. Thomas is thought to have stood some- 
where between the site of the parish church and St. An- 
drew's chapel, and another chapel, dedicated to St.Ninian, 
stood near the churchyard. The Knights Templars an- 
ciently had a preceptory in the town ; their possessions 
were erected into a lordship, in favour of Sir John 
Sandilands, in 1563, and several small and scattered 
portions of their lands appear to have passed into bur- 
gage tenures. The old castle of Inchdrewer, erected 
about the time of James IV. or James V., is still so 
entire as to be habitable, and is now in the occupation 
of a tenant ; it is chiefly memorable for the death of a 
Lord Banff, who was burnt in it in 1713, under circum- 
stances that have never been fully explained. Adjoining 
the mausoleum of Lord Fife is an ancient monument, on 
which is the recumbent figure of an armed warrior, with 
the inscription, " Hie jacet Johannes Duff, de Maldavat et 
Baldavi ; obiit 1 Julii, 1404": this monument, with the 
ashes of the deceased, was brought from Cullen. James 
Sharp, Archbishop of St. Andrew's, who was waylaid 
and assassinated near that archiepiscopal city, was born 
at Banff Castle, in 1613. 

BANFFSHIRE, a maritime county, in the north-east 
part of Scotland, bounded on the north by the Moray 
Firth; on the east and south-east, by Aberdeenghirc; 
and on the west, by the counties of Moray and Inver- 
ness. It lies between 57° 5' and 57° 43' (N. lat.) and 
2° 17' and 3° 37' (W. long.), and is about fifty miles in 
length, varying from twenty miles to only three miles in 
breadth. It comprises an area of about 647 square miles, 
or 414,080 acres, and contains 11,149 inhabited houses, 
with a population of 49,679, of whom 23,249 are males, 
and 26,430 females. This county, which includes the 
districts of Boyne, Enzie, Strath-Doveron, Strathaven, 
Balvenie, and part of Buchan, was a sheriffdom in the 
reign of David I., and, previously to the Reformation, 
was included in the diocese of Moray. It is now partly 
in the synod of Moray, and partly in that of Aberdeen, 
and comprises several presbyteries, with twenty-four 
parishes. The county contains the royal burghs of Banff 
and Cullen, the former of which is the county town, and 
several thriving and populous villages, whereof the chief 
are Keith, Newmill, Gardenstown, Dufftown, Buckie, 
Portsoy, and Macduff. Under the act of the 2nd of 
William IV. it returns one member to the imperial par- 
liament. 

The surface is beautifully diversified with mountains 
and vales, and the scenery enriched with woods and 
plantations, and enlivened with rivers and lakes. The 
principal mountains in the county are, Ben-Macdhui 
and the Cairngorm, which have an elevation of more 
than 4000 feet above the sea ; Benrinnes, rising from 
the banks of the river Spcy to the height of 2747 feet ; 
Knockhill, near the north termination of the Grampian 
range, the Buck of Cabrach, and others, about 2500 feet 
high. Its chief vales are, those of Strath-Doveron and 
Strathaven, the former branching off to the right, and 
the latter to the left, from the forest of Glenavon ; Glen- 
Livet; and Glen-Fiddich, which last extends to the 
strath of Balvenie. Its rivers are, the Spey, which has 



BANK 



BANT 



its source in Loch Spey, and after a long course falls 
into the Moray Firth near Fochabers ; the Doveron, 
which rises in the hills of Cabrach ; the Avon ; the 
Livet ; and the Isla ; with countless smaller streams, 
which turn numerous mills. The salmon-fisheries on 
the Spey and the Doveron are extensive, the former 
yielding a rental of £6000, and the latter of nearly 
£2000 per annum. The coast, which extends for nearly 
thirty miles, is bold and rocky, in some parts preci- 
pitous ; and is much indented with small bays. 

The soil, near the sea, is rich ; in the valleys, luxu- 
riantly fertile ; and the mountainous districts afford 
tolerable pasturage : the moors abound with game. 
Nearly one-half of the land is under cultivation ; the 
system of agriculture is in a highly improved state, and 
much waste has been inclosed and rendered profitable. 
The natural woods and the plantations are extensive 
and well managed, and there are numerous oaks and 
firs of extraordinary dimensions. The chief minerals 
are ironstone and lead-ore, and there are some fine 
quarries of limestone, freestone, gneiss, and granite : a 
mine of manganese has lately been wrought to a great 
extent by the Duke of Richmond near Tomintoul. In 
this county the best seats are Gordon Castle, Glenfid- 
dich. Duff House, Rothieraay, Banff Castle, Balvenie 
Castle, Cullen House, Birkenbng, Forglen, Troup, Arn- 
dilly, Baldorney, Ediugarth, and Kinnairdy. The prin- 
cipal manufacture is that of linen. There are several 
tanneries, some distilleries, and works in connexion with 
the shipping, which is almost confined to the ports of 
Banff, Macduff, Portsoy, and Gardenstown. The her- 
ring-fishery is also very extensive, and is prosecuted 
along the coasts with great industry and success. Faci- 
lity of intercourse has been greatly promoted by many 
excellent roads, constructed by commissioners appointed 
under an act of parliament ; and the bridges over the 
different streams are kept in good order. The annual 
value of real property in the county is £124,347, of which 
£ no, 60S are returned for lands, £8403 for houses, 
£'2.59'3 for fisheries, £380 for quarries, and the remainder 
for other kinds of real property. There are numerous 
cairns, tumuli, ruins of ancient castles, and other monu- 
ments of antiquity, all noticed in the respective articles 
on the localities in which they are situated. 

BANKEND, a village, in the parish of Caerlave- 
ROCK, county of Dumfries, ^ a mile (S.) from Caerla- 
verock ; containing 1S9 inhabitants. It lies in the 
eastern portion of the parish, and on the west side of 
the river Locher, which separates it from the parish of 
Ruthwell. 

BANKFOOT, a village, in the parish of Auchter- 
GAVEN, county of Perth ; containing 760 inhabitants. 
This village, which takes its name from its situation at 
the base of an elevated ridge, on the road from Perth to 
Dunkeld, is of very recent origin, having been wholly 
built on lands leased for that purpose by Mr. Wylie. 
The houses are neatly built, and chiefly inhabited by 
persons employed in weaving for the manufacturers of 
the neighbouring towns, and in various trades. A daily 
post has been established, which forwards letters to 
Perth ; and facility of intercourse is maintained by good 
roads, kept in repair by statute labour. There is a con- 
siderable trade in coal, for the supjjly of the adjacent 
parts of the parish. A subscription library was opened 
in 1822, under the direction of a committee of sub- 
112 



scribers ; the collection consists of about 300 volumes 
on theological, historical, and literary subjects. There 
are two places of worship for the United Presbyterian 
Synod. 

BANKHEAD, for a time a quoad sacra parish or dis- 
trict, in the parish of Midmar, district of Kincardine 
O'Neil, county of Aberdeen, 4 miles from Leggerdale. 
It lies about a mile north of the road from Aberdeen to 
Tarland, and two miles south of that to Alford ; the 
soil of the district is generally light, and far from being 
productive. The population is chiefly engaged in agri- 
culture : and the females employ themselves, to a large 
extent, in stocking-weaving. The quoad sacra parish 
was within the bounds of the synod of Aberdeen and 
presbytery of Kincardine O'Neil ; and the election of 
the minister was vested in the communicants. The 
church, now belonging to the Free Church, is a plain 
substantial building, erected in 1832, by subscription, 
and seated for 300 persons ; it stands in the north- 
western part of the parish of Midmar, adjoining the 
parishes of Kincardine O'Neil and Cluny. In the vici- 
nity are a few Druidical remains and Pictish encamp- 
ments, but none of them are of sufficient importance to 
require a particular description. 

BANKHEAD, a hamlet, in the parish of Monikie, 
county of Forfar, 4 miles (W. by N.) from Monikie : 
containing 56 inhabitants. 

BANKTON-PARK, a village, in' the parish of Ket- 
tle, district of Cupar, county of Fife, ^ a mile (S.) 
from Kettle ; containing 136 inhabitants. It is plea- 
santly situated on the road from Cupar to Leslie, and 
consists of neat houses of modern erection. 

BANNOCKBURN, for a time a quoad sacra parish, 
including the village of Bannoekburn, in the parish of 
St. Ninian's, county of Stirling; containing 31*6 in- 
habitants, of whom 2206 are in the village, 2 miles (S. S. 
E.) from Stirling, on the road to Falkirk. Nearly all 
the inhabitants of the village are employed in manufac- 
turing tartans, shawls, and carpets. There are very 
extensive coal-works, producing a material of the best 
quality, which is sent in large quantities to most of the 
surrounding districts ; and also a tan-work for pre- 
paring foreign skins, as well as skins from the country 
around. A post-office is established under Stirling ; 
here is a station of the Scottish Central railway, and 
fairs are held in June and October. The small river 
Bannock, running directly through the village, gives 
name to this place, which is celebrated in history as the 
scene of the decisive battle between Robert Bruce and 
Edward II., in 1314, when the Scots obtained a signal 
victory, Edward and the English being completely 
routed. To the south of the field of Bannoekburn, on 
the 1 1th of June, 1488, was fought the field of Stirling, 
or battle of Sauchie, between James III. and the confe- 
derate lords, wherein that monarch lost his life. A 
church, containing 900 sittings, was opened in October 
1838 ; it now belongs to the Free Church, and there 
is also a place of worship foV the United Presbyterian 
Synod. — See Ninian's, St. 

BANTON, for a time a quoad sacra parish, forming 
part of the parish of Kilsyth, in the county of Stir- 
ling ; extending about five miles in length, and three 
in breadth, and containing 964 inhabitants, of whom 
136 are in the village of Banton, 200 in the village of 
AuchinmuUy, and 65 in the MuUans. These villages 



BARN 



B A R R 



are inhabited mostly by colliers and miners, and lie 
about three miles north-east of Kilsyth. In the year 
1844, there were in the district twelve ironstone pits 
and four coal-works, all in working order ; a corn-mill, 
two flax-mills, a paper-mill, and a sickle-mill ; also a 
power-loom factory, newly erected to contain sixty-four 
looms. The church was built in 183*, by subscription, 
and a grant from the General Assembly's church ex- 
tension committee ; it is seated for 4'26 persons, and is 
capable of being enlarged by a gallery to accommodate 
200 more. This place of worship now belongs to the 
Free Church. A school, and a dwelling-house for the 
master, were erected in 1/71, at a cost of about £30, 
and rebuilt in 1837 on a larger and improved plan, at 
an expense of about £3'20, which was defrayed by volun- 
tary contributions. There is a subscription library, 
opened in 1835, which contains about '200 volumes. 

BARA, county of Haddington. — See Garvald. 

BARACHNIE, a village, in the parish of Old Monk- 
land, forming part of the late quoad sacra parish of 
Crossbill, Middle ward of the county of Lanark, 
3^ miles (E.) from Glasgow ; containing 235 inhabitants. 
This place is situated on the road from Glasgow to Air- 
drie, a short distance from Bailiestone Toll, and on the 
borders of Barony parish. In the vicinity are extensive 
coal-works. 

BARBARAVILLE, a village, in the parish of Kil- 
MuiR Easter, county of Ross and Cromarty; con- 
taining 173 inhabitants. 

BARBERSWELLS, a hamlet, in the parish of Ruth- 
VEN, county of Forfar ; containing 36 inhabitants. It 
is situated on the borders of Airlie parish, a little to the 
south of the road between Blairgowrie and Kirriemuir ; 
and the river Isla flows eastward of the hamlet. 

BARHILL, a small hamlet, in the parish of Col- 
MONELL, district of Carrick, county of Ayr, 12 miles 
(S. S. E.) from Girvan. This place, which is of recent 
origin, is situated on the river Dhuisk, and on the road 
from Girvan to Newton- Stewart. Cattle-markets are 
held on the fourth Friday in April, September, and 
October (O. S.), and are attended by numerous dealers 
from the adjoining districts. 

BARJARG, a hamlet, in the parish of Keir, county 
of Dumfries ; containing 58 inhabitants. It lies near 
the river Nith, on the east side of the parish, about two 
miles and a half south from the village church, and on 
the road between Penpont and Dumfries. 

BARLEYSIDE, a village, in the parish of Falkirk, 
county of Stirling, 3 miles (S. by W.) from Falkirk ; 
containing 92 inhabitants. It is situated near the west- 
ern boundary of the parish of Polmont. 

BARNHILL, a hamlet, in the parish of Monifieth, 
county of Forfar ; containing 41 inhabitants. It lies 
a little south of the Dundee and Arbroath road. 

BARNHILL, a village, in the parish of Blantyre, 
Middle ward of the county of Lanark, i a mile (N.) 
from Blantyre ; containing 165 inhabitants. It is near 
the eastern boundary of Cambuslang parish. 

BARNWEILL, county of Ayr.— See Craigie. 

BARNYARDS, a village, in the parish of Kilcon- 
auHAR, district of St. Andrew's, county of Fife ; con- 
taining 232 inhabitants. It adjoins the village of Kil- 
conquhar, which lies to the north of Elie, and of which, 
although it retains a separate name, it may now be said 
to form a part. 

Vol. I.— 113 



BARONY, county of Lanark. — See Glasgow. 

BARR, a parish, in the district of Carrick, county 
of Ayr, S miles (E. S. E.) from Girvan ; containing 959 
inhabitants, of whom about 230 are in the village, it 
is supposed to have derived its name from the almost 
inaccessible site of the ancient village, surrounded on all 
sides by rugged hills of precipitous elevation, and only 
to be approached by a narrow and wild glen, frequently 
impassable from the swelling of a small stream which 
intersects it, and which in winter attains the violence of 
a torrent. This parish, which formed a natural barrier 
between the counties of Ayr and Galloway, was in- 
cluded in the parishes of Girvan and Dailly till the year 
1653, when it was erected into a parish of itself It 
comprises nearly 70,000 acres, of which only 1200 are 
arable, and not above 1000 more capable of being ren- 
dered profitable. The surface is mostly an extensive 
level, with various ridges of different elevation, two of 
which rise from the banks of the river Stinchar to the 
height of nearly 1200 feet ; while a third, in a direction 
nearly parallel to these, on the south-east, is about 1400 
feet above the sea. Another range, forming part of 
that chain of mountainous heights stretching from Ayr- 
shire into Galloway, has an elevation of nearly 2/00 
feet. The chief rivers are, the Stinchar, which has its 
source in this parish, and taking a south-western course, 
falls into the sea at Ballautrae ; and the Minnoch, 
which, rising in the highest ridge of hills, flows south- 
ward through the lands, and falls into the river Cree, a 
stream that separates this parish from the county of 
Galloway. In its course of nearly fifteen miles through 
the parish, the Stinchar forms a beautiful cascade of 
about thirty feet ; and most of the smaller burns with 
which the parish abounds, in their several courses fall 
from heights, with various degrees of beauty. There 
are numerous lakes of different extent, varying in depth 
from six to fifteen feet, all of which afford trout of a 
dark colour, and also yellow trout. The scenery is 
dreary, from the want of wood, of which there is scarcely 
any in the parish. 

In the lower lands the soil is of good quality, and in 
the high lands principally moss ; the chief crops are 
grain of all kinds, and potatoes. Surface-draining has 
been extensively practised, and the grounds are partially 
inclosed ; but improvement in the system of husbandry 
is greatly retarded from the want of good roads and 
facilities of drawing lime. Attention is paid to the 
management of the dairy, and a moderate number of 
milch-cows, mostly of the Ayrshire breed, have been 
introduced ; but the main dependence of the farmer is 
on the rearing of cattle and sheep, for which tlie hills 
provide tolerable pasturage. The annual value of real 
property in the parish is £7578. The few trees in- 
digenous to the soil are ash and alder ; and the planta- 
tions, which are on a very limited scale, are larch, in- 
terspersed with oak and ash, which seem to thrive well. 
The substrata are chiefly conglomerate rock, which 
appears in very irregular masses, and limestone of good 
quality, which is wrought to a small extent : in that 
portion of the limestone that lies near the bed of the 
river, some fine specimens of fossil shells are found. 
Slate-quarries have been also opened, but they have not 
been wrought to any extent. The village, which is 
neatly built, has a post-ollice established under Girvan. 
Fairs are held annually, but very little business is trans- 

Q 



B A R R 



BARK 



acted at them, and from the want of good roads, little 
facility of intercourse is afforded with the surrounding 
district. 

Ecclesiastically the parish is in the presbytery of Ayr, 
synod of Glasgow and Ayr, and in the patronage of the 
Crown; the minister's stipend is £231. 3. l.,withamanse, 
and a glebe valued at £18 per annum. The church, an 
ancient edifice, is in good repair, and had a gallery 
added in 1834 ; it is adapted for a congregation of 410 
persons. A place of worship has been erected in con- 
nexion with the Free Church. The parochial school is 
well conducted ; the master's salary is £34. 4. 4^., with 
£18 fees, and a house and garden. A parochial library 
has been established, which has a collection of nearly 
'iOO volumes. There are some remains of a chapel called 
Kirk Dominae, and on the rising ground near its site is 
a well, to which is an approach through an ancient and 
well-built archway : this chapel was in tolerable preser- 
vation till the year I6.'i3, when the roof was taken off, 
and placed on the parish church. Viscount Stair, well 
known as ambassador of George II., at the court of 
France, in 1720, was born in the parish. 

BARRA, a parish, in the county of Inverness ; 
including the islands of Barra, Bernera, Fladda, Fuday, 
Helesay, Mingala, Pabba, Sandra, and Watersay; and 
containing 2363 inhabitants, of whom 1977 are in the 
island of Barra. The word Barra is supposed by some 
to be formed of Bar, a point or top, and Ay or /, an 
island, and to have been applied to this place in refer- 
ence to its position in the great group to which it be- 
longs, it being the most southern or head of the larger 
islands among the Hebrides. But its etymology is more 
generally traced to St. Barr, the tutelary saint to whom 
the principal place of worship, called Killbar, was dedi- 
cated, and whose reputation was here so great, that his 
anniversary has been celebrated for ages, on the 25th of 
September, and is still regularly observed with morning 
ceremonies at the chapel, and afternoon festivities at Kill- 
bar, by the inhabitants, most of whom are Roman Catho- 
lics. The island of Barra, and the islands surrounding it, 
have been from time immemorial the property of the 
Macneils, who are said to have had possession of them 
before the Danish invasion, and to have been the first of 
that name who came from Ireland. This family, by 
their great power, and particularly their skill in mari- 
time affairs, gave great annoyance to all their neigh- 
bours, carrying their depredations into every part of the 
Western Islands ; and one them, called Ruaridh an 
Tartair, or " the noisy or troublesome Roderick", sig- 
nalized himself especially by his piracies. He was at 
length captured for an attack on one of Queen Eliza- 
beth's ships ; great skill and ingenuity, in consequence 
of a reward offered, having been employed to effect his 
apprehension. The seat of the family was Kismull 
Castle, still in good preservation, situated in the centre 
of a bay, and on a small rock which is covered at high 
water. The structure is of irregular figure, about sixty 
feet high, with a square tower at one corner, the whole 
strongly built, and surrounded by spots for the anchor- 
age of small vessels. It was the residence of the lairds 
of Barra till the beginning of the last century, about 
which time it ceased to be inhabited. 

The PARISH consists of more than twenty islands, 
about half of them uninhabited, and serving only as 
grazing stations. It was disjoined from that of South 
114 



Uist in 1*33. The parish is situated at the south- 
western extremity of the Hebrides, and measures in 
length, from Scirrival, the most northern point of the 
main island, to Bernera, the most southern island, about 
twenty-eight miles, including the several intervening 
channels. The area is about 22,000 acres, of which 
3922 are under cultivation, 1540 sandy waste, 16,139 
hill pasture, and the remainder moss. The currents run 
with great rapidity and violence through the channels, of 
which that on the north is six miles across, separating 
Barra from South Uist. On the east are the islands of 
Canna and Rum, distant twenty-six miles ; those of Coll 
and Tiree, on the south, are thirty miles off, and on the 
west is the Atlantic Ocean, which, at the blowing of the 
south-west wind, rolls its waves with such impetuosity 
and fury that they not only drive large quantities of 
sand over the islands, but render intercourse between 
them quite impossible. 

The shore is indented with numerous fissures and 
creeks, and pierced with many arms of the sea. Upon 
the west, with the exception of two or three sandy inlets 
and bays, it is thickly set with rocks, a huge barrier of 
which, broken in several parts into frightful chasms by 
the constant action of the sea, rises majestically against 
the tremendous waves, and supplies a powerful rampart 
to check their fury. On the east, the coast is in general 
rocky, with some intervening portions of heath, moss, 
and sand ; and in this part are the principal bays, which 
form excellent and safe harbours, and among which are 
those of Bayhierava, Uilevay, Castlebay, Watersaybay, 
Fladda Sound, and Ottirvore. The chief headland is 
Barra Head, on the island of Bernera, where a very 
superior lighthouse has lately been erected. This island, 
and the contiguous one of Mingala, are particularly 
distinguished for the height of their rocks, and for their 
grand and romantic scenery, increased in its effect by 
the numberless sea-fowl that frequent them throughout 
the summer. Barra, the largest island, is about twelve 
miles long, from three to six miles broad, and is broken, 
especially on the eastern side, by many bays and arms 
of the sea. It has a rocky barren aspect at a distance, 
but upon a nearer approach its appearance is more in- 
teresting, and its lower grounds, containing some rich 
meadows and fertile vallej's, contrast well with its lofty 
hills, covered to the summits with verdant pasture. 
There are many springs of good fresh water, and four 
fresh-water lakes abounding in black trout and eels, and 
varying in length from half a mile to a mile. 

The SOIL comprises light black, and sandy earth, 
moss, and meadow ; and the crops, consisting of barley, 
oats, and potatoes, grown merely for home consumption, 
ripen very early on the sandy soils, of which there is a 
considerable extent. Agriculture here takes its prevail- 
ing character from that of the population ; it is unformed 
and rugged, and the district is more suited to grazing 
than tillage. The lands are let principally to small 
tenants, and the habitations in general are of the very 
lowest kind, as well as the resources and manner of life 
of the tenants. The cattle are of a good description, and 
a new and improved breed of sheep has been recently 
introduced ; the horses are small, but hardy and well 
shaped, and are numerous in the parish, being found 
useful in transporting sea-weed for manure, and for the 
preparation of kelp. The annual value of real property 
in the parish is £2470. The rocks consist chiefly of 



I: 



B A R R 

coarse granite ; but in the island of Bernera a quarry 
has been opened of granite of a very superior kind, 
of which the lighthouse was built. At Eoligary is the 
house of Barra, a commodious residence, well sheltered, 
and surrounded by good fields : it was built by the late 
proprietor, who transplanted some trees, of which the 
parish is remarkably bare, to the grounds of his mansion ; 
but though they had thriven tolerably well in their 
former situation, they soon pined away after their re- 
moval. A few of the inhabitants are engaged in fishing, 
and four vessels used for this purpose belong to the 
place ; but the poverty of the people operates not only to 
straiten their agricultural efforts, and to keep the capa- 
bilities of the soil in a great degree in abeyance, but also 
to confine their fishing within very narrow limits, 
although Barra is one of the best stations on the west 
coast. Besides lobsters, crabs, whelks, limpets, mussels, 
and cockles, the last of which are very abundant, and 
often supply a principal article of food, the neigh- 
bouring seas abound with ling, cod, tusk, hake, turbot, 
and flounders ; and immense shoals of herrings also 
come up, which the inhabitants are unable to take for 
want of suitable tackle. About twenty or thirty boats 
are sometimes employed, with five men in each ; and if 
successful, and the weather permits, they carry the ling 
and cod to Glasgow and Greenock in their own boats. 
Many cearbans, or sail-fish, were formerly taken by 
means of the harpoon, and large quantities of oil ex- 
tracted ; but this branch has now failed, through the in- 
ability of the fishermen to provide the tackle. 

Ecclesiastically the parish is in the presbytery of Uist, 
synod of Glenelg, and in the patronage of the Crown : 
the minister's stipend is £165. 10. 5., of which a portion 
is received from the exchequer ; with a manse, and a 
glebe valued at £17. 10. per annum. The church is a 
plain structure, built a few years since, and conveniently 
situated in the centre of the parish, about six miles from 
each extremity of the main island. There is a Roman 
Catholic chapel. The parochial school affords instruc- 
tion in English and writing, and the master is qualified 
to teach the classics, book-keeping, and geography ; he 
has a salary of £'26 : the school has been only lately 
opened, and education is at present quite in its infancy, 
the inhabitants being mostly unable to read or write. 
The poor enjoy the benefit of a bequest cf £400, left by 
two persons, natives of the parish. At Killbar are se- 
veral ruins of ancient chapels dedicated to St. Barr, 
some of which have an altar of rough stones at one 
end, and the pedestal of a cross at a short distance : a 
wooden figure of the saint was formerly fixed up for the 
adoration of the people, and was dressed in superior 
attire on the celebration of the anniversary. Watch- 
towers are to be seen in every direction ; and upon the 
lakes are " duns", supposed to be of Scandinavian origin. 
There are also many of the circles usually called Druidical. 
A few years since, a gold medal was found in digging 
the clergyman's garden, about the size of a half-crown 
piece, cast for the coronation of Augustus II., King of 
Poland, and which is said to have belonged to some pas- 
.senger on board of a Dutch ship wrecked here in the 
early part of the last century. 

BARREL-OF-BUTTER, an islet, in the parish of 

Orphir, county of Orkney. It is one of the smallest 

of the Orkneys, and is situated to the south of the 

island of Pomona, in Scalpa Flow, a large expanse of 

115 



BARR 

water resembling a small Mediterranean Sea. Here 
was formerly a seal-fishery, for which the neighbourin.; 
farmer paid the proprietor a barrel of oil yearly, until 
the frequency of shipping scared the seals from the isle, 
when the proprietor, determined not to lose his rent, 
converted the tack-duty into a barrel of butter, which is 
still paid by the tenant. Hence the isle derives its pre- 
sent name, the ancient one being Carlin-Skerry. 

BARRHEAD, for a time a quoad sacra parish, 
including the villages of Barrhead, Cross- Arthurlee, 
Grahamstown, and Newton-Ralston, in the parish of 
Neilston, Upper ward of the county of Renfrew, 4 
miles (S. by E.) from Paisley; the whole containing 
5337 inhabitants. This place is situated on the stream 
of the Levern, on which are a number of waterfalls that 
have contributed much to the manufactures of the 
district, consisting of cotton spinning and weaving, and 
printing, bleaching, and dyeing, all extensively carried 
on, principally for the Glasgow and Paisley markets. 
Coal is abundant in the district, and mines are in opera- 
tion. The village, situated on the road from Glasgow to 
Irvine, is of considerable size, and for the most part in- 
habited by persons engaged in the various works ; it has 
a post-office with a good delivery, and an act was passed 
in 1845 for the construction of a railway from Glasgow 
by Barrhead to Neilston, which is now open from 
Glasgow to Barrhead. In 1848 an act was passed for a 
railway from Paisley to Barrhead. A fair is held, chiefly 
for pleasure, on the last Friday in June, when a horse- 
race also takes place. The parish was in the presbytery 
of Paisley and synod of Glasgow and Ayr : the church, 
a neat structure, was built by subscription, in 1S39; 
and the minister was elected by the male communicants. 
There is a good school, of which the teacher has a room 
rent-free ; also a mechanics' subscription library. 

BARRY, or BARRIE, a parish, in the county of 
Forfar, including the former quoad sacra district of 
Carnoustie, and containing 2124 inhabitants, of whom 
21* are in the village of Barry, 9 miles (E. N. E.) 
from Dundee, and 126S in the village of Carnoustie. 
This parish is situated at the southern extremity of the 
county, on the shore of the German Ocean, and at the 
mouth of the Firth of Tay ; measuring about four miles 
from north to south, and three and a half from east to 
west. In the latter direction it is intersected, through- 
out its whole extent, by a high verdant bank, supposed 
to have once formed a steep shore of the ocean, and 
separating the locality into two grand divisions totallj' 
dissimilar in character. That on the north is of a good 
soil, and elevated about fifty feet above the southern 
portion, from which it has the appearance of an extensive 
and regularly constriicted terrace. The lower division is 
sandy and sterile, affording in general but a scanty pas- 
ture for a few sheep and cattle, with small patches of 
arable land, producing, in moist seasons, moderate crops 
of grain. The vi'hole comprises about 4000 acres, half 
being in the sandy, and half in the cultivated, portion. 
In the upper part the soil has the several varieties of 
light loam, good gravel, and a deep black earth ; and 
under the skilful application of the most approved usages 
of husbandry, crops are obtained of wheat, barley, oats, 
peas, turnips, flax, clover, and potatoes, nearly equal to 
those grown in more favoured districts. Of the part 
never yet cultivated, covering nearly 2000 acres, very 
little is serviceable on account of the light and sandy 

Q2 



B A R V 



BASS 



nature of the soil, except for occasional pastures. The 
annual value of real property in the parish is £4052. 
The larger part of the population, both male and female, 
are engaged in the manufacture of brown and white 
linen, for the Dundee and Arbroath houses. A vitriol- 
work, employing four or five hands, was erected a few 
years since ; and there are five stations for the fishing 
of salmon, belonging to three different proprietors. The 
turnpike-road and the railroad between Dundee and 
Arbroath pass through the parish ; and to these two 
towns the produce is usually sent for sale. Ecclesiasti- 
cally the parish is in the presbytery of Arbroath, synod 
of Angus and Mearns, and in the patronage of the 
Crown; the minister's stipend is £143. 12. 11., with a 
manse, and a glebe of five acres, valued at £5. 10. per 
annum. The church, situated in the centre of the 
parish, is a plain structure, altered and enlarged in the 
year 181 S. A place of worship and a schoolroom have 
been erected in connexion with the Free Church. The 
parochial school affords instruction in the usual branches; 
the master has a salary of £'29. IS. 9., with £30 fees. 
Till lately there were several tumuli on the eastern hmit 
of the parish ; and in the same vicinity, near Car- 
noustie, were the vestiges of a camp, where, it is said, 
the Danes under Camus were defeated by the Scots 
headed by INIalcolm II. 

BARVAS, a parish, in the island of Lewis, county 
of Ross and Cromarty, 10 miles (N. W. by N.) from 
Stornoway ; containing, with the former quoad sacra 
district of Cross, 38.50 inhabitants. The name of this 
place, like many other names in the neighbourhood, is 
supposed to be of Norwegian derivation ; but its signifi- 
cation is altogether unknown. From the memorialswhich 
still remain, the Danes appear to have had some con- 
nexion with the district. A fort, now in ruins, evidently 
of Danish construction, stands on the border of a loch 
south of Bragar, and three buildings of the same de- 
scription are to be seen between Shadir and Borve, each 
of them, by its peculiar form, locality, and appendages, 
indicating the scene of the military operations of that 
people. On a plain of moss between Barvas and Shadir 
stands an immense stone, eighteen feet high, and 
almost as much in girth, supposed to have been raised 
as a triumphal memorial of the slaughter of some cruel 
and reckless tyrant of the Danish nation. The ruins of 
several old chapels and burying-grounds also remain in 
the parish, shewing the subsequent occupation of the 
soil by religious teachers. The chapels were dedicated 
to St. Bridget in Borve, St. Peter in Lower Shadir, St. 
Mary in Barvas, and St. John in Bragar. 

The PARISH, which is remotely situated, in the 
northern extremity of the island of Lewis, is about 
twenty-two miles long and seven broad, containing 
16,103 acres, of which number 1468 are in tillage, 4S9 
the best kind of pasture, and 14,146 pasture of an inferior 
kind. It is bounded on the north-west by the Atlantic 
Ocean. The coast, which comprises a length of about 
fourteen miles, is rugged, in many parts bold and rocky, 
and is beaten by a violent surf when the wind blows 
from the west or north-west. The surface of the inte- 
rior is diversified by gentle elevations, except in one or 
two instances, where it is broken by a deep glen tra- 
versed by rivulets, or occupied by a sweeping moor the 
resort of red mountain deer. There are five rivers, the 
Glen, the Borve, the Shadir, the Arnal, and the Torra, 
116 



which ri.se from springs or lochs, generally six or seven 
miles np the country, and empty themselves into the 
ocean. The climate is surcharged with vapour and fog, 
and subject to violent storm? and rains ; the striking 
phenomenon of the Aurora Borealis is frequently seen, 
in all its splendour and majesty. 

The soil of the cultivated land, which chiefly lies 
along the sea-shore, is black earth, often largely mixed 
with gravel or sand ; but as the main part of the parish 
is moor, the soil is mostly mossy. The arable portion 
is overspread with quantities of stones, and the exposure 
of the land to winds from the sea, without hill or moun- 
tain to protect behind, presents a formidable impediment 
to the labour of the farmer, and sometimes destroys his 
crops altogether. The rental is small. No produce is ex- 
ported, the whole being required for home consumption ; 
and but few improvements have been made in agri- 
culture, the backwardness arising chiefly from the short- 
ness of the leases, and the poverty of the people, who in 
seasons of scarcity are compelled to live upon whelks, 
periwinkles, limpets, and crabs, the only shell-fish to be 
found. About 2500 head of black-cattle are reared, 
which are fed in winter chiefly on sea-weed. The sheep 
amount to upwards of 7000, and are all of small stature, 
as also are the horses, which, however, are compact, 
active, and mettlesome, and well suited to their ordinary 
work of carrying the sea-weed in double-baskets, over 
difficult and rocky grounds. The subsoil is a stiff hard 
clay, which in some parts is covered with large banks of 
sand, twenty feet high, driven inward from the shore by 
the continued action of westerly winds. The annual 
value of real property in the parish is £1942. 

The inhabitants live in numerous villages on the 
coast, almost entirely in an isolated state, having very 
little communication with others. There are two roads, 
one running along the coast, and another to Stornoway, 
the only mart in the island. The parish contains four 
small bays, into which boats sometimes enter ; but the 
violence of the wind prevents the anchorage of any 
vessel. Salmon-fishing has been carried on for some 
years, with considerable success, near the mouths of the 
rivers ; but the nature of the coast rendering other fish- 
ing impracticable, the people are generally little inclined 
to malie the employment a steady pursuit. For eccle- 
siastical purposes the parish is withiu the bounds of the 
presbytery of Lewis, synod of Glenelg, and in the 
patronage of the Crown : the minister has a stipend of 
£158. 6. 8., partly paid from the exchequer; with a 
manse, and a glebe worth about £20 per annum. The 
church, built about sixty years since, is a long narrow 
building, and contains 300 sittings. There is a parochial 
school, in which the classics and the common branches 
of education are taught ; the master has a salary of £28. 
Two other schools are supported by the Edinburgh Gaelic 
School Society. The parish contains several chalybeate 
springs, but none of them of any note. 

BASS, ISLE, in the parish of North Berwick, 
county of H.ADDINGTON. It is situated in the mouth 
of the Firth of Forth, about a mile and a half from the 
shore ; the circumference of the rocky isle is full a mile, 
and its height above the surface of the sea 420 feet. 
On the north it is lofty and precipitous ; on the south 
somewhat conical, sloping moderately down to the base: 
it is only accessible on the south-east. Pasture is 
afforded for about thirty sheep, and the rock is the 



BATH 



B A T H 



resort of myriads of sea-fowl. Its history is of consider- 
able interest : it was purchased by government in October 
1671, and converted into a state prison for the Cove- 
nanters, a purpose which it served during the reigns of 
Charles II. and James II. After the Revolution, it held 
out for several years against the new dynasty, amidst 
numerous and vigorous enterjjriscs for its reduction, 
and was signalized as the last place in Great Britain 
that yielded to the rule of William and Mary. In I701 
the king ordered the fortifications to be demolished, 
and in I706 the Bass was granted by the crown to 
President Sir Hew Dalrymple for one Scots penny, 
reserving the power of re-fortifying the rock, should 
government at any time deem it expedient to do so. 
The fort and the dungeons are all unroofed, and the 
chief interest of the isle arises from its historical associa- 
tions, these crumbling ruins speaking of seventeen years' 
solitude and suffering, endured by above fifty of Scot- 
land's sons, who, some for a longer and some for a 
shorter part of that period, here endured a painful impri- 
sonment and e.xile for their zeal as Covenanters. — See 
North Berwick. 

BATHAN'S (ST.), ABBEY, a parish, in the county 
of Berwick, 7 miles (N. by W.) from Dunse ; contain- 
ing 146 inhabitants. The appellation of this place has 
been successively written St. Boythan's, Bothan's, and 
Bathan's, which last form it has preserved since the 
earlier part of the eighteenth century : the name was 
derived from the patron saint, Baithen, who laboured 
here in the former part of the seventh century, and to 
whom the first church was dedicated. The word Abbey, 
it is siipposed, was prefixed to distinguish the parish 
from the parish of Gifford or Yester, in East Lothian, 
which was also called St. Bothan's, but had no convent. 
Near the church, which was destroyed more than once 
by fire during the incursions of the Danes, a convent of 
Cistercian nuns was founded between the years 1184 
and 1'200, with the title of priory, by Ada, daughter to 
King William the Lion, and wife to Patrick, Earl of 
Dunbar. This institution, by the liberal benefactions 
of the foundress and her husband, and various other 
persons, acquired considerable estates, in addition to 
the patronage of the church, by which the nuns were 
enabled, through the appointment of a vicar, to appro- 
priate to themselves the revenues of the living. A 
chapel was also founded in the parish, about a quarter 
of a mile from the nunnery, on the same side of the 
river Whitadder ; the foundations of which lately existed. 
At Strafontane, which is now part of the parish, but 
was anciently distinct, an hospital was founded in the 
reign of David I., which at one time was dependent on 
the abbey of Alnwick, but was transferred in 1437 by 
the abbot of that place to the monastery of Dryburgh. 
It came afterwards into the possession of the collegiate 
church of Dunglass, and was ultimately converted into 
a church. 

The mean length of the parish, from east to west, is 
about three miles and a quarter, and its breadth two 
miles and a half. It contains about .5000 acres, of which 
'2600 are hilly pasture never cultivated, 100 wood, and 
2300 arable. The parish is situated among the Lam- 
merinoor hills, and the surface consequently consists of 
hills and slopes, the former of which are for the most 
part covered with heath ; the hills rise to various eleva- 
tions, of between 300 and 400 feet above the intervening 
117 



vales, and then spread out into extensive flats. The level 
grounds on the banks of the streams whi<h receive the 
drainage of the hills, are in general fertile, as well as 
many of the slopes, but the upper lands are altogether 
barren. The Whitadder is the only river : after a course 
of about twelve miles, in which it is joined by the Dye 
and many smaller streams, it assumes, in its passage 
through the parish, a beautifully meandering form, and 
receives, besides many rivulets, the tributary waters of 
the Monynut and the Ware, which extend its width to 
about eighty feet. A bridge of wood upon stone piers, 
on the tension-bar principle, has been erected across the 
river, and is much admired for its simplicity of con- 
strnction and elegance of form. The soil of the parish 
is equal, if not superior, to any part of the Lammermoor 
range, which is throughout of meagre quality, and much 
better suited to the pasturage of sheep and cattle than 
the growth of corn. The agricultural produce princi- 
pally comprises oats, barley, potatoes, and turnips : the 
sheep are the Cheviots, mixed with a few of the black- 
faced, and the ewes of each of these are in many cases 
crossed with the Leicesters. Considerable improve- 
ments have been made in husbandry, consisting chiefly 
in drainage, and the reclaiming of waste land. The 
annual value of real property in the parish is £1397. 
Veins of copper-ore have been discovered on the estate 
of St. Bathan's, and the mineral was worked in 1S28 by 
an English mining company, but after the first attempt 
the undertaking was abandoned. There is no village ; 
but a group of pleasing and interesting objects in the 
romantic vale through which the Whitadder runs, in- 
cludes the house of St. Bathan's, a corn-mill, the church, 
the manse standing on an acclivity in the midst of trees, 
and the school-house. 

For ecclesiastical purposes, the parish of Abbey St. 
Bathan's is within the bounds of the presbytery of 
Dunse, synod of Merse and Teviotdale. The patronage 
belongs to the Crown ; and the minister's stipend is 
£158. 6. 8., with a manse, built in 1822, and a glebe of 
fourteen acres, worth £13 per annum. The church, 
which is conveniently situated, is an ancient edifice in 
good repair, and accommodates 140 persons. The east 
window, part of the ancient building, is still in some 
measure preserved ; and when lately repairing the north 
wall of the edifice, a recumbent statue of a nun was 
found, but without any inscription : in this wall was 
formerly an arched door, now built up, which commu- 
nicated with the monastic buildings. There is a paro- 
chial school, in which the usual branches of education 
are taught, with mathematics and Latin ; the master 
has a salary of £26. 8., with about £12 fees, and a 
house. In a woody nook at a little distance from the 
church is a spring named St. Bathan's well, formerly 
esteemed of miraculous power in healing diseases, and 
to which the superstitious still attach many surprising 
virtues. 

BATHGATE, an independent burgh of barony, and 
a parish, in the county of Linlithgow, 7 miles (.S. by 
W.) from Linlithgow, and 18 (\V. by S.) from Edinburgh; 
containing, with the village of Armadale, 3928 inha- 
bitants, of whom 2809 are in the town. This place, the 
name of which, in a charter of Malcolm IV. written 
Batliet, is of unknown derivation, formed part of the 
extensive possessions given by King Robert Bruce, in 
1316, with his daughter the Princess Marjory, on her 



BATH 



BATH 



i 



marriage to Walter, high steward of Scotland, ancestor 
of the royal family of Stuart, who had one of his prin- 
cipal residences at this place, where he died in 1328. 
Of this ancient castle, some slight traces of the founda- 
tions only are discernible, in a morass about a quarter 
of a mile from the town, in which, though the land has 
been drained and brought into cultivation, kitchen 
utensils of brass, and coffins rudely formed of flat 
stones, have been discovered by the plough. The 
barony, with the sheriffdom of Bathgate, which had 
been annexed to it, was granted by Charles II. in 1663 
to Thomas Hamilton, and subsequently became the pro- 
perty of the Hope family, of whom John, the second 
Earl of Hopetoun, on the abolition of hereditary juris- 
dictions in 1747. claimed £2000 as an indemnity. There 
are few events of importance connected with the history 
of Bathgate, with the exception of some occasional 
encounters which took place during the time of the 
Covenanters, between the inhabitants and the soldiery 
who were sent to disperse their meetings. 

The TOWN is chiefly situated on the acclivity of a hill, 
on the north side of the middle road from Glasgow to 
Edinburgh, and consists of several well-formed streets 
of neatly-built houses, from which others, of inferior 
character, branch oif in various directions. The prin- 
cipal streets are paved, and well lighted with gas from 
works erected by a company ; and the inhabitants are 
amply supplied with water. A subscription library has 
been estabhshed, which has a collection of about 300 
volumes, and is well supported. The post-office has two 
deliveries from Glasgow, and one from Edinburgh, 
daily ; and branches of the National Bank of Scotland 
and the Glasgow Union Bank, have been opened in the 
town. The cotton manufacture is carried on to a con- 
siderable extent, affording employment to about 500 of 
the inhabitants, in hand-loom weaving, chiefly for the 
Glasgow houses; and about 160 women and girls are 
engaged in tambour-work. A distillery and a brewery, 
both on an extensive scale, are in active operation ; and 
there are two brick and tile works, where several hands 
are employed. The market, which is abundantly sup- 
plied with grain, and numerously attended, is on Wed- 
nesday. Fairs for cattle and horses are held on the 
third Wednesday in April, the first Wednesday after 
Whitsuntide (O. S.), the fourth Wednesday in June, 
the third Wednesday in August, the fourth Wednesday 
in October, and the first Wednesday after Martinmas 
(O. S.). Of these the principal are the Whitsuntide 
and Martinmas fairs, which are attended by dealers 
from all parts of the country. Facility of communica- 
tion is afforded by the Edinburgh and Glasgow, and the 
Lanark and Borrowstounness, turnpike-roads, which 
pass through the parish, and by other roads kept in 
good repair by statute labour. But the chief means of 
intercourse are those presented by the railway, lately 
opened, from Bathgate to the Edinburgh and Glasgow 
line near the Ratho station. 

In 1824 the inhabitants, with the concurrence of the 
superior of the town, obtained an act of parliament con- 
ferring a charter of incorporation, and vesting the 
government of the town as an independent burgh of 
barony in a provost, three bailies, a treasurer, and 
twelve councillors, annually elected by the burgesses, 
who must be holders of houses or tenements valued at 
£3 per annum, and are entitled to become burgesses on 
118 



the payment of fees not exceeding £2. 2. Originally 
the town was a burgh of barony, a baron-bailie being 
appointed by the proprietor of the estate. The jurisdic- 
tion of the magistrates, which is confined to the limits 
of the burgh, extends to civil pleas not exceeding £25, 
and to the trial of petty offences, for which they hold 
courts as occasion may require ; but the number of 
causes is very inconsiderable. A sheriffs small-debt 
circuit court is held four times in the year, under the 
sheriff of the county, who is also appointed sheriff of 
Bathgate. There is a small prison, containing three 
cells for criminals, and a room for debtors, under the 
management of the corporation ; but it is rarely used. 
The seal of the burgh simply bears the inscription, 
" Sigillum Commune Burgi de Bathgate" , in an outer 
circle ; and, within, the words, " erected by act of par- 
liament 5th George IV. 1824", with a crown. 

The PARISH is about seven miles and a half in length, 
and about four miles in extreme breadth, comprising an 
area of 11,214 acres, of which 8700 are arable, SOO pas- 
ture, 500 woodland and plantations, and the remainder, 
excepting the site of the town of Bathgate and the vil- 
lage of Armadale, roads and waste. Its surface, though 
generally level, is diversified by the hills of the Knock 
and the Reiving Craig, which nearly equal the Cairn- 
apple in height, attaining an elevation of about 1450 
feet above the sea. The only river is the Almond, 
which separates it for about a mile from the parish of 
Whitburn. There are numerous springs, and, in the 
grounds of Balbardie, a lake partly artificial, about 
eleven acres in extent, and averaging five feet in depth. 
The soil, on the slopes of the hills, is rich ; in the lower 
grounds it is wet and marshy, though it has been 
greatly benefited by draining : the lands which are not 
under tillage, afford good pasturage for cattle. The 
system of agriculture is in an improved state, and a 
considerable portion of waste has been reclaimed ; the 
crops are grain of every sort, with potatoes and turnips, 
and much attention is paid to the management of the 
dairy-farms. Few sheep are pastured, and the cattle 
are of various mixed breeds, but, on the dair}'-farms, 
mostly of the pure Ayrshire kind. The farm buildings 
are inferior to others in the district ; but improvements 
are gradually taking place under the auspices of an 
agricultural society in the town, which awards premiums 
at its annual meetings, when there is a show of cattle. 
A horticultural society has also been established. The 
plantations consist of oak, ash, elm, and plane, with 
larch, silver, spruce, and Scotch firs. The annual value 
of real property in the parish is £12,975. 

The substratum is principally coal, forming part of 
the central coal-field of Scotland, and of which several 
mines are worked : the seams are frequently intersected 
with dykes of whinstone. Limestone is also found, 
both of the marine and lacustrine formation ; in the 
former are various species of corrallines, ammonites, 
and marine shells, and in both are veins of lead con- 
taining portions of silver-ore. In one of the quarries, 
called the silver mine, the ore was wrought for some 
time, yielding a considerable quantity of silver, which 
gradually diminished till the working was ultimately 
discontinued. There are several limestone-quarries and 
lime- works, producing lime of good quality. In con- 
nexion with the strata of coal is found iron-ore, which 
was formerly wrought by the Carron Iron Company, 



BEAT 



B ED R 



and for the working of which, in another part of the 
parish, a company recently formed are carrying on 
operations. Thin layers of mineral pitch are occasion- 
ally found in the limestone. Freestone and whinstone 
are likewise abundant ; one of the quarries of the former 
is constantly wrought, on the lands of Balbardie, pro- 
ducing stone of excellent quality for building, and the 
latter is wrought chiefly for the roads. Balbardie 
House is a handsome mansion, erected towards the 
close of the last century, after a design by Mr. Adam, 
and beautifully situated in a well-wooded park of more 
than 100 acres, containing much diversified scenery; 
and Boghead, another residence, is surrounded with 
thriving plantations, formed by the present proprietor. 

For ECCLESIASTICAL purposes the parish is within 
the bounds of the presbytery of Linlithgow, synod of 
Lothian and Tweeddale : the minister's stipend is £132. 
8. 4., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £19 per 
annum ; patron, the Earl of Hopetoun. The church, 
erected in 1739, is a plain building, situated in the town, 
and nearly in the centre of the parish ; it is in good 
repair, and contains 719 sittings. There are places of 
worship for the Free Church, the United Presbyterian 
Synod, and United Original Seceders. The parochial 
school is well attended ; the master has a salary of 
£34. 4. 4|., with a house and garden, and the fees 
average £26 per annum. The Bathgate Academy was 
founded by Mr. John Newlands, a native of this parish, 
who died in Jamaica in 1799, and bequeathed the prin- 
cipal part of his property to trustees, for the erection 
and endowment of a free school here. The trustees, 
after resisting an attempt to invalidate the bequest, in 
which they were indemnified by the personal security of 
Mr. Majoribanks, received £14,500, and immediately 
opened schools in different parts of the parish, which, 
on the subsequent increase of the funds, were concen- 
trated in 1833 in the present institution. It is under 
the superintendence of a rector, who is also the classical 
master, two English masters, and a master for writing, 
arithmetic, and the mathematics ; and is attended by 
about .500 children, who are all gratuitously taught. 
The building is handsome ; it consists of a centre and 
two wings connected bj' a colonnade, and comprises a 
house for the rector, with four ample class-rooms, a 
library, in which are more than 700 volumes, and other 
apartments, with a spacious play-ground in front. The 
poor are partly supported by the interest of £1100 be- 
queathed by Mr. Henry Calder, yielding £53 per annum. 
There are some Druidical remains in the vicinity ; and 
in different parts of the parish have been found coins of 
Edward L, Queen Elizabeth, and Charles IL Several 
of the springs are strongly chalybeate ; and on the 
estate of Couston, the water resembles in its quality that 
of the celebrated spring of Dollar. 

BAYNTON, county of Fife.— See Baneton. 

BEATH, a parish, in the district of Dunfermline, 
county of Fife, 'ii miles (S.) from Blair- Adam Inn; 
containing, vvith the villages of Cowden-Bcath, Kelty, 
and Oakfield, 973 inhabitants. This parish, though 
now destitute of any trees of the kind, is supposed to 
have originally abounded with birch, and from that cir- 
cumstance to have derived its name, anciently written 
Bailh, which in the Gaelic language signifies a birch- 
tree. It is situated on the great road from Perth to 
Queensferry, extending about four miles in length and 
119 



three miles in breadth, and comprising 6500 acres, 
of which about 5300 are arable, 500 meadow and pas- 
ture, 500 woodland and plantations, and the remainder 
water and waste. The surface is very irregular, rising 
in many places into hills of considerable elevation, some 
of which afford rich pasture, and one called the Hill of 
Beath commands interesting views. The scenery has 
been in some parts enriched with thriving plantations, 
and is enlivened by the Loch Fitty, a fine sheet of water 
about three miles in circumference, and abounding with 
pike, perch, and other fish. In general the soil is good, 
consisting of a clay and loam, interspersed occasionally 
with moss ; the crops are oats, barley, peas, beans, 
potatoes, and turnips, with wheat occasionally, and a 
small quantity of flax. The system of agriculture is 
greatly improved ; a considerable quantity of waste has 
been reclaimed, and much land which from previous 
mismanagement was unproductive has been rendered 
fertile. The annual value of real property in the parish 
is £4404. Among the substrata are whinstone and 
sandstone : coal is found in abundance, and three col- 
lieries are worked in the parish, which afford a plentiful 
supply of fuel : limestone is also wrought, but on a very 
limited scale. Facility of communication is presented 
by the Dunfermline branch of the Edinburgh, Perth, 
and Dundee railway. Ecclesiastically the parish is in 
the presbytery of Dunfermline, synod of Fife, and in the 
patronage of the Earl of Moray ; the minister's stipend 
is about £165, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £17 
per annum. The church is a handsome edifice, erected 
in 1835, and affords ample accommodation. The paro- 
chial school is attended by about 100 pupils; the mas- 
ter has a salary of £34. 4. 4., with £30 fees, and a house 
and garden. 

BEAULY, a village, in the parish of Kilmorack, 
county of Inverness, IS miles (W.) from Inverness; 
containing 560 inhabitants. It is situated at the mouth 
of the river of the same name ; and was distinguished 
for a priory founded in 1230, which at the Dissolution 
came into the possession of Hugh, Lord Frazer, of 
Lovat, in whose family it continued until 1745, when it 
was forfeited to the crown : a portion of the walls is 
still standing. The village is a considerable thorough- 
fare to and from all the more northern Highland coun- 
ties ; and the Beauly is navigable for small vessels for 
about three miles above it. The river is formed by the 
union, near Erchless Castle, of the Farrer, Canich, and 
Glass streams ; it takes an eastern course, aud after 
forming the falls of Kilmorack and other cascades, 
merges in an arm of the sea connected with the Moray 
Firth. — See Kilmorack. 

BEDRULE, a parish, in the district of Jedburgh, 
county of Roxburgh, 3 miles (S. W.) from Jedburgh ; 
containing, with the villages of Bedrule, Newtown, and 
Rewcastle, 256 inhabitants, of whom 1 1 1 are in the 
village of Bedrule. This place derives its name from its 
situation on the small but rapid and impetuous river 
Rule, whose waters, impeded in their progress by frag- 
ments of loosened rock, pursue their course with tumul- 
tuous noise. It lays claim to considerable antiquity, and 
formed part of the possessions of the Turnbull family, 
one of whose descendants was keeper of the privy seal 
in 1441, an<l subsequently Bishop of Glasgow : he pro- 
cured a bull from Pope Nicholas V. for erecting a col- 
lege for literature within the city of Glasgow, in 1452 or 



B ED R 



BEIT 



1453. The parish, which is nearly in the centre of the 
county, is of eUiptic form, and comprises about 1600 
acres of arable land, an equal quantity in pasture, about 
forty acres of woodland and plantations, and a con- 
siderable portion of waste. The surface is diversified 
with hills and dales : of the former, the hill of Dunian, 
in the south-east, is the highest, rising in a circular 
form to an elevation of 1031 feet above the sea j it is 
flat on the summit, and forms a conspicuous mark for 
mariners. The scenery is generally picturesque, and in 
some parts enriched with stately wood. The chief rivers 
are, the Rule, which winds between wooded banks dis- 
playing much beauty ; and the Teviot, which skirts the 
parish for a considerable distance, and receives the waters 
of the Rule at no great distance from the village. 

The soil is extremely various, though generally fertile : 
near the rivers it is a rich sandy loam, resting on a bed 
of gravel, and in some parts intermixed with clay ; in 
other places, of a thinner and less productive quality, 
on a subsoil of retentive clay. The principal crops are 
oats, barley, wheat, potatoes, and turnips ; the system 
of agriculture is improved, and lime and bone-dust are 
unsparingly used for the benefit of the land. Great 
attention is paid to the rearing of live stock, for which 
the pastures are well adapted : the sheep are of the 
Cheviot breed, with a few scores of the Leicestershire, 
and a few Merinos ; the cattle, of which only a mode- 
rate number are fed for the butcher, are all of the short- 
horned breed. The annual value of real property in 
the parish is £'2/47. The woods consist chiefly of 
birch, alder, common and mountain ash, hazel, cherry, 
and oak ; and the plantations, of firs of all kinds, which 
thrive well. In general the substrata are greywacke, 
of which the hills mainly consist, and sandstone of a 
reddish hue ; the sandstone is of excellent quality, and 
is extensively quarried for building and for ornamental 
uses. There are some indications of coal, but no ade- 
quate attempts have been made to obtain it : limestone 
is also found, at Bedrule hill, and a quarry was formerly 
open there, but the working of it has been discontinued. 
Knowsouth House, in the parish, is a very elegant 
mansion in the Elizabethan style of architecture, situated 
in a highly picturesque and richly-wooded demesne, laid 
out with great taste. 

For ecclesiastical purposes the parish is in the pres- 
bytery of Jedburgh, sj'nod of Merse and Teviotdale : 
the minister's stipend is £150, with a manse and globe ; 
patrons, the Hume family. The church, erected about 
1S05, is a substantial edifice, situated on the summit of 
a steep bank, and adapted for 140 persons. The paro- 
chial school is well attended ; the master's salary is £'26, 
with from £15 to £20 fees, and a house and garden. 
There are some slight remains of the castle of Bedrule, 
the baronial seat of the Turnbulls, consisting chiefly of 
the foundations of the ancient buildings, on the right 
bank of the Rule ; and on the opposite side of the 
river are vestiges of out-works formerly connected with 
that stronghold : the site commands an extensive pros- 
pect. Remains also exist of an old fort at Fulton, one 
of the numerous strongholds erected during the times 
of border warfare. On the farm of Newton, near the 
road from Jedburgh to Hawick, is the site of an en- 
campment, surrounded on all sides but one by a fosse 
of running water ; it is situated on a sloping piece of 
ground in Newton moor, and is about 600 feet in cir- 
120 



cumference : the work is supposed to have been an out- 
station connected with a Roman camp at Stirk-rigg, 
about a mile distant, but of which every trace has been 
obliterated by the plough. Not far from this station 
is a well called Our Lady's Well, which runs into a 
neighbouring pond, said to have been constructedby 
the monks of Jedburgh for a fish-pond. 

BEIL-GRANGE, a hamlet, in the parish of Sten- 
TON, county of Haddington, 1 mile (S. S. W.) from 
Stenton ; containing 53 inhabitants. It is near the bor- 
ders of the parish of Dunbar, and is remarkable for a 
splendid mansion in its vicinity. The Beil rivulet passes 
on the north of the hamlet, and, flowing by Belton and 
Westbarns, falls into the ocean. — See Stenton. 

BEITH, a parish, chiefly in the district of Cunning- 
HAME, county of Ayr, and partly in the Upper ward 
of the county of Renfrew, IS miles (W. S. W.) from 
Glasgow ; including the villages of Gateside, Northbar, 
and Burnhouse, and containing 5*95 inhabitants. This 
place is supposed to have taken its name from a Celtic 
term signifying " birch ", and many parts of the district 
are referred to, as still bearing names formed partly 
■with the word icood, such as Roughwood, Woodside, 
Threepwood, and others. In ancient times the locality 
consisted of the two great divisions called the barony of 
Beith, and the lordship of Giffen, the latter being the 
more extensive, and the two districts being divided from 
each other by the Powgree, a stream that falls into the 
Garnock near the south end of Kilbirnie loch. The 
barony was given in the twelfth century to Kilwinning 
Abbey by Richard de Moreville, the son and successor 
of Hugh de Moreville, constable of Scotland, and lord of 
Cunninghame; and his wife Avicia de Lancaster gave 
the lands of Beith, Bath, and Threepwood, also to the 
abbey. This religious establishment erected a chapel 
here, afterwards the church of Beith, the monks enjoy- 
ing the tithes and revenues, and finding a curate to do 
the duty. About the period of the Reformation, the 
abbot and chapter feued out the lands in the barony 
for small feu-duties, which, with the other temporalities 
of the church, passed to Hugh, fifth Earl of Eglinton, 
who was created lord of erection of the monastery. The 
lordship of Giffen was given by the family of Moreville 
to Walter de Mulcaster, the donation comprehending 
the whole of the lands to the south and west of the Pow- 
gree : the ruins of a chapel founded by the monastery 
of Kilwinning, and dedicated to St. Bridget, are still to 
be seen on a part of this property. 

Beith, at the beginning of the last century, was only 
a small village, consisting of a few houses in the vicinity 
of the church ; but has since grown into a thriving 
manufacturing town, with a large and industrious popu- 
lation. It is situated on an eminence, in the midst of a 
district abounding with beautiful scenery. The town is 
well lighted with gas, supplied by a company established 
in 1831, with a capital of £1600. It contains a sub- 
scription library of 400 volumes, and two circulating 
hbraries. The population comprises several merchants 
who deal very extensively in grain, and persons engaged 
in various kinds of traffic, but is to a great extent com- 
posed of hand-loom weavers ; and about 200 persons 
resident in the parish are regularly engaged in the manu- 
facture of flax thread. A mill for spinning flax, lately 
erected at North-bar, two miles from the town, affords 
employment to eighty hands ; the proprietor has built 



I 



BEIT 



BEIT 



several houses, and has commenced feus, so that a con- 
siderable village maybe expected shortly to arise on this 
spot. At Roughbank is an establishment of the same 
description, on a smaller scale, and also a mill for 
making potato-flour, occupying about fourteen persons ; 
while at Knows an establishment has been formed con- 
taining forty steam-looms, furnishing employment to 
thirty persons. There are two bleachfields at Threep- 
wood, in the north-eastern part of the parish ; and the 
tanning and currying of leather are pursued to a con- 
siderable extent in the town. The enterprising spirit of 
the inhabitants has left untouched scarcely any article 
of profitable speculation. Beith is a post-town, and there 
are two arrivals and departures daily ; also a daily des- 
patch of letters to the neighbouring towns of Dairy, 
Kilbirnie, and Lochwinnoch. The great line of road 
from Glasgow to Portpatrick passes through the town, 
and the Glasgow and Ayrshire railway has a station 
about a mile distant from the place. 

The marketable produce is usually sent for sale to 
Glasgow and Paisley ; a weekly market, however, of 
ancient date, is held on Friday, and there are likewise 
annual fairs, chiefly for horses, on the first Friday in the 
months of January, February, May, and November 
(O. S.). A festival vulgarly called Tenant's day, attended 
by a great concourse of people, and celebrated for its 
show of horses, is held yearly on the ISth of August 
(O. S.), in honour of St. Inan, from whose name, with 
the last letter of the word saint, the appellation of the 
fair has been formed, by corrupt usage. Inan flourished 
about the year 839, and though chiefly resident at 
Irvine, occasionally remained for a time at this place, 
where he has left memorials in the name applied to the 
cleft in a rock, still called St. Inan's Chair, and in the 
name of a well, called St. Inan's Well. A fair called 
the " Trades' race " was formerly held in the month of 
June, when the trades assembled, and went in order 
through the town, with music and flags : this has been 
given up ; but there is still an annual dinner of the 
merchants, who were united as a society previously to 
the year 172", and the whole of whom meet for the pur- 
pose of conviviality on the anniversary, and choose a 
president. A kind of fair, likewise, is held in July, called 
the "Cadgers' race", when the carters ride in procession 
through the town. A baron-bailie and a baron-officer 
were formerly appointed by the Earls of Eglinton, who 
had considerable property in the parish ; but nothing of 
this kind has taken place for many years, and the town 
has no particular local government. The town-house was 
built by subscription, in 1817: the lower part consists of 
two shops, and the upper part of a large hall, in which 
the justice- of-peace courts, the sheriff small-debt circuit 
courts, and public meetings are held ; it is also used as a 
public reading-room. 

The PARISH is in the form of a triangle, and is bounded 
on the west by Kilbirnie loch. It measures at its great- 
est length, from south-east to south-west, four miles ; 
and comprises an area of 11,060 acres, of which 500 are 
in Renfrewshire. About 320 acres in the parish are un- 
cultivated, 100 acres in plantations, and the remainder is 
pasture and tillage. The surface is considerably varied, 
throughout, with undulations, without presenting any 
remarkable elevations, the highest point, called Cuff hill, 
being only 6,52 feet above the sea. From this eminence, 
as well as from some of the uplands, extensive views are 
Vol. I.— 121 



obtained of the surrounding country, amply compen- 
sating for the general uniformity of the local scenery. 
The hill is supposed to take its name from the word 
Coifi, or Cuifi, the appellation of the chief priest of the 
Druids, and to have been a principal seat of the worship 
of that ancient order : the fair of St. Inan, also, in later 
times, was held here. The prospect from the summit 
embraces the mountain ranges of Galloway and Carrick. 
the expansive estuary of the Clyde, the outhne of the 
Perthshire hills, and the majestic Ben-Lomond. The 
surface of the parish gently slopes from the north-eastern 
quarter, the vicinity of Cuff hill, and is lowest at Kil- 
birnie loch, being here only ninety feet above the sea 
level. From this sheet of water a stream flows north- 
ward through Lochwinnoch to the river Clyde, along a 
valley in which the line of railway to Glasgow also runs. 
At Blaeloch-head is a small lake; and different parts of 
the parish are enlivened by streams : the two principal are 
the river Lugton, rising in Lochlibo, and falling into the 
Garnock below Eglinton Castle ; and the Dusk, which 
rises at Threepwood, and joins the Garnock at Dalgarvan, 
below Dairy. 

The lands present a great variety of soil, but in general 
are fertile, and tolerably well cultivated ; the chief crop 
is oats. Large portions are in pasture, and about 900 
milch-cows, mostly of the Ayrshire breed, besides young 
cattle, are grazed on the different grounds. Cheese is 
consequently a leading article of traffic, and is purchased 
of the tenants by cheese-merchants for the Glasgow- 
market ; milk is disposed of to some extent in the sur- 
rounding villages, and large quantities of rye-grass seed 
are shipped to England by merchants residing in the 
town. The farms are of small size, varying from fifty 
to 100 acres ; and full two-thirds of the rent are made by 
the sale of the cheese, which is of excellent quality, and 
brings the highest price at market. The annual value 
of real property in the parish is £15,140. The chief 
mineral deposits are coal and limestone, which are 
wrought extensively : clay-ironstone is also found, and 
brick-clay is dug for use at two manufactories of drain - 
tiles ; ironstone exists in several parts, and a freestone- 
quarry is in operation. Plantations are rare, especially 
those of an ornamental kind, except in the vicinity of the 
mansions, among which is Caldwell House, at the eastern 
extremity of the parish, a large and elegant modern struc- 
ture, surrounded by a spacious park richly ornamented 
with trees, including some of great stature and beauty. 

Ecclesiastically the parish is in the presbytery of 
Irvine, synod of Glasgow and Ayr, and in the patronage 
of the Earl of Eglinton : the minister's stipend is 
£251. 5. 11., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £130 
per annum. Beith church, commenced in 1807, and 
opened for public worship in 1810, is a plain edifice 
with a tower and clock, and accommodates 1254 per- 
sons; it was erected at a cost of £2790, and the bell, 
which has a very fine tone, was the gift of Robert 
Shedden, Esq., of London, a native of this parish. There 
are places of worship for the United Presbyterian Synod 
and members of the Free Church. The parochial school 
affords instruction in tlie usual branches ; the master has 
a salary of £26, with a substantial dwelling-house, a good 
garden, and the usual fees. There are also schools at 
Hazlehead and other places. A savings' bank was 
formed in 1.S34; and two societies have been partly en- 
dowed, for the relief of the poor. Alexander Montgo- 



BELH 



BELL 



merie, one of the earlier Scottish poets, and of some cele- 
brity, was born in the parish. 

BELHAVEN, a village and watering-place, in the 
parish of Dunbar, county of Haddington, f of a mile 
(\V.) from the town of Dunbar; containing 380 inhabit- 
ants. It is a suburb of Dunbar, pleasantly situated on 
the south-eastern shore of Belhaven bay, which opens 
into the Firth of Forth ; and a strong mineral spring 
draws hither a number of summer visiters. A church 
was opened in 1840, which is now a place of worship in 
connexion with the Free Church. The place gives the title 
of Baron to a branch of the noble family of Hamilton. 

BELHELVIE, a parish, in the district and county of 
Aberdeen, 8 miles (N. by E.) from Aberdeen ; contain- 
ing 1594 inhabitants. The name of this place is derived 
from a word in the Gaelic language, signifying the 
" mouths of the rivulets", the locality being marked by 
the course of several small streams into the sea. Here 
were several Druidical temples, which have now disap- 
peared before the operations of husbandry. Numerous 
tumuli and barrows are still visible, in which urns are 
found, made of coarse clay, and filled with dust and 
human bones, pointing out this spot as the scene of 
some extensive military operations, the particulars of 
which are entirely unknown ; and on the sea-shore is a 
bed of yellow flints, where a considerable number of ar- 
row-heads have been found at different times. A large 
part of the parish, known as the estate of Belhelvie, once 
belonged to the Earl of Panmure, but being forfeited in 
1715, it was purchased by the York Buildings' Company, 
and again sold, in lots, in 1782, before the court of ses- 
sion ; since which time it has been brought into a very 
superior state of agricultural improvement. 

The parish is bounded on the east by the German 
Ocean, and the number of acres within its limits is 
19,000, of which 5000 were recovered not long since 
from moorland, and 5000 still consist of sea-beech, peat- 
bog, and wood. About 4000 acres of the cultivated land 
are in grain crop, and 10,000 in turnip, potatoes, hay, 
pasture, grass, &c. The coast consists of a fine sandy 
beach ; but the general character of the surface, from 
the sea to the western extremity, is hilly and broken. 
The first land from the coast is a narrow belt of sand, 
with short grass suited for pasture : this tract, on ac- 
count of its smooth surface, was selected by the govern- 
ment engineers appointed to measure Scotland, as the 
most level ground to be met with, for laying down a base 
line of five miles and 100 feet. The next tract is an 
alluvial deposit, crowded with marine stones of all sizes, 
covered with mould and moss. After this, the ground 
rises towards the western boundary, until it attains an 
elevation of about 800 feet above the level of the sea. The 
hills whereof the parish consists are formed into two 
general ridges, from south to north, the termination of 
the western extremities of which is the highest land in 
the district. 

The soil in the parts nearest the shore is sandy, and 
in some places mixed to a great extent with clay and 
stones ; some parts are rich alluvial deposits, and the 
interior is a deep clayey mould, mixed sometimes with 
peat-moss : the subsoil is usually clay and sand, with a 
considerable admixture of stones. The wood, which 
generally stands in hedge-rows, has all been recently 
planted ; it comprises chiefly elm, plane, ash, alder, and 
willow. The few sheep that are kept are the black-faced ; 
122 



and the cattle are mostly of the improved Aberdeenshire 
breed, which, being small-boned and fleshy, and easily 
fed up, are found most profitable : the cultivation of 
grain, however, is the main dependence of the farmer. 
Considerable improvements have taken place in hus- 
bandry of late years, in the reclaiming of waste land, in 
draining, and the formation of inclosures ; the farm- 
houses are also on a much better scale than formerly. 
Most of the changes have been made upon the best 
principles, and by the united efforts of the people among 
themselves. The annual value of real property in the 
parish is £7317. 

The rock consists of trap, a seam of which, about half 
a mile broad, runs for seven miles through the parish 
from south-east to north-west ; a rivulet flows through 
this bed, and small hills frequently rise above the stream 
to a height of some hundreds of feet, among which are 
found all the ordinary kinds of minerals. On the south- 
west side of this layer, the rocks are chiefly granite ; on 
the opposite side they consist of coarse stone, fit only for 
the construction of dykes. There are large beds of peat- 
moss, some of which, near the shore, are covered with 
ten or twelve feet of sea-sand. They are supposed to 
extend some distance under the sea, as large masses or 
blocks of hard peat- moss, with the remains of trees em- 
bedded, are frequently cast upon the beach in stormy 
weather : in the year 1799, a block containing upwards 
of 1700 cubic feet was thrown upon the shore, which, 
with the wood contained in it, had been perforated by 
several large auger worms alive in their holes. A sal- 
mon-fishery is carried on along the coast, in which stake- 
nets are employed, and the profits arising from it are 
very considerable. Fairs are held for the sale of cattle, 
in spring, summer, and autumn. 

Ecclesiastically the parish is subject to the presbytery 
and synod of Aberdeen, and is in the patronage of the 
Crown: the minister's stipend is £179- 13., and there 
is a good manse, with a glebe of five acres. The church, 
which is in due repair, contains 519 sittings. There are 
places of worship for the Free Church and United Pres- 
byterian Synod. A parochial school is held on the usual 
footing, the master having a salary of £'27, a house and 
garden, fees to the amount of about £40, and a portion 
of Dick's bequest : the classics and mathematics are 
taught, with all the ordinary branches of education. 
Another school is endowed with a few acres of land. 
There is a savings' bank, with a stock of about £300 ; 
and bequests have been left for the relief of the poor, 
amounting to about £20 per annum. The antiq\iities 
are, some tumuli, and the ruins of an old chapel. There 
are several chalybeate springs, but none of them of par- 
ticular note. 

BELLIE, a parish, in the counties of Banff and 
Elgin, 8 miles (E. by S.) from Elgin ; comprising the vil- 
lage of Fochabers and part of the quoad sacra district of 
Enzie, and containing 2434 inhabitants. By some the 
Gaelic word bellaidth, signifying " broom", has been con- 
sidered as giving name to this place ; but others derive 
the appellati(m from beul-ailh, the meaning of which is 
" the mouth of the ford". The parish is situated on the 
eastern bank of the river Spey, and is bounded on the 
north by the Moray Firth. It is of an oblong form, but 
narrower at the northern than at the opposite end ; and 
comprises 12,048 acres, of which 3658 are arable, 643 
pasture, 2852 wood, and the remainder chiefly moor. 



I 



BELL 



BEND 



The highest land is in the south-eastern portion, consist- 
ing principally of barren uncultivated moor, diversified 
by hills of various figure and altitude ; the soil here is 
partly clayey loam, mixed with moss, and resting on a 
substratum of blue slate. On the west and south of this 
high district is a red impervious clay, intermixed with 
gravel and small stones. The soil near the eastern 
boundary of the parish is sandy and light, and the lower 
lands are of the same nature, approximating in the vici- 
nity of the river to a fertile loam, resting on a stony or 
gravelly bed, once overflowed with water. The tract 
along the coast, about a quarter of a mile wide, is altoge- 
ther barren. All kinds of grain and of green crops are 
raised, of good quality ; and an improved method of 
husbandry has been pursued with considerable enter- 
prise, for a number of years : barley was formerly the 
leading crop, but since the suppression of illicit distilla- 
tion, wheat has been grown in large quantities, and, with 
oats, turnips, and potatoes, receives much attention. The 
manures comprise lime, sea-weed, farm-yard dung, and 
the refuse of herrings obtained from the fishing-station 
of Port-Gordon ; with, sometimes, portions of bone-dust. 
The annual value of real property in the parish is £4802, 
including £617 for the Elginshire portion. 

The principal rock is the red sandstone, consisting of 
a mixture of dark argillaceous and siliceous earths, large 
masses of which are applied to various architectural 
uses ; but though very hard when first quarried, its fri- 
able quality after long exposure to the air renders it ne- 
cessary to cover it with a thick coating of lime. The 
loose strata, of the same component parts, in which it is 
generally found, are much in demand for roads and gar- 
den-walks, and its interior often contains breccia rock. 
Beautiful specimens of asbestos are frequently found, 
washed down, as is supposed, by the mountain streams. 
The scenery is relieved with Scotch fir, and some birch 
and larch. The grounds of the splendid mansion of 
Gordon Castle exhibit a fine display of numerous other • 
trees, among which are many limes, planes, and horse- 
chesnuts, with majestic rows of elm and beech ; and an 
eminence known as the "holly bank" is covered with a 
profusion of that evergreen, of the most luxuriant de- 
scription. The magnificent Castle, the seat of the Duke 
of Richmond, is situated in a spacious park in the imme- 
diate vicinity of Fochabers, and extends in a direction 
from east to west nearly .'j/O feet. It is a modern struc- 
ture, and the roof and interior of the eastern wing are of 
very recent date, having been restored in consequence of 
an accidental fire on the 1 1th of July, 18'27. The great 
road from Edinburgh to Inverness through Aberdeen 
traverses the parish, and crosses the Spey by a bridge 
originally built in 1804, at a cost of upwards of £14,000. 
Two of the western arches of the bridge were carried 
away by the flood of 18'29, and were replaced in 1832 
by a beautiful wooden arch of 184 feet span, raised at an 
expense of more than £5000, for defraying which a pon- 
tage is levied on wheel-carriages, horses, and foot-pas- 
sengers. 

For ecclesiastical purposes the parish is in the pres- 
bytery of Strathbogie, synod of Moray, and in the 
patronage of the Duke of Richmond : the minister's 
stipend is £1.58. 6. 8., of which about £60 are received 
from the exchequer ; with a manse, and a glebe valued 
at £33 per annum. The church is situated in the village 
of Fochabers, and is a handsome edifice, built in 1798. 
123 



There i.s a place of worship for members of the Free 
Church. An episcopal chapel was lately built by the 
Duchess of Gordon, on the north side of Fochabers ; the 
Roman Catholics have a place of worship in that village, 
and another about four miles distant, near the eastern 
boundary, where their clergyman resides. The parochial 
school affords instruction in the classics, in addition to the 
usual branches : the master has a salary of £34. 4. 4., with 
a house and garden given by the Gordon family, and £18 
fees ; he also participates in the Dick bequest. A legacy 
of 100,000 dollars was left by Mr. Alexander Milne, mer- 
chant of New Orleans, and a native of Fochabers, who 
died in October 1839, for the erection and endowment 
of a free school for the parish of Bcllie : a great part of 
this money has been realized, and a body of directors, 
incorporated by act of parliament, have established a free 
school. To the north of Gordon Castle are the remains 
of a military station of quadrangular form, styled the 
" Roman Camp", thought to have been formed by a por- 
tion of the troops of Agricola, and intended to cover a 
ford on the river Tuessis, or Spey. A little to the east 
are the remains of a Druidical temple ; and not far off, 
a mound called the " Court hillock", supposed to have 
been the seat of an ancient court of justice. Within the 
Duke of Richmond's park is an old cross, around which 
the village of Fochabers stood, until the latter was re- 
moved to its present situation by Alexander, fourth Duke 
of Gordon. — See Fochabers. 

BELLS-QUARRY, a village, in the parish of Mid 
Calder, county of Edinburgh, 2 miles (W.) from Mid 
Calder ; containing 120 inhabitants. 

BELLSHILL, a village, in the parish of Bothwell, 
Middle ward of the county of Lanark, 1^ mile (E.) 
from Bothwell; containing 1013 inhabitants. It lies 
on the great road from Edinburgh to Glasgow, and the 
hill from which it is named attains an elevation of 372 
feet above the sea. The population partake in the manu- 
factures of the parish. There is a post-office ; also a 
United Presbyterian meeting-house, and two schools. 

BELLSTOWN, a hamlet, in the parish of Methven, 
county of Perth ; containing 25 inhabitants. 

BELLYCLONE,a hamlet, in the parish of Maderty, 
county of Perth ; containing 69 inhabitants. It is 
situated a little east of the road from Foulis to Auchter- 
arder, and on the south side of the small river Pow. 

BENBECULA, an island, in the parish of South 
UisT, county of Inverness; containing 2107 inhabit- 
ants. It lies between the islands of North and South 
Uist, from the latter of which it is separated by a narrow- 
channel, nearly dry at low water. Benbecula is a low 
island, about nine miles in length and the same in 
breadth, with a sandy and unproductive soil, except on 
its western side, which is rather fertile. The coast all 
round is indented with bays, and in the interior are nu- 
merous fresh-water lakes : a great quantity of sea-weed 
is thrown on the shore, from which kelp is made. A 
missionary here has a stipend of £60, with an allowance 
of £20 more in lieu of a manse. There were formerly 
some remains of a nunnery, tlie stone of which has been 
used in the erection of a mansion. 

BENDOCHY, a parish, in the county of Perth, 
2 miles (N.) from Cupar-Angus ; containing 783 inha- 
bitants. This place, previously to the Reformation, be- 
longed principally to the monks of the Cistercian abbey 
at Cupar-Angus, and till that time the church was the 

R2 



BEND 



B E NH 



parish church of Cupar- Ann;us ; but after the dissolution 
of monasteries the lands were sold, and the resident 
tenants generally became the purchasers. Many of 
these lands still retain their ancient names, as Monk- 
Mire ; Monk-Callie ; and the Abbey Mill of Blacklaw, to 
which the adjacent estates were bound in thirlage, from 
which the proprietors lately obtained their exemption 
by the payment of large sums of money. At Monk- 
Callie formerly existed a small cell, the cemetery of 
which is still used as a burying-ground ; and there are 
yet to be traced the foundations of an ancient chapel 
dedicated to St. Phink. The parish, which is situated 
near the eastern extremity of the county, is bounded on 
the south by the river Isla, and the lower lands are in- 
tersected by the river Ericht, which divides them into 
two nearly equal parts. The Isla and the Ericht both 
have their source in the Grampian range : the former, 
after a south-eastern course of several miles, entering 
Perthshire, deviates to the south-west, and falls into the 
Tay at Kinclaven ; and the Ericht, which consists of the 
united streams of the Blackwater and the Ardle, forms 
a confluence with the Isla. The northern extremity of 
the parish is as much as twelve miles distant from the 
southern ; but the surface is divided into detached por- 
tions by the intervention of the parishes of Rattray and 
Blairgowrie, which separate the highland from the low- 
land districts ; and the whole area is not more than 
10,000 acres, of which 5145 are arable, 2963 meadow and 
pasture, and 9S6 woodland and plantations. 

The soil, in the lower lands, is rich, and the system of 
agriculture in a highly improved state ; the chief crops 
are wheat, barley, and oats, with potatoes and turnips. 
The introduction of bone-dust, and more lately of guano, 
for manure, has tended greatly to the improvement of 
the lands ; furrow-draining has been extensively prac- 
tised, and by the construction of embankments near the 
Isla and the Ericht, 500 acres of most valuable land 
have been protected from the floods of these rivers. No ■ 
sheep are reared in the parish, but considerable numbers 
are bought in October, and fed upon the turnips. The 
cattle are of the Teeswater and Angus breeds in the 
lower parts of the parish, and in the uplands chiefly of 
the Highland breed : great numbers of cattle are stall- 
fed, chiefly on potatoes, for the shambles. There are 
salmon-fisheries on the Isla and Ericht, but they are 
not rented at more than £20 per annum. The annual 
value of real property in the parish is £6951. The sub- 
stratum of the lowerdistricts affords a supply of freestone, 
several quarries being in operation ; and there is a bed 
of clay-slate crossing the highland portion of the parish, 
which might perhaps be profitably wrought. A mill 
was erected at Cupar-G range, by Mr. Archer, about the 
year 1840, for extracting the farina of potatoes; and 
the flour thus obtained is of excellent quality. The 
turnpike-roads from Cupar-Angus and from the Bridge 
of Cally to Blairgowrie pass through the parish, and an 
omnibus runs daily to the railway at Cupar-Angus. 
For ecclesiastical purposes, Bendochy is within the 
bounds of the presbytery of Meigle and synod of Angus 
and Mearns : the minister's stipend is about £250, with 
a manse, and a glebe valued at £14 per annum ; patron, 
the Crown. The church is a very ancient structure, 
containing a monument to Nicol Campbell, of Keithick, 
son of Donald, abbot of Cupar-Angus ; a curiously 
carved pulpit, and various antique relics : it was re- 
124 



paired in 1843, and has 400 sittings. The parochial 
school is well conducted ; the master has a salary of £34. 
4. 4., with a house and garden, and other emoluments 
to the extent of £15 per annum. The late Principal 
Playfair, of St. Andrew's, author of a work on chronology, 
was a native of this parish. — See Persie. 

BEXHOLME, a parish, in the county of Kincar- 
dine, three miles (S. W.) from Bervie, and on the road 
from Aberdeen to Dundee ; containing, with the village 
of Johnshaven, 1648 inhabitants. The name is derived 
from ben, a hill, and holme, a piece of low level ground ; 
terms which are descriptive of the peculiar features of 
the district. Very little is known concerning the early 
history of the locality. It appears that the ancient 
Tower of Benholme, a strong building still in a good 
state of preservation, was formerly the residence of the 
earls-marischal, memorials of whom remain in inscrip- 
tions upon two monuments transferred from the burying- 
aisle of the old church, and now forming part of the 
wall of the present edifice. The parish is nearly square 
in form, and contains about 5400 acres, of which upwards 
of 4000 are under cultivation, and 325 in wood. It is 
bounded on the south-east by the German Ocean, and 
the surface is considerably varied, though there is no 
elevation deserving the name of a hill, except that of 
Gourdon, which rises to a height of 400 feet at the 
boundary between Benholme and Bervie. The shore is 
about three miles in length, and along it is a plain 
extending the whole distance, and varying in breadth 
from 100 yards to a quarter of a mile. Beyond is an 
acclivity of equal extent, the surface of which is furrowed 
in many places with lofty ridges ; and from this the 
ground gently rises till it reaches the high lands of 
Garvock, on the western boundary of the parish. The 
coast, which in general is rough and cragged, has 
neither cliffs nor headlands, and is altogether barren 
and uninteresting in its aspect ; it is indented with the 
small bay of Johnshaven, and that of the Haughs of 
Nether Benholme. There are three small streams in the 
parish, two of which meet a little below the church, at 
the corner of the manse garden, and after running about 
a quarter of a mile, fall into the German Ocean. These 
rivulets, during heavy rains, frequently swell to a con- 
siderable size, and, augmented by the waters from the 
drainage of the lands, overflow the banks of the deep 
and narrow hollows through which they flosv, and commit 
great havoc upon the neighbouring grounds. 

There is every variety of soil, from fine soft loam to 
wet heavy clay, the latter of which predominates. In 
some places the earth is light and sandy, and consists 
to a very considerable extent of a deep alluvial deposit, 
intermixed with boulders of different sizes, some of 
quartz, some of granite, others of greywacke, and a few 
of trap, and which are scattered in great quantities over 
the fields. Most of the plantations are of recent growth, 
except those about Benholme and Brotherton : they con- 
sist chiefly of fir, ash, beech, and oak ; but the trees 
invariably pine and become stunted in growth when 
within the range of the sea-breeze, those only exhibiting 
a tolerably healthy appearance which are further re- 
moved and under some protecting cover. The state of 
husbandry is excellent : the lands are well drained, and 
many of the farms are provided with threshing-machines, 
more than half of which are driven by water; the farm- 
buildings are generally good, and much spirit and enter- 



BERN 



BERT 



prise have been shewn within the last twenty or thirty 
years in recovering desolate wastes. The annual value 
of real property in the parish is £5501. The prevailing 
rock is the old red sandstone and conglomerate, the 
strata of which are intersected from east to west with 
dykes of trap; these rocks are diversified by almost 
every variety of quality and intermixture, and in the 
trap formation agates have been found in different parts 
of the parish. There is a considerable quarry of sand- 
stone on the farm of Forth, upon the Brotherton estate, 
on the western boundary of the parish. The seats are, 
the mansion-house of Benholme, the entrance to which, 
in the direction of Benholme Tower, is by a passage 
formed over the moat on the west of that ancient struc- 
ture ; and Brotherton House, a very ancient edifice, with 
a terraced garden. The linen manufacture employs 
about 230 hands ; and there is a fishery, the produce of 
which, consisting of cod, haddocks, and turbot, with a 
few small fish, is cured, and sent to Laurencekirk, For- 
doun, 8cc., and sometimes to Montrose. Herrings are 
also taken ; and salmon are caught with tolerable success 
by means of bag-nets, the shore being too rocky to allow 
of the use of stake-nets. 

Ecclesiastically the parish is within the bounds of the 
presbytery of Fordoun, synod of Angus and Mearns. 
The patronage belongs to the family of Scott of Brother- 
ton, and Lord Cranstoun, proprietor of Benholme, the 
former for two turns, and the latter for one : the stipend 
of the minister is £232. 4., with a manse, built in 1826, 
and a glebe of six acres, valued at £12. 10. per annum. 
Benholme church, built in 1832, is a neat edifice in good 
repair, accommodating 768 persons : the old church, 
which was taken down in 1832, was furnished with a 
font for holy water, an incense altar, and a niche in the 
wall, supposed to have been a receptacle for sacred 
relics ; and there are several curious inscriptions on the 
stones yet preserved, one of which points to this edifice 
as the burying-place of the Keith family. Here are 
places of worship belonging to the Free Church and 
United Presbyterian Synod. The parochial school affords 
instruction in Latin and the usual branches of education, 
under a master who has a salary of £34. 4. 4., with £22 
fees. A parish library consisting of 500 volumes, and 
a juvenile library with 400, are extensively used by the 
inhabitants. There are also two friendly societies, one 
of which has a stock of £600 ; and a clothing and fuel 
society has been established. 

BENNETSTONE, a village, in the parish of Pol- 
MONT, county of Stirling; containing 642 inhabitants. 
It is situated a few miles east of Falkirk, and the popula- 
tion consists chiefly of labourers and a few artisans. In 
a schoolroom in the village, divine service is occa- 
sionally performed by various ministers of dissenting con- 
gregations. 

BENVIE, a village, in the parish of Liff and Ben- 
vie, county of Forfar, 5 miles (W. by N.) from Dun- 
dee ; containing 60 inhabitants. It is situated near the 
borders of Perthshire, which bounds the parish on the 
east. About a mile from the present church are the 
ruins of the old church of Benvie ; and near the village 
is a strong chalybeate spring. 

BERNERA, an island, in the parish of Barra, 

county of Inverness ; containing 30 inhabitants. It 

is one of the Hebrides, and the most southern of the 

whole range of these islands. Bernera is about one 

125 



mile in length, and three-quarters of a mile in breadth. 
From its being also called the Bishop's Isle, it seems to 
have belonged to the Bishop of the Isles ; and it is said 
to have previously been a sanctuary of the Druids. The 
soil is fertile, and in the centre is a fresh-water lake, 
diversified with small islets ; towards the south the 
rocks are rugged and precipitous, and on this side is a 
point of land called Barra Head. 

BERNERA, an island, in the parish of Harris, 
island of Lewis, county of Inverness; containing 713 
inhabitants. This isle, with the isles of Pabbay, Killi- 
gray, and Ensay, constituted the quoad sacra parish of 
Bernera. It is situated in the sound of Harris, and is 
about four miles in length and one and a half in breadth, 
comprising 3545 acres of arable and 1310 of pasture 
land. The surface is rocky, principally whinstone, and 
the soil mostly of a sandy quality, interspersed with 
patches of moor ; the tenants have a small portion of 
ground called a croft, and two tenants have each about 
330 acres. The manufacture of kelp partly employs the 
population ; and fish, chiefly ling, cod, and skate, are 
obtained at certain seasons. Fairs for black-cattle and 
horses take place in July and September. The parish 
was in the presbytery of Uist, synod of Glenelg, and in 
the patronage of the Crown ; the stipend of the minister 
is £120, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £1 per 
annum, with the right of cutting peat. Bernera church 
was erected in 1S3S. There are some remains of reli- 
gious houses on the island. 

BERNERA, GREAT and LITTLE, two islands, in 
the parish of UtG, island of Lewis, county of Ross and 
Cromarty. These islands are situated in Loch Roag, 
and off the western coast of the island of Lewis ; the 
first is about twelve miles long and four broad, and the 
other four miles in length and one in breadth. They 
are two of a large group of islands in an arm of the sea 
which here indents the main land of Lewis. Great 
Bernera abounds with lakes, and has a considerable 
portion of fertile land ; it contains a tolerably entire 
circle of large upright stones, only paralleled by those 
of Stouehenge and Stenhouse, and supposed to be of 
Druidic origin. Little Bernera, in which is a fresh- water 
lake, is covered with pasture. 

BERRIEDALE, for a time a quoad sacra parish, in 
the parish of Latheron, county of Caithness, 27 miles 
(S. E.) from Wick ; containing 1750 inhabitants. This 
district, which lies on the coast, between the Ord of 
Caithness and the harbour of Dunbeath, was separated 
from Latheron in 1833. The church, which is close to 
the sea-shore, was erected by government in 1826, at 
an expense of £"50 ; it is a neat structure, containing 
312 sittings. The minister has a stipend of £120, paid 
by government, with a manse and small glebe provided 
by the late, and continued by the present, Mr. Home, 
proprietor of Langwell. About three miles from Berrie- 
dale is a small place of worship for members of the Free 
Church. A parochial school in connexion with this 
district has been built at Dunbeath by William Sinclair, 
Esq., of Freswick, at an expense of £300 ; and there are 
also a school supported by the General Assembly, and a 
Sabbath school. The place gives the title of Baron to 
the Earl of Caithness. 

BERTIIAM-SHOTTS, or SHOTTS, a parish, in the 
Middle ward of the county of Lanark ; including the 
villages of Harthill, Omoa-New-Town, Sallysburgh, and 



BERT 



BERT 



Shotts-Iron- Works ; and containing 3861 inhabitants, of 
whom 751 are in the village of Shotts-Iron- Works, 5 
miles (E. by S.) from Holytown. This place is generally 
supposed to have derived its name from a famous robber 
called Bartram de Shotts, who in ancient times sig- 
nalized himself by his depredations, and was eventually 
killed near the site of the present church. The whole 
of this extensive parish, except Blair-mucks and Mur- 
dostown, belonged to the Hamilton family from the 
year 13/8 to the year 1630, when the Marquess of 
Hamilton disposed of the larger part of the barony. 
Not far from the mansion of Murdostown stood the 
abbey of St. Bertram ; but no portion of this ancient 
establishment is now to be seen. The parish, which was 
formerly part of that of Bothwell, is nearly a parallelo- 
gram in form, and is ten miles long and eight broad, 
containing 25,434 acres. It is bounded on the north by 
the North Calder, which separates it from East Monk- 
land and Torphichen ; and on the south by the South 
Calder, which divides it from the parish of Cambus- 
nethan. The surface is in general tolerably level, but in 
the middle quarter it is diversified by elevations, among 
which are the Hirst, the Tilling, and the Cant hills. 
The climate is more than ordinarily salubrious, which in- 
duced the celebrated Dr. CuUen, who commenced prac- 
tice iu the parish, to say, that Bertram- Shotts was the 
Montpelier of Scotland. The rivers connected with the 
district are the North and the South Calder, with a few 
small burns not of sufficient importance to demand notice. 
There is a loch called the Lily, iu which common trout 
and an excellent species of red char are found. 

The SOIL is for the most part clayey; on the banks 
of the rivers a loamy soil prevails. Nearly two-thirds 
of the land are arable ; and the rest, with the exception 
of a small proportion of wood and common, is unshel- 
tered moor, annually covered with the blossom of the 
heather-bell. About 1000 acres are in wood, consisting 
of Scotch fir, spruce, and larch, all of which thrive well : 
formerly the Scotch fir was the only kind attended to. 
The cows are in great repute for the superiority of the 
stock, the improvement of which has been promoted by 
the establishment of an agricultural society ; and the 
horses, which are of the Clydesdale breed, are famed for 
their strength and symmetry. Every kind of farming- 
stock has been greatly improved within the last thirty 
or forty years ; and much waste land has been reclaimed 
by means of draining and digging, for which two prizes 
were some time since awarded to two gentlemen in the 
parish by the Highland Society of Scotland. The state 
of the farm-houses is generally below that of buildings 
of this class in parishes where agricultural improvement 
has made much progress, but they are far better than 
formerly, and are undergoing a gradual change, several 
of them now being equal to almost any in Scotland. 
The annual value of real property in the parish is 
£19,910. The parish forms a portion of the great coal- 
field of Lanarkshire, and its carboniferous and miuera- 
logical productions are extensive and various, the two 
grand general divisions of its subterraneous contents 
being the igneous and the sedimentary rocks. The 
northern half of the land consists almost entirely of the 
trap, or common greenstone ; the other half is the coal- 
bed, which consists of the splint coal, the parrot or 
cannel coal, the smithy coal, and the Shotts- Iron- Works 
first and second coal. In some parts is a very fine iron- 
126 



stone, above the coal, and in others, a considerable 
quantity of hmestone, lying at a great depth beneath the 
coal, with a succession of 14" ditfereut strata between 
them. There is an abundant supply of fire-clay of 
various kinds in the carboniferous division of the parish, 
lying over the coal, and large quantities of it are used 
for making bricks for blast and air furnaces ; one of the 
strata has been wrought for a considerable period, and 
is several feet in thickness, though the portion which is 
worked, in the middle of the stratum, is not more than 
about three feet deep. 

The parish contains two iron-works, one of which, in 
the south-eastern quarter, designated Shotts- Works, is 
not only adapted for the smelting of iron-ore, for which 
there are three furnaces, but has connected with it an 
extensive foundry, and a large establishment where 
steam-engines of a superior kind for both land and 
water are constructed. At the other establishment, 
called the Omoa Iron- Works, situated in the south-west 
part of the parish, three furnaces are also in effective 
operation. These works, which together employ about 
1400 or 1500 persons, have contributed to a large in- 
crease in the population ; and by the circulation of several 
hundreds of pounds weekly in the form of wages, great 
changes and improvements have taken place in the 
general appearance of the neighbourhood, particularly 
through the formation of roads and the cultivation of 
the land. Among the principal residences are, Murdos- 
town House, belonging to Sir T. Inghs Cochrane ; Eas- 
ter Moffat, a handsome modem edifice in the Elizabethan 
style ; Shotts House ; Craighead House, belonging to 
D. C. R. C. Buchanan, Esq. ; and Fortissat. Sub-post- 
offices have been established at the villages of Sallys- 
burgh and Shotts-Works. There are annual fairs, chiefly 
for the sale of horses and cattle, on the third Tuesday 
in June and November (O. S.), both of ancient date, 
being held by a warrant granted by James II. in 1685 
to the Duke of Hamilton. The parish is intersected in 
the centre by the south road from Edinburgh to Glas- 
gow, the most ancient road between those two cities. 

For ecclesiastical purposes, Shotts is within the bounds 
of the presbytery of Hamilton, synod of Glasgow and 
Ayr. The patronage belongs to the Duke of Hamilton, 
and the minister's stipend is £267. 11-, with a substan- 
tial and commodious manse built in 1838, and a glebe 
of nearly forty-four acres, in which are two seams of 
coal. The church, the position of which is central, 
occupies an elevated site; it was built in 1820, and has 
1200 free sittings. There is a place of worship be- 
longing to the United Original Seceders. The parochial 
school affords instruction in the classics, with the usual 
branches of education ; the master has a salary of £34. 
4. 4., about £28 fees, and a house. Belonging to the 
Shotts iron-works is also a school. Another, called 
Murdostown school, has an endowment of £19 per 
annum, assigned by Sir Thomas Inglis ; Harthill school 
was endowed by tlie late James Wilson, Esq., with £500, 
and another is supported by Mrs. Robert Haldane. 
There are two circulating libraries, in one of which, at 
the Shotts works, the collection of books is very supe- 
rior ; and the poor have the benefit of a bequest of 
£500, left by Thomas Mitchell, a native of the place. 
Gavin Hamilton, the historical painter ; John Miller, 
professor of law in the University of Glasgow, well known 
to the literary world by several learned publications. 



k 



B E 11 V 



B ER V 




Burgh Seal. 



and who was buried at Blantyre, not far from Shotts ; 
and Dr. Matthew BaiUie, physician to George III., and 
brother of Joanna BailUe the authoress, were all natives 
of the parish. The Rev. James Baillie, father of Dr. 
Matthew Baillie, was minister of Shotts. 

BERVIE, or INVER- 
BERVIE, a royal burgh, and 
a parish, in the county of 
Kincardine, .S'^^ miles (N. 
N. E.) from Edinburgh ; con- 
taining, with the village of 
Gourdon, 134'2 inhabitants. 
This place is named from 
the small river Bervie, on its 
north-eastern boundary, and 
the stream is so called from 
an ancient British word sig- 
nifying a boiling or ebullition, 
and descriptive of the peculiar course of the water. The 
town appears to have been of importance in early times, 
and to have attracted some attention. The fine old 
castle of Hallgreen, which is romantically situated on 
the shore, a little to the south of the town, and has been 
recently repaired with due attention to its original style, 
has a date on the west front, which, though partially 
effaced, is traced to the year 13*6. The walls of this 
building are massive, and perforated with arrows ; and 
it seems to have been formerly surrounded by a moat, 
with a drawbridge and a portcullis near the outer gate 
of the court. Above one of the doors in the court, the 
date of 1687, with the initials of the proprietor of that 
period, is still visible. In one of the principal rooms, 
on the stucco ceiling, is a coat of arms, with the motto 
spero meliora, and the date 1683 ; and on the old wain- 
scots are some Dutch paintings, consisting of two land- 
scapes and a flower-piece. A spacious mansion indi- 
cating, like the castle, the ancient residence of important 
personages, and which is said to have belonged originally 
to the Marischals, and was recently in the possession of 
the noble family of Arbuthnott, was removed about 
twenty or thirty years since, to make way for improve- 
ments of building and agriculture j and several other 
old buildings are still pointed out as having been the 
town residences of neighbouring lairds. There was also, 
in former times, a religious establishment of White 
friars j and the discovery of some graves, in the con- 
struction of a turnpike-road, near a place called Friar's 
Dubbs, is supposed to mark the spot where this mo- 
nastic order had a burying-ground. 

At the time of the Rebellion in 1*4.5, the troops of 
the Duke of Cumberland, suspecting that the inhabitants 
of the neighbouring parish of Benholme had transported 
provisions, by means of the Bervie boats, for the use of 
the Pretender's troops who were passing by sea, began 
to destroy and plunder the village of Johnshaven, in 
Benholme jjarish, and to burn the boats of the Bervie 
fishermen. The minister of Bervie, Mr. Dow, upon 
hearing of this, repaired to the bridge of Benholme, 
three miles distant, where he met the army, headed by 
the royal suite, and so satisfied the duke of the loyalty 
of his parishioners, that his royal highness went with 
the minister to his house, and became his guest for the 
night. An unusual occurrence took place here in the 
year 1800, when a French privateer made its appearance 
off the coast, and pursued several merchant vessels, 
127 



which were compelled to take shelter in the port of 
Gourdon. A small body of volunteers belonging to the 
place were immediately assembled, and marched down 
to the beach in two divisions, to face the enemy ; and 
one party, stationed among the rocks on the shore, 
exchanged several rounds of musketry with the guns 
of the sloop ; upon which the crew, suspecting that a 
battery was about to be opened upon them by the other 
division, who had proceeded in the direction of the old 
castle of Hallgreen, crowded sail and made off. 

The TOWN is situated at the eastern extremity of the 
parish, near the small bay of Bervie, on the shore of the 
German Ocean. The approach on the north-east is by 
an elegant bridge over the river Bervie, of one arch, the 
height of which from the stream is about eighty feet. A 
meal and barley mill stands on the haugh below the 
bridge, and near it a small spinning-mill ; on the upper 
side of the bridge is a spinning-mill of three stories, 
the first that was erected in Scotland for yarn and 
thread. At the north entrance to the burgh stands 
the head inn, commanding a fine view of the scenery 
above the bridge, the remote distance being adorned 
by the old castle of Allardice, with its trees and shrub- 
bery, in the parish of Arbuthnott. Water of the best 
description, from springs in the parish, is conveyed into 
the town by leaden pipes, and deposited in reservoirs of 
metal for general use. The chief manufacture is that of 
the hnens usually called duck and dowlas, which is 
carried on to a considerable extent through the medium 
of agents, who superintend for merchants in Aberdeen, 
Dundee, and Arbroath. A kelp manufacture existed for 
some time ; but, like most others of the same descrip- 
tion, it was given up when the duty was taken off foreign 
barilla. The small port and fishing-village of Gourdon, 
upwards of a mile distant, but within the parish, is a 
place of some trade : vessels, however, are not chartered 
here, but have to clear out at the custom-house in 
Montrose. Two shipping companies are connected w-ith 
the place, and vessels frequently come in with coal, lime, 
pavement, wood, tiles, slates, and sometimes Orkney 
and Shetland cattle and ponies ; and in return take 
ballast or grain, grain being the only article exported 
from Gourdon. 

The principal fisheries are of salmon, cod and ling, 
and haddock. The first of these is carried on in the 
bay, commencing on the 2nd of February, and ending 
on the 14th of September ; and the fish taken are consi- 
dered of superior quality. The cod and ling fishery 
begins on the 1st of October, and ends on July 15th : 
about 300 cwt. are shipped every year, at Montrose, for 
the London market. The haddocks which are caught 
are dried and smoked, and consigned by a company 
established here, to dealers in Glasgow and London, 
with whom an extensive traffic is maintained. Six boats 
are also engaged in a turbot and skate fishery, which 
begins on the 1st of May, and ends on the l.'ith of July. 
A herring-fishery formerly carried on was some time 
since broken up, in consequence of the shore being de- 
serted by the fish. Crabs and lobsters are taken in 
great numbers among the rocks near the bay, and there 
is a good supply of shrimps on the sands. 

A market for corn was established a few years ago, 
which commences at the close of harvest, and is open 
every Wednesday afterwards for six months. It is in a 
very flourishing state, being frequented by corn-mer- 



B E R V 



BER V 



chants from Montrose, Brechin, and Stonehaven, and 
by farmers and millers from all the neighbouring pa- 
rishes. About 40,000 quarters of grain are purchased 
yearly, and the greater part of it shipped at Gourdon. 
Two fairs have long been held annually for the sale of 
cattle, one on the Thursday before the 19th of May, 
and the other on the Thursday before the 19th of Sep- 
tember. In 1834 three additional markets were esta- 
blished, for the hiring of servants and the sale of cattle : 
that for cattle in general, and for hiring servants, is on 
the Wednesday before the '2'2nd of November, and those 
for fat and other cattle are on the Wednesday before 
Christmas (O. S.), and the Wednesday before the 13th 
of February. The Aberdeen turnpike-road runs directly 
across the parish, and affords considerable facility of in- 
tercourse. 

Bervie was erected into a royal burgh in 136*2, by 
charter from King David II., who, having been forced 
by stress of weather to land on a rock in the parish of 
Kinneff, still called Craig-David,vvas received by the inha- 
bitants of Bervie with so much kindness and hospitality 
that he raised the town to the dignity of a royal burgh 
as a mark of his gratitude and esteem. In the year 
1595, James VI. renewed the charter, and confirmed 
the privileges before granted. The public property is 
distinctly marked out by the charter, comprehending 
nearly the whole extent of the parish ; but the lands 
now belonging to the town consist only of a piece of 
moor, a few acres of haugh ground, and a range of braes 
about a mile in extent: the revenue is about £1'20 a 
year. The burgh is governed by a provost, three bailies, 
a dean of guild, nine councillors, a treasurer, and a 
clerk ; and, with Montrose, Brechin, Arbroath, and 
Forfar, returns a member to parliament. The town-hall 
is an edifice of two stories, the upper of which consists 
of a hall and council-room, and the lower contains the 
flesh and meal market, with a small arched vault for the 
confinement of prisoners, which is very deficient as a 
place of security. On the top of the building is a hand- 
some belfry, with a bell which is rung four times every 
day. Near the town-hall is a market-cross of great an- 
tiquity, formed of a column of stone that measures 
about fourteen feet high, with a ball on the summit, and 
a flight of steps surrounding the base. 

The PARISH, which was formerly joined to that of 
Kinneff, but was separated from it about the time of the 
Reformation, is of quadrilateral figure, and contains 
about 1800 acres, of which 1'2'2'2 are under cultivation, 
about 70 planted, and 500 acres waste. It is bounded 
on the south-east by the German Ocean, and embraces 
about a mile and a half of coast, which, with the excep- 
tion of the part near the town, is covered with rocks, 
mostly hidden at high water. The craig where King 
David landed, also called Bervie Brow, bordering on the 
parish, is a conspicuous landmark for mariners ; and 
Gourdon Hill, in the parish, is also seen at a great dis- 
tance. The interior of the parish is consideraljly diver- 
sified in its surface, rising gradually from east to west, 
and being marked by two ranges of hills parallel to each 
other. The ground is flat near the southern and eastern 
boundaries, but the vicinity of the latter is ornamented 
with a small fertile valley, through which the water of 
Bervie (well stocked with trout) runs to the sea, and on 
each side of which the land is elevated and varied. The 
streams are, the Bervie, which rises in the Grampians, 
128 



and falls into the sea at the eastern extremity of the dis- 
trict ; and the burn of Peattie, which runs from the 
north-east boundary into the Bervie, and, though small, 
is of very considerable benefit to the tenants through 
whose farms it pursues its course. 

The soil in the lower lands is a deep fertile loam, 
resting on a gravelly subsoil ; the haugh lands adjoining 
the sea consist of black earth, mixed with large quanti- 
ties of pebbles, upon which they are said to be dependent 
for their great fertility. In the upper district of the pa- 
rish, some of the land is a stnmg soil, upon a clay bot- 
tom ; but on the surface in the highest part, which 
reaches an elevation of about 400 feet, very little earth 
is to be seen, the ground chiefly consisting of naked 
rock. AH kinds of corn and green crops are produced, 
of excellent quality ; the plantations are flourishing, 
though of recent growth, and comprise every variety of 
trees usually to be met with. The system of husbandry 
is of the most approved kind, and the highest state of 
cultivation is indicated by the abundance and quality of 
the produce. Improvements have been carried on to a 
considerable extent within the last few years, especially 
in draining and reclaiming waste land ; and the farm- 
houses and offices, which are roofed with slate or tiles, 
are in good condition. The annual value of real property 
in the parish is £3344. The predominating rock is 
sandstone, which in some places is marked by veins of 
trap, between one and two feet in thickness. Boulders 
of quartz, granite, mica-slate, gneiss, &c., are to be seen 
upon the shore, and near the village of Gourdon the 
beach consists of masses of small pebbles of jasper, por- 
phyry, slate, and agate, of the last of which beautiful 
specimens are sometimes found among the loose soil on 
the higher grounds, as well as on the beach. Several 
quarries of sandstone are wrought in the parish, supply- 
ing an excellent material, of which the church and most 
of the new buildings in this and the neighbouring parishes 
were constructed. 

For ECCLESIASTICAL purposcs the parish is within the 
bounds of the presbytery of Fordoun, synod of Angus 
and Mearns ; the patronage belongs to the Crown, and 
the minister's stipend is £141. 12., with a manse, and a 
glebe worth £18 per annum. Bervie church, which was 
opened on the 1st of January, 1837, and contains 900 
sittings, is an elegant structure, with a square tower more 
than 100 feet in height, ornamented with carved minarets. 
The site, which is gently elevated, at a small distance 
from the street, is highly advantageous ; and the main 
entrance and imposing outer gate heighten the general 
effect of an object that has greatly contributed to improve 
the aspect of the town. There are places of worship 
belonging to the Free Church and the Independents. 
The parochial school affords instruction in the classics, 
mathematics, and the usual branches of education ; the 
master has a salary of £29. 18. 9., with an allowance of 
£2. 2. 9. in lieu of a garden, and between £15 and £20 
fees. A bequest of £500 was left to the poor, who re- 
ceive the interest, by the late James Farquhar, Esq., of 
Hallgreen. The burgh confers the title of Baron on Lord 
Viscount Arbuthnott, whose ancestor Sir Robert Arbuth- 
nott was knighted for his faithful adhesion to the for- 
tunes of Charles I., and was afterwards raised to the 
peerage by the style of Baron Inverbervie and Viscount 
Arbuthnott, Nov. I6th, 1641 : he died in 1655. The 
present peer is the eighth viscount. 



B E R W 



B E RW 




Biirsh Seal. 



BERWICK, NORTH, a 

burgh, market-town, and pa- 
rish, in the county of Had- 
dington, 10 miles (N. by E.) 
from Haddington, and '2'i 
(N. E. by E.) from Edin- 
I burgh ; containing I7O8 in- 
habitants, of whom 102s are 
in the town. It derives its 
name of Berwick from its 
situation at the mouth of the 
Firth of Forth ; and though 
its origin is involved in ob- 
scurity, the manor appears to have belonged to the Earls 
of Fife, in whose possession it remained till near the 
close of the fourteenth century, and of whom Duncan, 
who died in the year 1154, founded a convent here for 
sisters of the Cistercian order. This establishment was 
amply endowed by the founder, and by numerous other 
benefactors, with lands in the counties of Berwick, Rox- 
burgh, Edinburgh, and West Lothian ; and continued to 
flourish till the Reformation, when the site and revenues 
were conferred by James VI. on Sir Alexander Home, of 
North Berwick. After the death of Isabel, the last 
Countess of Fife, the manor passed into the possession 
of William, Earl of Douglas, who in 13*3 obtained from 
Robert II. a charter constituting this place a royal burgh, 
with the privileges of a market and port, a custom-house, 
and other advantages. In 1455, the manor became for- 
feited to the crown, on the attainder of James, Earl of 
Douglas ; but it was restored by James III. to Archibald, 
Earl of Angus, the heir male of the Douglas family, and 
erected into a free barony in his favour. After the grant 
of the monastery and part of its lands to Sir Alexander 
Home by James VI., the barony, on the failure of that 
family, passed into other hands, and in 1640 was con- 
firmed by act of parliament to Sir William Dick, from 
whom it passed to Sir Hew Dalrymple, president of the 
court of session, and ancestor of the present proprietor. 
The TOWN is advantageously situated on the south 
side of the Firth of Forth, near its junction with the sea, 
and consists principally of two streets. One of these is 
of considerable length, extending from east to west, and 
is intersected near its eastern extremity by the other, a 
shorter street, which is continued to the harbour. The 
bouses in the first are irregularly built, and many of 
them of antique appearance, while those in the other 
street are of a superior class, and mostly inhabited by 
the gentry and more opulent families. On both sides of 
the latter street are rows of trees, giving it a pleasant 
and cheerful appearance ; and the scenery surrounding 
the town combines many interesting and picturesque 
features. A subscription library has been established, 
which is well supported, and contains a good collection; 
and a branch of the East Lothian Itinerating Library is 
also stationed here. The waste or common lauds on the 
west of the town are much frequented by the members of 
a golf clnb, who hold meetings for the celebration of that 
game, which is also the favourite amusement of the in- 
habitants. The only manufactory is a foundry for the 
construction of steam-engines, machines for making tiles 
for draining, and other articles. The trade of the i-ort 
consists mainly in the exportation of agricultural pro- 
duce and of lime, chiefly for the Newcastle and London 
markets ; and the importation of coal, rape and oil cake. 
Vol. L— 129 



and crushed bones for manure : the exportation of grain 
and lime has materially decreased, but that of potatoes 
very much increased, within the last few years. There 
are four vessels registered as belonging to the port, of 
the aggregate burthen of 273 tons. The harbour is spa- 
cious and secure ; it is dry at low water, but is commo- 
dious, and several sums have been expended on its im- 
provement. Fishing is pursued on a limited scale. The 
market is chiefly for the supply of the town and neigh- 
bourhood : fairs are held in June and November, and 
facility of communication with the adjacent towns is 
maintained by good roads, and by the North Berwick 
branch of the North-British railway. 

The inhabitants obtained their earliest charter in the 
reign of Robert II. It was confirmed in 1568 by James 
VI. ; and the government of the burgh is vested in two 
bailies, a treasurer, and nine councillors, elected accord- 
ing to the provisions of the act 3rd and 4th of William 
IV., cap. 76. The magistrates hold no regular courts, 
but act as justices of the peace within the royalty 
of the burgh ; all criminal jurisdiction is referred to 
the procurator-fiscal and sheriff of the county, and 
petty misdemeanors are punished by temporary confine- 
ment. A town officer is appointed by the magistrates, 
who also choose a town-clerk and a shore-master. The 
town-hall is a commodious building, and there is a small 
l)rison. Since the Union the burgh has united with 
Haddington, Dunbar, Lauder, and Jedburgh, in return- 
ing a member to the imperial parliament ; and by the act 
^nd and 3rd of William IV., cap. 65, the right of elec- 
tion, previously vested in the corporation and burgesses, 
was extended to the £10 householders, resident within 
the parliamentary limits of the burgh. The bailies are 
the returning officers. 

The surface of the parish is greatly varied. A range 
of rocks of various hues intersects it from east to west, 
presenting in some parts a barren and rugged aspect, 
and in others being clothed with wood. About half a 
mile south of the town is a hill of conical form, called 
North Berwick Law, crowning a gently sloping eminence, 
and rising to an elevation of 940 feet above the sea. It 
was occupied as a signal station during the war ; and the 
remains of the buildings, which were suffered to fall to 
decay, have the picturesque effect of an ancient ruin. 
The hill is wooded near its base, and the other parts of 
its surface, comprising an area of nearly seventy acres, 
afford pasturage for sheep ; the views from it are exten- 
sive and strikingly diversified. In the mouth of the 
Firth of Forth, and about a mile and a half from the 
shore, is the well-known rock called the Bass, nearly a 
mile in circumference, rising abruptly from the sea, in 
a circular form, to a height of 420 feet. It is of very 
rugged aspect, extremely precipitous on the north side, 
on the south more resembling a cone in form, and acces- 
sible only on the south-east, where are two landing- 
places. About half way up the steep are the remains of 
an ancient chapel. The rock is perforated, from the 
north-west to the south-east, by a cavern, which is dry 
at full tide ; and on the side commanding the landing- 
place are the remains of an old fortress, and of the dun- 
geons formerly used for state prisoners, for which pur- 
pose it was purchased from Sir Andrew Ramsay in 1671. 
Its surface is estimated at seven acres, and it forms an 
object both of scenic and historical interest. It is sup- 
posed to have been the retreat of Baldred, the apostle of 

S 



B E R W 



BER W 



East Lothian, in the sixth century ; and in 1406 was the 
temporary asylum of James I., in which he was placed 
by his father, Robert III., previously to his embarkation 
tor France, to avoid the persecution of his uncle, the 
Duke of Albany. On its purchase in I671, it was con- 
verted into a state prison for the confinement of Cove- 
nanting ministers ; after the Revolution of 1688, it was 
no longer used for such a purpose. This rock, which is 
let on lease to a keeper, affords pasturage for sheep, 
which are in high estimation ; and is frequented in great 
numbers by Solan geese, which, when young, are taken 
by a hazardous process, and conveyed to the opposite 
shore. Opposite to the town, and about a mile from the 
coast, is the island of Cragleith, a barren rock about a 
mile in circumference, abounding with rabbits, and re- 
sorted to by sea-fowl, of which the puffin is the most 
conspicuous. The coast of the parish is boldly rocky, 
and indented with bays, one of which, of semicircular 
form, reaches from the west of the harbour to Point 
Garry ; and a still larger bay, about two miles east of 
the town, and directly opposite to the Bass rock, called 
Canty Bay, is the residence of the tenant of that rock 
and his assistants. To the west the shore is a flat sand, 
and towards the east a line of precipitous rocks, termi- 
nating in a lofty eminence, on whose summit are the pic- 
turesque ruins of Tantallan Castle, noticed hereafter. 

The SOIL, though various, is generally fertile, and the 
system of agriculture in a highly improved state ; the 
whole number of acres is estimated at 3456, of which 
3'280 are arable, about 1*0 in pasture and in woods and 
plantations, and the remainder common. The chief 
crops are wheat, barley, oats, peas, beans, potatoes, and 
turnips. The principal manures are lime and rape- 
rake ; furrow-draining with tiles has been extensively 
adopted, and the farm-buildings and offices are gene- 
rally substantial and commodious. About 1000 sheep 
are annually fed ; and from 300 to 400 head of cattle, 
mostly of the short-horned breed. The annual value of 
real property in the parish is £1'2,967. The woods are 
chiefly ash, elm, oak, beech, and plane. In this parish 
the substrata are mainly trap, sandstone, and limestone ; 
the sandstone, which is usually of a reddish hue, is fre- 
quently intersected with strata of limestone. The rocks 
are principally of the secondary formation : the lower 
part of North Berwick Law is trap tuOFa, above which is 
a sonorous clinkstone, and near the summit the height 
assumes the character of amygdaloid ; the Bass rock is 
generally a fine granular greenstone, abounding with 
felspar, and strongly exhibiting the tabular structure. 
At North Berwick Law are extensive quarries of ex- 
cellent building-stone ; and at Rhodes, and on the 
Balgone estate, limestone is quarried to a considerable 
extent. North Berwick House is a fine mansion, erected 
in 1777, and standing in grounds embellished with thriv- 
ing plantations ; Balgone and Rockville are also hand- 
some mansions, finely situated. 

The parish appears to have existed from a remote 
period of antiquity, and its church was most probably 
founded by St. Baldred : on the foundation of the nun- 
nery here, the church, with all its possessions, was given 
by the noble founder to that establishment. For eccle- 
siastical purposes. North Berwick is within the bounds 
of the presbytery of Haddington, synod of Lothian and 
Tweeddale. The stipend of the incumbent is £306. 2. ■=>., 
and the patronage is exercised by Sir Hew Dalrymple, 
130 



Bart. ; the manse is a substantial and comfortable re- 
sidence, built in 1825, and pleasantly situated on an 
eminence, and the glebe is valued at £35 per annum. 
The church, erected in 1770, on the site of the former 
edifice, was in 1819 thoroughly repaired, and the inte- 
rior renewed ; it is adapted for a congregation of 550 
persons, and has a spacious cemetery, planted with 
stately avenues of elms. There are places of worship 
for members of the Free Church and the United Pres- 
byterian Synod : the former was erected with a view to 
honour the memory of the Covenanters imprisoned on 
the Bass rock, and the expense was defrayed by special 
subscription. The parochial school is but indifferently 
attended : the master has a salary of £34. 4. i-., with 
a house and garden ; the school fees are very incon- 
siderable. An infants' school has been estabhshed ; 
and on the lands of Tantallan is a sub-parochial school. 
There are a bequest by Alexander Home, Esq., and a 
donation of £450 called the Edwin fund, for the poor. 

About a quarter of a mile to the w est of the town are 
the remains of the Cistercian abbey, beautifully situated 
on an eminence planted with trees, but so greatly dila- 
pidated as scarcely to convey a faint idea of that once 
venerable and stately edifice : the vaults, which formed 
the principal relic, were many years since destroyed. 
Near the harbour are the remains of what is supposed 
to have been the ancient church, consisting chiefly of 
the entrance doorway, which is still entire ; the sea is 
constantly encroaching upon the cemetery, and laying 
bare the remains of bodies interred there. Three miles 
to the east of the town are the remains of the old Castle 
of Tantallan, seated on a precipitous eminence project- 
ing into the sea. The outer walls, of hexagonal form, 
are of massive thickness ; and above the entrance is a 
sculptured stone shield, bearing the device of its ancient 
proprietors the Douglases. The interior consists of nu- 
merous apartments, inaccessible from the dilapidated 
state of the various staircases which formerly afforded 
an approach ; and the vaults contain many dark dun- 
geons. The original foundation of this castle is not 
distinctly ascertained. It was the stronghold of the 
Douglas family on their obtaining the barony of East 
Lothian, at the accession of Robert II., and for centuries 
the seat of their power. The fortress was always re- 
garded as impregnable, and was frequently assaulted 
without effect : it was finally besieged, and, after an 
obstinate defence, taken by the forces under Oliver 
Cromwell; and, together with the lauds, was sold by 
the Marquess of Douglas to Lord President Dalrymple, 
by whom it was dismantled, and suffered to fall into 
decay. About half a mile to the west of the castle is 
St. Baldred's Melt, a spring of excellent water. Fenton 
Tower, an ancient edifice, of which only the bare walls 
remain, is situated on a commanding eminence; and 
nearly adjoining are the remains of the palace of Syd- 
serf, so called from St. Serf, the instructor of Kentigern, 
whose retreat was in this place. 

John Mair or Major, author of the work De Gestis Sco- 
toriim, published in 1521, was born at Gleghornie, in the 
parish, in 1469 : he became a member of Christ's Col- 
lege, Cambridge, where in 1518 he seems to have written 
his learned history ; and he subsequently taught theo- 
logy at Glasgow, and at St. Andrew's, dying about 1547. 
Blackader, one of the martyrs of the Bass, is buried in 
North Berwick churchvard. 



f 



B E R W 



BE R W 




Arms. 



BERAVICK - UPON - 
TWEED, a port, borough, 
parish, and a county of it- 
self, 58 miles (E. by S.) from 
Edinburgh, and 370 (N. by 
W.) from London ; contain- 
ing 8484 inhabitants. The 
name of this town is sup- 
posed by Leland to have 
been originally Aberwkk, 
from the British terms, Aber, 
the mouth of a river, and 
Wic, a town. By Camden 
and other antiquaries the name is considered as expres- 
sive merely of a hamlet, or granary, annexed to a place 
of greater importance ; such appendages are usually in 
ancient records styled berewics, and the town is thought 
to have obtained its name from having been the grange 
or berewic of the priory of Coldingham, ten miles distant. 
The earliest autheutic notice of Berwick occurs in the 
reign of Alexander I. In 11*6 it was given up to 
Henry II. of England, with four other towns, by Wil- 
liam the Lion, as a pledge for the performance of the 
treaty of Falaise, by which, in order to obtain his release 
from captivity after the battle of Alnwick in 1174, he 
engaged to do homage to the English monarch as lord 
paramount for all his Scottish dominions. Richard I., 
to obtain a supply of money for his expedition to the 
Holy Land, sold the vassalage of Scotland for 10,000 
marks, and restored this and the other towns to William, 
content with receiving homage for the territories only 
which that prince held in England. King John, on re- 
tiring from an unsuccessful invasion of Scotland, burnt 
the town, which the Scots almost immediately rebuilt. 

In 1'291, in the reign of Edward I. of England, the 
Commissioners appointed to examine and report on the 
validity of the title of the respective claimants to the 
crown of Scotland, met at Berwick, and pursued the in- 
vestigation which led to the decision in favour of John 
Baliol. Edward having compelled Baliol to resign his 
crown, took the town by storm in 1296, when a dreadful 
carnage ensued ; and here he received the homage of 
the Scottish nobility, in the presence of a council of the 
whole nation, and established a court of exchequer for 
the receipt of the revenue of the kingdom of Scotland. 
In the following year, Wallace, laying siege to the town, 
took it, and for a short time retained possession, but 
was unsuccessful in his attempt upon the castle, which 
was relieved by the arrival of a numerous army. Ed- 
ward II., in prosecuting the war against Scotland, as- 
sembled his army here repeatedly, and hence made 
inroads into the enemy's territory. Robert Bruce took 
Berwick in 1318, and having raised the walls, and 
strengthened them with towers, kept it, notwithstanding 
several attacks from Edward II. and Edward HI., until 
it surrendered to the latter after the celebrated battle of 
Hallidown Hill, within the borough, which took place 
on the 19th of July, 1333. From Edward IV. and his 
successors, as well as from preceding kings of Scotland, 
including Bruce, it received several charters and pri- 
vileges, in confirmation and enlargement of the charter 
granted by Edward I., in which the enjoyment of the 
Scottish laws as they existed in the time of Alexan- 
der III. had been confirmed. After having been ex- 
posed, during the subsequent reigns, to the continued 
131 



aggressions of the Scots and the English, Elizabeth re- 
paired and strengthened the fortifications, and new 
walled part of the town : the garrison which had for 
some time been placed in it was continued till the ac- 
cession of James to the English throne, when its im- 
portance as a frontier town ceased. During the civil 
war in the reign of Charles I., it was garrisoned by the 
parliament. 

The TOWN is pleasantly situated on the northern 
bank, and near the mouth, of the river Tweed. The 
approach to it, from the English side, is over a hand- 
some stone bridge of fifteen arches, built in the reigns 
of James I. and Charles I., and connecting it with 
Tweedmouth on the south. The streets, with the ex- 
ception of St. Marygate (usually called the High-street), 
Castlegate, Ravensdowne, the Parade, and Hide-hill, 
are narrow ; they are neatly paved, and the houses are 
in general well built. The town is lighted with gas, and 
an abundant supply of water is obtained by pipes laid 
down to the houses from the public reservoirs, which 
are the property of the corporation. Fuel is also plen- 
tiful, there being several collieries on the south, and one 
on the north, side of the river, within from two to four 
miles of the town. A public library was established in 
ISI'2, and a reading-room in 184'2; the theatre, a small 
neat building, is opened at intervals, and there are as- 
sembly-rooms that are used on public occasions. 

The new fortifications, which are exceedingly strong, 
have displaced those of more ancient date, of which only 
a few ruins now remain ; the present works consist of 
a rampart of earth, faced with stone, and affording au 
agreeable promenade, much frequented by the inhabit- 
ants. There are no outworks, with the exception of the 
old castle, which overlooks the Tweed, and is now com- 
pletely in ruins, and an earthen battery at the landing- 
place below the Magdalen fields. The line of works 
towards the river is almost straight, but to the north 
and east are five bastions, to two of which there are 
powder magazines : the harbour is defended by a four 
and a six gun battery near the governor's house ; and a 
saluting battery of twenty-two guns commands the 
English side of the Tweed. There are five gates be- 
longing to the circumvallation, by which entrance is 
obtained. The barracks, which were built in 1719, 
form a small quadrangle, neatly built of stone, and 
afford good accommodation for 600 or 700 infantry. 
To these was not long since attached the governor's 
house, for officers' barracks ; but that building and the 
ground adjoining, formerly the site of a palace of the 
kings of Scotland, have been sold by the crown to a 
timber-merchant, and are now occupied for the purposes 
of his trade. 

The PORT was celebrated in the time of Alexander III. 
for the extent of its traffic in wool, hides, salmon, &c., 
which was carried on both by native merchants and 
by a company of Flemings settled here, the latter 
of whom, however, perished in the conflagration of 
their principal establishment, called the Red Hall, which 
was set on fire at the capture of the town and castle 
by Edward I. There is at present a considerable 
coasting-trade, though it has somewhat declined since 
the termination of the continental war : the exports 
are corn, wool, salmon, cod, haddock, herrings, and 
coal ; and the imports, timber-deals, staves, iron, hemp, 
tallow, and bones for manure. About 800 men are 

S^2 



B ER W 



B E R W 



employed in the fisher}' : the salmon and trout, of which 
large quantities are caught, are packed in boxes with ice, 
and sent chiefly to the London market ; great quantities 
of lobsters, crabs, cod, haddock, and herrings are also 
taken, and a large portion forwarded, similarly packed, 
to the metropolis. The principal articles of manufacture, 
exclusively of such as are connected with the shipping, 
are damask, diaper, sacking, cotton-hosiery, carpets, hats, 
boots, and shoes. About 200 hands are employed in 
three iron-foundries, established within the present cen- 
tury : steam-engines, and almost every other article, 
are made ; the gas-light apparatus for Berwick, Perth, 
and several other places, was manufactured here, and 
iron-works have lately been erected at Galashiels and at 
Jedburgh by the same proprietors. 

The HARBOUR is naturally inconvenient, the greater 
part of it being left dry at ebb- tide; it has, however, 
been lately deepened several feet, and vessels of large 
tonnage come up to the quay. The river is navigable 
only to the bridge, though the tide flows for seven miles 
beyond it : on account of the entrance being narrowed 
by sandbanks, great impediments were occasioned to 
the navigation till the erection, in 180S, of a stone pier on 
the projecting rocks at the north entrance of the Tweed; 
it is about half a mile in length, and has a lighthouse at 
the extremity. This, together with the clearing and 
deepening of the harbour, has materially improved the 
facilities of navigation, and been of great importance to 
the shipping interest of the place. On the Tweedmouth 
shore, for a short space, near the Carr Rock, ships of 
400 or 500 tons' burthen may ride in safety. The smacks 
and small brigs, formerly carrying on the whole traffic 
of the place, are now superseded by large and well-fitted 
steam-vessels, schooners, and clipper-ships. There are 
numerous and extensive quays and warehouses, with a 
patent-slip for the repair of vessels. Great facility of 
intercourse is afforded by the York, Newcastle, and Ber- 
wick railway, the North-British railway, and the Berwick 
and Kelso branch of the former line. The market, which 
is well supplied with grain, is on Saturday ; and there is 
an annual fair on the last Friday in May, for black-cattle 
and horses : statute fairs are held on the first Saturday 
in March, May, August, and November. 

By charter of incorporation granted in the thirty- 
eighth year of the reign of James VI., the government 
was vested in a mayor, bailiffs, and burgesses ; and 
there were, besides, an alderman for the year, a re- 
corder, town-clerk, town-treasurer, four serjeants-at- 
mace, and other officers. The control now resides in a 
mayor, six aldermen, and eighteen councillors, together 
composing the council, by whom a sheriff and other 
officers are appointed. Berwick is distributed into three 
wards, and its municipal and parliamentary boundaries 
are the same. The mayor and late mayor are justices 
of the peace, and tw^elve other gentlemen have been ap- 
pointed to act under a separate commission. Berwick 
was one of the royal burghs which, in ancient times, 
sent representatives to the court of the four royal 
burghs in Scotland ; and on being annexed to the king- 
dom of England, its prescriptive usages were confirmed 
by royal charter. It sent representatives to parliament 
in the reign of Henry VIII., since which time it has 
continued to return two members. The right of elec- 
tion was formerly vested in the freemen at large, in 
number about 1140; now, the resident freemen and 
132 



certain householders are the electors : the sheriff is 
returning officer. The limits of the borough include the 
townships of Tweedmouth and Spittal,on the south side 
of the river. The corporation hold courts of quarter- 
session for the borough, and a court of pleas every alter- 
nate Tuesday for the recovery of debts to any amount ; 
a court-leet, also, is held under the charter, at which six 
petty constables are appointed. The powers of the 
county debt-court of Berwick, established in 1847, ex- 
tend over the registration-district of Berwick. The 
town-hall is a spacious and handsome building, with a 
portico of four massive columns of the Tuscan order. 
A portion of the lower part, called the Exchange, is ap- 
propriated to the use of the poultry and butter market ; 
the first story of the building contains two spacious halls 
and other apartments, in which the courts are held and 
the public business of the corporation transacted, and the 
upper part is used as a gaol. The whole forms a stately 
pile of fine hewn stone, and is surmounted with a lofty 
spire, containing a peal of eight bells, which on Sunday 
summon the inhabitants to the parish church. 

The LIVING is a vicarage, valued in the king's books 
at £20 ; net income, £289 ; patrons and appropriators, 
the Dean and Chapter of Durham. The church is a 
handsome structure in the decorated English style, built 
during the usurpation of Cromwell, and is without a 
steeple. One of the Fishbourn lectureships is established 
here, the service being performed in the church. There 
are places of worship for members of the Scottish Kirk, 
the United Presbyterian Synod, Particular Baptists, 
Wesleyans, and Roman Catholics. A school for the 
instruction of the sons of burgesses in English and the 
mathematics, was founded and endowed by the corpora- 
tion in 1798 ; to each department there is a separate 
master, paid by the corporation, and the average number 
of pupils is about 300. The burgesses have also the 
patronage of a free grammar school, endowed in the 
middle of the seventeenth century by Sir William Selby, 
of the Moat, and other charitable persons. The Blue- 
coat charity-school was founded in 1758, by Captain 
Bolton, and endowed with £800, since augmented with 
several benefactions, especially with one of £1000 by 
Richard Cowle, who died at Dantzic, in 1819 ; the whole 
income is £155, which is applied to educating about 150 
boys, of whom forty are also clothed. A pauper lunatic 
house was erected in 1813, and a dispensary was esta- 
blished in 1814. A considerable part of the corpora- 
tion land is allotted into " meadows" and " stints", and 
given rent-free to the resident freemen and freemen's 
widows, according to seniority, for their respective lives. 
Among the most important bequests for tiie benefit of 
the poor are, £1000 by Richard Cowle, £1000 by John 
Browne in 1758, and £28 per annum by Sarah Foreman 
in 1803. Some remains are still visible of the ancient 
castle of Berwick, and of a pentagonal tower near it ; 
also of a square fort in Magdalen fields, and some en- 
trenchments on Ilallidown Hill. All vestiges of the 
ancient churches and chapels of the town, of the Bene- 
dictine nunnery said to have been founded by David, 
King of Scotland, of the monasteries of Black, Grey, 
White, and Trinitarian friars, and of three or four 
hospitals, have entirely disappeared. During tlie reigns 
of William the Lion, and of Edward I., II., and III., and 
other Scottish and English monarchs, Berwick was a 
place of mintage ; and several of its coins are still pre- 



I 



B E R W 



BE R W 



served. There is a mineral spring close to the town, 
which is occasionally resorted to by invalids. 

BERWICKSHIRE, a maritime county, in the south- 
east of Scotland, bounded on the north by the German 
Ocean and the county of Haddington ; on the east and 
north-east, by the German Ocean ; on the south, by the 
river Tweed, which separates it from the English coun- 
ties of Durham and Northumberland ; and on the west 
and south-west, by the counties of Edinburgh and Ro.x- 
burgh. It lies between 55° 36' 30" and 55° 58' 30" 
(N. Lat.), and 1° 41' and 2° 34' (W. Long.), and is 
about thirty-five miles in length, and twenty-two miles 
in extreme breadth ; comprising about 4465 square miles, 
or 285,760 acres, and "408 inhabited houses, and 381 
uninhabited ; and containing a population of 34,438, of 
whom 16,558 are males, and 17,880 females. The 
county derives its name from the ancient town of Ber- 
wick, formerly the county tovt'n, and was originally in- 
habited by the Ottadini. After the Roman invasion it 
formed part of the province of Valeutia ; and though 
not the site of any station of importance, it is inter- 
sected by several Roman roads. Subsequently to the 
departure of the Romans from Britain, this part of the 
country was continually exposed to the predatory in- 
cursions of the Saxons, by whom, about the middle of 
the sixth century, it was subdued, and annexed to the 
kingdom of Northumbria, of which it continued to form 
part till the year 1020, when it was ceded to Malcolm II., 
King of Scotland, by Cospatrick, Earl of Northumber- 
land, whom that monarch made Earl of Dunbar. 

From its situation on the borders, the county was the 
scene of frequent hostilities, and an object of continual 
dispute between the Scots and the English. In 11*6, it 
was surrendered by William the Lion to Henry II. of 
England, by whom he had been made prisoner in battle, 
as security for the performance of the treaty of Falaise, 
on failure of which it was for ever to remain a part of 
the kingdom of England. On payment of a ransom, it 
was restored to the Scots by Richard I. In 1216 it 
suffered greatly from the army of John, who, to punish 
the barons of Northumberland for having done homage 
to Alexander, King of Scotland, burnt the towns of Rox- 
burgh, Mitford, and Morpeth, and laid waste nearly the 
whole county of Northumberland. During the disputed 
succession to the Scottish throne, after the death of 
Alexander III., this district suffered materially from the 
contending parties; and in 1291 the town of Berwick 
was surrendered to Edward I. of England, who, as lord 
paramount of Scotland, received the oaths of fealty and 
allegiance from many of the Scottish nobility. The 
inhabitants soon after revoking their allegiance to the 
English crown, Edward advanced with his army to Ber- 
wick, which he took by assault, and held a parliament 
in the castle, in 1296, when he received the oath of 
allegiance ; and in the year following he made Berwick 
the metropolis of the English government in Scotland. 
The town was restored to the Scots in 1318, but, after 
the death of James III., was finally ceded by treaty to the 
English, in 1482. In 1551, the town, with a district 
adjoining, called the liberties of Berwick, was made in- 
dependent of both kingdoms, and invested with peculiar 
privileges. After Berwick ceased to be the county town, 
the general business of the county was transacted at 
Dunse or Lauder, till the year 1596, when Greenlaw was 
selected by James VI. as the most appropriate for the 
133 



purpose ; and that arrangement was ratified by act of 
parliament in I6OO. 

The county was anciently included in the diocese of 
St. Andrew's ; it is now almost wholly in the synod of 
Merse and Teviotdale, and comprises several presby- 
teries, with thirty-four parishes. Exclusively of the sea- 
port of Berwick-upon-Tweed, which has a separate juris- 
diction, it contains the county town of Greenlaw, the 
royal burgh of Lauder, and the towns of Dunse, Cold- 
stream, and Eyemouth, with the villages of Ayton, 
Gourdou, Earlstoun, Chirnside, Coldingham, and others. 
Under the act of the 2nd and 3rd of William IV., the 
county returns one member to the imperial parUament. 
Its surface varies in the different districts into which 
the county is naturally divided, and which are the 
Merse, Lammermoor, and Lauderdale. The Merse is a 
level district, extending for nearly twenty miles along 
the north bank of the Tweed, and about ten miles in 
breadth ; it is richly fertile, and well inclosed, pleasingly 
diversified with gentle eminences, and enriched with 
plantations. The district of Lammermoor, nearly of 
equal extent, and parallel with the Merse, is a hilly 
tract, chiefly adapted for pasture. The district of 
Lauder, to the west of the two former, is also diversified 
with hills, affording good pasturage for sheep, principally 
of the black-faced breed, and for a coarse breed of black- 
cattle ; and has fertile vales of arable land, yielding 
abundant crops. In this county the highest hills are 
in the Lammermoor range, varying from 1500 to 1650 
feet in height. The principal rivers are, the Tweed, 
which forms the southern boundary of the county ; the 
Whitadder, the Blackadder, the Leader, and the Eden, 
which are tributaries to the Tweed ; and the river Eye, 
which falls into the sea at Eyemouth. The coast is 
bold and rocky, rising precipitously to a great height, 
and is almost inaccessible, except at Eyemouth and 
Coldingham Bay, and in some few points where there 
are small beaches of sand or gravel near the rocks. The 
minerals found are not of any importance : some coal 
has been discovered in the parishes of Mordington and 
Cockburnspath ; limestone, marl, and gypsum have been 
quarried, but to no great extent, and freestone and 
whinstone are abundant. The annual value of the real 
property in the county is £254,169, of which £237,042 
are returned for lands, £16,743 for houses, £196 for 
fisheries, and £188 for quarries. In Berwickshire the 
chief seats are Thirlstane Castle, Dryburgh Abbey, Mel- 
lerstain, The Hirsel, Marchmont, Ladykirk, Blackadder, 
Dunse Castle, Kelloe, Mertoun, Spottiswood, Ayton, 
Dunglass, Wedderburn, Paxton, Langton, Kimniergham, 
and Nisbet. 

Great facility of intercourse is afforded by the North- 
British railway, and its branch to Dunse. In the county 
of Haddington, the railway passes through a country 
of undulating surface, richly cultivated, and present- 
ing scenery of the softer kind, with villages, hamlets, 
and other simply rural features interspersed. On en- 
tering Berwickshire, however, at Cockburnspath, the 
prospect changes ; the country around is bold and 
striking, steep hills and deep ravines appear, and the 
scenery is of a more romantic character. From Cock- 
burnspath to Iloundwood is a range of seven miles of 
this interesting scenery, after which the country opens 
out, and the eye of the traveller takes in a sweetly rural 
landscape of five or six miles on either side, of well- 



BIGG 



BIGG 



cultivated and richly-wooded land, adorned with cottages, 
hamlets, and gentlemen's seats. After passing Ayton the 
line runs along the coast, at an elevation of fifty or sixty 
feet, sometimes within two or three yards of the cliff's 
edge. 

BIGGA ISLE, in the two parishes of Delting, and 
Mid and South Yell, county of Shetland. It is a 
small isle, lying between the Mainland of Shetland and 
the island of Yell, in the sound of Yell. Half of it belongs 
to the parish of Mid and South Yell, and half to that of 
Delting. The inhabitants consist of a few faraiUes who 
pasture black-cattle and sheep. 

BIGGAR, a parish and market-town, in the Upper 
ward of the county of Lanark, V2 miles (S. E.) from 
Lanark, and on the road from Dumfries to the city of 
Edinburgh ; containing 1865 inhabitants, of whom 1395 
are in the town. The original name of this place, as it 
occurs in several ancient charters, is generally written 
Biger or Bigrn. It is supposed to have been derived 
from the nature of the ground on which the castle of 
the Biggar family was situated (in the centre of a soft 
morass), and to have been thence applied to the whole 
of the parish. From the same circumstance, the castle 
assumed the name of Boghall. The manor was granted 
by David I. to Baldwin, a Flemish leader, whose de- 
scendants still retain the surname of Fleming; they 
appear to claim a remote antiquity, and the name of 
Baldwin de Biger appears in testimony to a charter, 
prior to the year 1160. Some accounts, chiefly tradi- 
tional, are still retained of a battle fought at this place 
between the English forces under Edward I., and the 
Scots commanded byAVallace, in which the former were 
defeated ; and though not authenticated by any his- 
torian of acknowledged authority, the probability of the 
event is partly strengthened bj' the frequent discovery of 
broken armour in a field near the town ; by the name of 
a rivulet called the Red Syke, running through the sup- 
posed field of battle, and so named from the slaughter of 
the day ; and by the evident remains of an encampment 
in the immediate neighbourhood. On this occasion,* 
Wallace is said to have gained admission into the 
enemy's camp disguised as a dealer in provisions, and, 
after having ascertained their numbers and order, to 
have been pursued in his retreat to the bridge over 
the Biggar water, when, turning on his pursuers, he put 
the most forward of them to death, and made his escape 
to his armj', who were encamped on the heights of 
Tinto. A wooden bridge over the Biggar is still called 
the "Cadger's Brig"; and on the north side of Bizzy- 
berry are a hollow in a rock, and a spring, which are 
called respectively Wallace's Seat and Well. The Scot- 
tish array under Sir Simon Fraser is said to have ren- 
dezvoused here, the night previous to the victory of 
Roslin, in 1302 ; and Edward II., on his invasion of 
Scotland, in 1310, spent the first week of October at this 
place, while attempting to pass through Selkirk to Ren- 
frew. In 1651, after Cromwell's victory at Perth, the 
Scottish army, passing by Biggar, at that time garri- 
soned by the English, summoned the place to surrender ; 
and in 1715, Lockhart of Carnwath, the younger, raised 
a troop for the service of the Pretender, which, after re- 
maining for some time here, marched to Dumfries, and 
joined the forces under Lord Kenmure. 

The TOWN is finely situated on the Biggar water, by 
which it is divided into two very unequal parts, the 
134 



smaller forming a beautiful and picturesque suburb, 
communicating with the town by a neat bridge. The 
houses in this suburb are built on the sloping declivities, 
and on the brow, of the right bank of the rivulet, and 
have hanging gardens extending to the water's edge ; 
the opposite bank is crowned with venerable trees. 
Biggar consists of one wide street, regularly built, and 
from its situation on rising ground, commands an exten- 
sive and varied view; most of the houses are of respectable 
appearance, and within the last few years several new and 
handsome houses have been erected. There is a scien- 
tific institution, founded in the year 1S39, and having a 
library of 220 volumes, mostly of works on science : 
the members meet during winter once a month, when a 
popular lecture on science is dehvered, and a discussion 
ensues. A public library was established in I79I, which 
contains about SOO volumes. Another was opened in 
1800, which has a collection of more than 500; and a 
third, exclusively a theological library, was founded in 
ISO7, and has about 7OO volumes. Attached to the 
parish school is a fourth library, instituted in 1828, 
and now containing 500 volumes. A public newsroom 
was opened in 1S2S ; but it met with little support, and 
was consequently discontinued. 

The trade consists chiefly in the sale of merchandise 
for the supply of the parish and surrounding district, 
and in the weaving of cloth, in which latter about 200 
of the inhabitants are employed. A branch of the Com- 
mercial Bank was established in 1833, and a building 
erected for its use, which adds much to the appearance 
of the town ; and a branch of the Western Bank of 
Scotland has since been established. A savings' bank 
was opened in 1832, for the accommodation of the 
agricultural labourers and others ; there are about 
460 depositors, and the amount of deposits is about 
£3500. The market is on Thursday. Fairs are held at 
Candlemas, for hiring servants ; at Midsummer, for the 
sale of wool ; and on the last Thursday in October 
(O. S.), for horses and black-cattle; all of which are 
numerously attended. An act of parliament was passed 
in 1847, authorizing the construction of a branch rail- 
way from the great Caledonian line at Symington to 
Biggar and Broughton. The inhabitants, in 1451, re- 
ceived from James II. a charter erecting the town into 
a free burgh of barony, and granting a weekly market 
and other privileges, which grants were renewed at in- 
tervals down to the year 1 662. 

The PARISH, which borders on the county of Peebles, 
is about six miles and a half in length, and varies very 
greatly in breadth, being of triangular form, and com- 
prising about 7370 acres, chiefly pasture land. Its sur- 
face is generally hilly, though comprising a considerable 
proportion of level ground, particularly towards the 
south, where is a plain of large extent ; the hills are of 
little height, and the acclivities, being gentle, afford ex- 
cellent pasture. The principal stream is the Biggar 
water, which rises on the north side of the parish, and 
after a course of nearly two miles, intersects the town, 
and flows along a fine open vale, to the river Tweed ; 
the Candy burn rises in the north-east portion of the 
parish, which it separates from the county of Peebles, 
and falls after a course of three miles into the Biggar 
water. The scenery is considerably diversified ; and the 
approach to the town by the Carnwath road presents to 
the view a combination of picturesque features. In this 



BIGG 



BIRD 



parish the soil is various : above 1000 acres are of a 
clayey nature, on a substratum of clay or gravel ; be- 
tween 2000 and 3000 are a light black loam, resting 
upon whinstone, and the remainder sandy, and black 
loam inclining to peat-moss. The system of agriculture is 
greatly improved, and green crops have been introduced 
with success ; the chief produce in grain consists of oats : 
much attention is paid to the management of the dairy, 
and to the improvement of live stock. The cattle are 
mostly a cross between the native and the Ayrshire 
breed, which latter is every day becoming more predo- 
minant ; many sheep are pastured on the hills and 
acclivities, and the principal stock regularly reared are 
of the old Tweeddale breed. Great progress has been 
made in draining and inclosing the lands. Two mills 
for oats and barley have been erected, and there are not 
less than twenty-five threshing-machines, one of which, 
constructed by Mr. Watts, has the water-wheel fifty feet 
below the level of the barn, and 120 feet distant from 
it, the power being communicated to the machinery by 
shafts acting on an inclined plane. The annual value 
of real property in the parish is £7329. About 950 
acres are in plantations, chiefly Scotch fir, in the 
management of which much improvement has been 
made by the introduction of a new method of pruning ; 
and on the several farmsteads are numerous fine speci- 
mens of hard-wood trees, which are better adapted to 
the soil, and are consequently growing gradually into 
use in the more recent plantations. Of these, the ash 
and elm seem to thrive best ; and the beech and the plane 
also answer well. Among the various mansions arc, 
Edmonston, a castellated structure, pleasingly situated 
in a secluded vale near the east end of the parish ; Big- 
gar Park and Cambus-Wallace, both handsome resi- 
dences in the immediate vicinity of the town ; and Car- 
wood, a spacious mansion, lately erected, surrounded by 
young and thriving plantations. 

The origin of the parish is rather obscure ; but it 
appears that a chaplaincy was founded here in expia- 
tion of the murder of John, Lord Fleming, chamberlain 
of Scotland, who was assassinated in 1524 by John 
Tweedie of Drummelzier, his son, and other accom- 
plices. For this purpose, an assythment in lands was 
given to Malcolm, Lord Fleming, son of the murdered 
lord, with £10 per annum granted in mortmain, for the 
support of a chaplain, to pray and sing mass for the 
soul of the deceased in the parish church of Biggar, 
which Malcolm in 1545 made collegiate, and endowed 
for a provost, eight canons and prebendaries, and four 
choristers, with six aged poor men. On this occasion, 
the church of Thankertoun, which had previously been 
bestowed on the abbey of Kelso by one of his predeces- 
sors, was given up to Malcolm by the monks, and 
annexed to the collegiate church. The parish is now 
in the presbytery of Biggar, synod of Lothian and 
Tweeddale, and in the patronage of the family of Fle- 
ming ; the minister's stipend is £263. 4. 7., with a 
manse, and a glebe valued at £30 per annum. Biggar 
church, erected in 1545, was formerly an elegant and 
venerable cruciform structure in the later English style, 
with a tower which was not finished, as the Reform- 
ation occurred while the building was in progress. 
This structure, though complete in every other respect, 
and uninjured by time, has been dreadfully mutilated. 
The western porch, the vestry communicating with the 
135 



chancel, and having a richly groined roof, the buttresses 
that supported the north wall of the nave, and the 
arched gateway leading into the churchyard, though 
perfectly entire, and beautiful specimens of architecture, 
were all taken down about fifty or sixty years since, and 
the materials sold for £7, to defray some parochial ex- 
penses. At the same time, the interior of the church 
underwent a similar lamentable devastation ; the organ- 
gallery was removed, and the richly-groined roof of the 
chancel, which was embellished with gilt tracery, was 
destroyed, and replaced with lath and plaster, seemingly 
for no better reason than to make it correspond with 
the roofs of the aisles and nave. Latterly, the church 
has received an addition of 120 sittings, by the erection 
of a gallery ; it has been also newly-seated, and affords 
considerable accommodation. There are places of wor- 
ship for the United Presbyterian Synod and United 
Original Seceders. The parochial school affords educa- 
tion to about ISO scholars ; the master has a salary of 
£34. 4. 4. per annum, about £75 fees, and a house and 
garden. 

At the western extremity of the town is a large 
mound, more than 300 feet in circumference at the base, 
150 feet on the summit, and thirty- six feet in height, 
supposed to have been in ancient times a seat for the 
administration of justice ; it appears to have been also 
used as a beacon, and to have formed one of a chain 
extending across the vale between the Clyde and the 
Tweed. There are several remains of encampments, one 
of which, about half a mile from the town, is 180 feet 
in circumference, defended by a deep moat and double 
rampart ; and near Candy bank is another, of oval 
form. On the banks of Oldshields are some Druidical 
remains consisting of four upright stones, near which 
arrow-heads of flint have been found ; and on the lands 
of Carwood, two Roman vessels of bronze were dis- 
covered in a moss : one, having a handle and three 
legs, holds about two quarts, and the other, less elegant 
in form, about eight quarts. The venerable remains of 
the castle of Boghall, which gave so great an interest to 
the scenery of the beautiful vale in which they were 
situated, have been almost demolished, for the sake of 
the stone ; and little more is left than a small angular 
tower, serving to mark the site. The late Dr. A. Brown, 
Professor of Rhetoric in the University of Edinburgh, 
and Robert Forsyth, Esq., an eminent advocate, were 
natives of the parish; and many of the landed proprietors 
have been eminently distinguished in the annals of their 
country. 

BILSDEAN, a hamlet, in the parish of Oldham- 
STOCKS, county of Haddington, 2| miles (N. E.) from 
Oldhamstocks ; containing 59 inhabitants. It is seated 
on the sea-shore, and is chiefly inhabited by fishermen, 
whose principal employment is taking lobsters for the 
supply of the London market. Various other kinds of 
fish are also caught, the most common being turbot, 
cod, haddock, and herrings. Several boats belong to the 
creek, carrying four men each. The Dunbar and Berwick 
road, and the North-British railway, pass here. 

BIRDSTONE, a village, in the parish of Campsie, 
county of Stirling, 1 mile (N.) from Kirkintilloch; 
containing 100 inhabitants. It lies east of the road 
from Kirkintilloch to Campsie, and a little west of a 
small stream that falls into the Kelvin water on the 
confines of the county. 



B 1 RN 



BI RS 



BIRGHAM, a village, in the parish of Eccles, 
county of Berwick, 2^ miles (W.) from Coldstream ; 
containing '241 inhabitants. This is a small ancient 
village, seated on the north bank of the Tweed, opposite 
to Carham in Northumberland ; and the road from 
London to Edinburgh by way of Kelso, and that from 
Kelso to Berwick, j)ass through the place. It is noted 
for several events connected with history, among which 
was the meeting, in 1291, of the twelve competitors for 
the Scottish throne, with the commissioners of Ed- 
ward I. of England, to represent their claims, acknow- 
ledging his paramount authority over Scotland. One 
of two buryiug-places in the parish is situated here. — 
See EccLEs. 

BIRNIE, a parish, in the county of Elgin, 3 miles 
(S.) from Elgin ; containing 407 inhabitants. This place 
is said by some to have been the site of the first cathe- 
dral of the diocese of Moray ; and it is probable that 
Simeon de Tonei, one of the bishops, was buried here, 
in 1184. The parish approaches in figure to an oblong, 
extending about seven miles in length and one and a 
half in mean breadth, and containing nearly 8000 acres, 
of which about 2000 are under tillage, 304 in wood, and 
the remainder waste. It is separated from the parish 
of Knockando, on the south, by the junction of the 
parishes of Dallas and Rothes, and is bounded on all 
the other sides by the parish of Elgin. It lies on the 
north side of the high ground that rises between the 
Spey river and the flat of Moray. The surface is irre- 
gular and abrupt, is marked with several ravines and 
high hills covered with heath, and has in general a 
bleak and rugged appearance. The lands are intersected 
with the rivulets Lennock, Barden, and Rashcrook, 
which flow into the Lossie, a stream containing abun- 
dance of common trout. The arable soil is in general 
of a gravelly or sandy kind, occasionally clayey, and by 
the sides of the Lossie and of the rivulets it is loamy; 
parts are of a mossy or rooory nature. All kinds of 
grain are produced, as well as potatoes and turnips, 
with a small quantity of flax. The cattle, which have 
been lately much improved, are usually a cross between 
the low-country cows of Moray and West Highland 
bulls ; the sheep are chiefly Cheviots, and the horses, 
though small, are active, and well adapted for plough- 
ing the light shallow land of which the parish mainly 
consists. The improved system of agriculture is fol- 
lowed, and very considerable advances have recently 
been made. The annual value of real property in the 
parish is £1249- The chief rocks in the district are 
sandstone and gneiss, with a small proportion of slate. 

Ecclesiastically, the parish is within the bounds of 
the presbytery of Elgin, synod of Moray. The patron- 
age belongs to the Earl of Jloray, and the minister has 
a stipend of £156. 8. 4., a portion of which is received 
from the exchequer ; with a manse, and a glebe of about 
eight acres of good land. The church is a very ancient 
structure, repaired in 1817, with accommodation for 
250 persons. It contains a fine Saxon arch, separating 
the choir from the body of the edifice ; also a stone 
baptistery, and an old bell composed of silver and 
copper, of an oblong shape, which tradition asserts to 
have been made at Rome, and consecrated by the pope. 
There is a parochial school, the master of which has 
a salary of £26, with a house and garden, and about 
£4 fees. The poor have the benefit of a bequest pro- 
136 



ducing about £3 per annum. About a mile east from 
the church, on the side of the road, is a stone called the 
" Bible Stone", having the figure of a book distinctly 
engraven on it : and in the corner of a field once called 
Castlehill, the foundations of what is supposed to have 
been the ancient episcopal palace were dug up about half 
a century ago. 

BIRSAY and HARRAY, a parish, in the county 
of Orkney ; containing 2406 inhabitants, of whom 
1634 are in Birsay, and "72 in Harray. These two 
ancient parishes, which were united under the Earls 
of Orkney, originally constituted a province or district 
called " Bergisherard", signifying in the Norwegian 
language lands appropriated to the diversion of hunting ; 
and previously to the rise of Kirkwall, here was the 
residence of the Earls, and the Bishops of Orkney. 
There are stiU considerable remains of the episcopal 
palace, occupying a beautiful site near the sea. By 
whom it was originally built, is not distinctly known ; 
but numerous additions were made to it from time to 
time by the Sinclairs, who were styled indifiFerently 
Princes and Counts of Orkney. It was subsequently 
enlarged and improved by Robert Stuart, brother of 
Mary, Queen of Scots ; and above the principal entrance 
was a stone bearing an inscription to that effect, with 
armorial bearings, and the motto Sic Fuit, Est, et Erit ; 
which stone passed into the possession of the Earl of 
Morton, to whom the lands were sold, and from whom 
they were afterwards purchased by Sir Lawrence Dun- 
das, ancestor of the Earl of Zetland, the present pro- 
prietor. 

The parish is about eleven miles in extreme length, 
and eight miles in extreme breadth. It is bounded on 
the north and west by the sea ; on the north and east, 
by the parishes of Evie, Rendal, and Firth ; and on the 
south and west, by the parish of Sandwick, and Loch 
Stenness. Towards the west the surface is for some 
distance level, but towards the east more elevated, rising 
into hills of considerable height. It is diversified with 
several lakes of great beauty, abounding with trout and 
other fresh-water fish, and frequented by numerous 
kinds of aquatic fowl; and the lands are intersected by 
various rivulets and smaller burns, which, for want of 
bridges, interrupt the communication. The soil is gene- 
rally fertile, though varying in different parts of the 
district : that of the lands called the barony of Birsay 
is a mixture of clay and sand, producing luxuriant crops 
of oats and barley ; in other parts a deep black loam 
prevails, producing grain of good quality, and also pota- 
toes and turnips. Sea-weed, of which abundance is 
found on the coast, is used for manure ; and the system 
of agriculture, though well adapted to the present state 
of the farms, might, under a different tenure, be very 
greatly improved. The substrata are principally lime- 
stone and clay-slate, the latter of which is quarried for 
pavements and roofing ; building-stone is also found 
here, and in some parts of the district marble and ala- 
baster have been discovered. The manufacture of straw- 
plat is carried on extensively, affording employment to 
nearly 450 of the females ; the males are employed in 
agriculture and in the fisheries. There are twenty boats 
belonging to Birsay, which during the season are en- 
gaged in the cod and lobster fishery ; and five are 
employed in the herring-fisheries at Sfronsay and Wick, 
whence they generally return with remunerating sue- 



B I RS 



Bins 



cess. The coast is rocky and precipitous, and the want 
of a convenient harbour is unfavourable to the extension 
of the fisheries of the place. Fairs for cattle and horses 
are held annually. 

For ecclesiastical purposes the parish is within the 
bounds of the presbytery of Cairston, synod of Orkney. 
The minister's stipend is £'218. 6. 8., including an 
allowance of £«. 6. 8. for communion elements ; with a 
manse situated at Birsay, and two glebes valued toge- 
ther at £'21 per annum: jiatron, the Earl of Zetland. 
Birsay church is an ancient building, enlarged in 1*60, 
and containing ,565 sittings ; the church of Harray, a 
neat plain building erected in 1836, contains 400 sittings. 
There are places of worship for members of the Free 
Church, United Original Seceders, and Independents. 
The parochial school of Birsay is well attended ; the 
master has a salary of £26, with a dwelling-house and 
garden. A school at Harray is supported by the Gene- 
ral Assembly, who pay the teacher a salary of £25, with 
a house and garden, and other perquisites. There is a 
parochial library, containing nearly 180 volumes, chiefly 
on religious subjects. About half a mile from the site 
of the episcopal palace is the brough of Birsay, a por- 
tion of high land at the north-western extremity of the 
parish, formed into an island by the action of the sea, 
and to which access by land is obtained only at low 
water. From some remains of walls, there appears to 
have been an ancient fortress on the spot, though when 
or by whom erected is not known ; a chapel dedicated 
to St. Peter was subsequently erected on the site, of 
which the only remains are part of a wall and one of 
the windows. There are also remains of ancient Picts' 
houses, and upright stones, in various parts of the 
parish. 

BIRSE, a parish, in the district of Kincardine 
O'Neil, county of Aberdeen, 2| miles (E. S. E.) from 
Aboyne ; containing 1295 inhabitants. This place was 
formerly called Press, a word of Gaelic origin, signifying 
a wood or thicket, and most probably used in reference 
to the extensive forest and woods in the district. The 
parish is situated at the south-eastern extremity of the 
county, and approaches in form to a square, varying in 
length from eight to ten miles, and in breadth from six 
to nine or ten miles. It comprises upwards of 40,000 
acres, of which about 3360 are cultivated, nearly 4000 
in wood and plantations, and the remainder wet and 
rocky, a large part of which is too rugged to be brought 
under the plough. The surface consists of hills and 
mountains, with three valleys stretching eastward. The 
valley on the south is the largest ; and though narrow, 
bleak, and wild at its western extremity, where it is 
called the forest of Birse, about five miles further it 
begins to expand, and continues to improve in its 
scenery from this point to its termination in Kincardine- 
shire, at the union of the Feugh with the Dee, near the 
village of Banchory. The former of these two rivers 
waters the valley, and much adorns the rich and beauti- 
ful scenery in the midst of which the stream takes its 
departure from the parish. The valley called Glcn- 
Chatt is smaller than the former, and is watered by the 
Cattie burn. The third strath forms a portion of the 
vale of the Dec, but is divided into two parts by the 
burn of Birse : it is ornamented in its centre by the 
church and manse. The Grampians constitute a marked 
barrier on the southern limit of the parish, and one part 
Vol. I.— 137 



of the range, called Mount Geanach, rises there to a 
very conspicuous height, and gives to the locality a wild, 
and in some parts a romantic, appearance. On the 
south-eastern btnmdary runs the river Aven, a tributary 
of the Feugh ; while the Dee flows along the northern 
boundary, and unites with the peculiar features of that 
portion of the parish to render its scenery most attrac- 
tive. The moors abound with grouse and a great variety 
of wild-fowl, and the rivers and mountain streams with 
trout ; the Dee has also salmon, grilse, eel, and pike, 
and the lovers of angling find here every facility for 
their favourite amusement. 

The soil is a light loam, in many parts rather gravelly, 
and takes its leading character from its mixtures of de- 
composed granite and sand, which are sometimes clayey. 
Oats and barley are the usual grain cultivated ; and 
potatoes and turnips, with grass for pasture and hay, 
also form a considerable part of the produce. The sheep 
are the black-faced ; the cattle are much mixed, and in 
general small and of inferior quality, but the kind which 
most prevails is the Aberdeenshire polled and horned. 
The state of husbandry is backward, compared with the 
better cultivated districts of the south, but has been 
improved within the last twenty or thirty years, the 
rotation of crops having been introduced, with a few- 
other modern usages. The annual value of real property 
in the parish is £4106. The rocks comprise granite, a 
blue stone called heathen stone, and limestone, of which 
last there are two or three quarries in operation, the 
produce being generally used for agricultural purposes ; 
the granite is found in large blocks, scattered on or 
near the surface, and is used for building, without the 
trouble and expense of quarrying. A fine specimen of 
red porphyry is found in the river Dee at the Bridge of 
Potarch. 

The mansion of Fiuzean, in the south-east of the 
parish, and in the vale of the river Feugh, is an ancient 
structure, built in the form of three sides of a square. 
That of Ballogie, situated in the valley of Glen-Chatt, is 
a neat and comfortable residence, partly ancient and 
partly modern, and, like the former, surrounded with 
well laid-out grounds and thriving plantations. The 
male population are chiefly engaged in husbandry, and 
many of the females during winter in knitting worsted 
stockings, for which most of the wool produced here is 
purchased. A suspension-bridge over the Dee, on the 
west, was built by the Earl of Aboyne in 1828, and 
rebuilt in 1830 in consequence of its destruction by 
flood ; a communication is thus opened with the north, 
and another bridge over the Dee, called the Bridge of 
Potarch, built in 1813, forms part of the road from 
Brechin to Huntly and Inverness, over the Cairn o' 
IMount and Grampians. The turnpike-road on the 
south side of the Dee, from Aberdeen to Braemar, also 
opens up an important means of intercourse. Four 
fairs are held at Bridge of Potarch in April, May, Octo- 
ber, and November, for cattle, sheep, horses, coarse linen, 
sacking, &c.; that in October being the principal. 

Ecclesiastically the parish is in the presbytery of 
Kincardine O'Neil, synod of Aberdeen, and in the pa- 
tronage of the Crown : the minister's stipend is £158. 
7. 4., a portion of which is received from the exchequer; 
with a manse, and a glebe of four acres. The church, 
inconveniently situated in the north-western part of the 
parish, is a neat substantial edifice, erected in 1779, and 

T 



B L A C 



B L AC 



capable of accommodating between 500 and 600 persons. 
There is a Roman Catholic chapel near Ballogie. The 
parochial school affords instruction in the usual branches; 
the master has a salary of £28, with a house, £6. 10. 
fees, and an allowance from the Dick bequest. Another 
school is supported by money derived from the fund of 
Dr. Gilbert Ramsay, who was rector of Christ-church, 
Barbadoes, and left £500 for the endowment of a free 
school in this, his native parish, £500 to the poor, and 
a sum for the erection of a bridge over the Feugh. A 
religious library was established in 1829, and a savings' 
bank in 1 837. The chief relic of antiquity is a cas- 
tellated ruin called "the Forest", said to have been 
erected by Bishop Gordon of Aberdeen for a hunting 
seat. 

BISHOPMILL, a village, in the parish of New 
Spynie, county of Elgin ; containing 755 inhabitants. 
It is a suburb of Elgin, from which town it is distant 
about half a mile, and stands on the north side of the 
Lossie, the former course of which river was nearer the 
town than the present course. The village is included 
within the parliamentary limits of the borough of Elgin, 
the cross of Bishopniill being the extreme northern 
boundary. — See New Spynie. 

BISHOPBRIDGE, a hamlet, in the parish of Gad- 
der, Lower ward of the county of Lanark ; containing 
213 inhabitants. It is situated in the western part of 
the parish, and on the road from Glasgow to Kirkintil- 
loch. An infant and sewing school was established here 
by Mrs. Stirling of Cadder, and is supported jointly by 
that lady and Mr. Stirling, who pay the mistress a 
salary of £30. 

BISHOPTON, a village, in the parish of Erskine, 
Upper ward of the county of Renfrew ; containing 315 
inhabitants. It is a modern village, situated on the 
south side of the Firth of Clyde, a short distance north 
of the road from Port-Glasgow to Paisley ; and a post- 
office under the latter town has been established, having 
three daily deliveries. 

BLACKBURN, a village, chiefly in the parish of 
Livingstone, and partly in that of Whitburn, county 
of Linlithgow, 7 miles (W. byS.) from Mid-Calder ; 
containing 443 inhabitants. This village is pleasantly 
situated on the river from which it derives its name, 
and on the road from Glasgow to Edinburgh. The in- 
habitants are partly engaged in agricultural pursuits, 
and partly in the cotton manufacture, for which there is 
an estabhshment affording employment to about 120 
persons. A branch office has been established here, 
under the post-office at Whitburn. In 1846 an act of 
parliament was passed for the construction of a railway 
from Airdrie to Bathgate, with a branch to Whitburn 
and Blackburn. Near the village is a quarry of lake- 
stone ; it affords excellent stone for laying ovens, and 
the produce is sent to all parts of the country. Sub- 
scriptions have been opened for the erection of a church ; 
in the mean time, public worship takes place in the vil- 
lage schoolroom. There is a meeting-house for Inde- 
pendents. Blackburn House is a handsome mansion. 

BLACKFORD, a parish, in the county of Perth, 
4 miles (S. VV.) from Auchterarder ; containing, with 
part of the late quoad sacra parish of Ardoeb. I7S2 in- 
habitants, of whom 547 are in the village. This place 
probably derives its name from the ancient vford Jiord, a 
way by land or water ; being equidistant from the towns 
138 



of Perth and Stirling, between which it formed the 
principal line of communication. The parish is bounded 
on the north by the river Earn, and on the south by the 
river Devon, and is about ten miles in length and five in 
breadth. Its surface is varied with level and elevated 
grounds. The Ochil hills, whose sloping acclivities 
afford e.\eel!ent pasturage for sheep, intersect the parish 
towards the south ; and the low lands are fertilized by 
several small rivers, which add much to the beauty of 
the landscape. Of these, the river Machany, rising in 
the high lands of the parish of Muthil, after flowing 
through this parish falls into the Earn at Kinkell. The 
Ruthven, which has its source at Gleneagles, in the 
parish, is but a small stream, pursuing its course through 
the glen of Kincardine for nearly three miles, when, 
taking an eastern direction, it flows through the parish 
of Auchterarder into the river Earn. Another stream, 
the Allen, which also rises at Gleneagles, takes a western 
course through the parish of Dunblane, and falls into 
the river Forth. The soil, especially in the northern 
part of the parish, is rich, and in good cultivation ; the 
system of agriculture is improved, and considerable 
portions of waste land have been reclaimed. Much at- 
tention has also been paid to the growth of plantations, 
which have been extensively formed on the wide moor 
of TuUibardine, and in other parts. The principal trees 
of older growth are oak and birch : at TuUibardine are 
still remaining a few trees of a plantation of thorn, raised 
by a shipwright, in commemoration of the building of a 
large ship for James IV., in which he had been em- 
ployed. The annual value of real property in the parish 
amounts to £10,700. 

The village is inhabited principally by persons en- 
gaged in weaving, and the manufacture of a coarse kind 
of woollen-cloth affords employment to a considerable 
number ; a factory has been erected, in which machinery 
has been introduced, and from seventy to eighty per- 
sons are regularly employed, exclusively of many who 
work at their own homes. In the vicinity of the village 
is a station of the Scottish Central railway. Two fairs 
are held annually ; but from the proximity of Auch- 
terarder and other market-towns, they are not much at- 
tended. The parish is ecclesiastically in the presbytery 
of Auchterarder and synod of Perth and Stirling ; the 
minister's stipend is about £200, with a manse, and a 
glebe valued at £18 per annum. Blackford church, 
built in 1738, and lately repaired, is adapted for a con- 
gregation of 500 persons. The parochial school affords 
a liberal course of instruction ; the master has a salary 
of £34. 4. 4., with fees, and a good dwelling-house and 
garden. There are several remains of ancient military 
works, connected probably with the Roman camp at 
Ardoch, to which station they are supposed to have been 
out- works ; also numerous cairns and tumuli in different 
parts of the parish. Some remains likewise exist of the 
castles of Kincardine and Ogilvy, the walls of which are 
of great thickness ; and at Gleneagles and TuUibardine 
are the remains of chapels. The lands of TuUibardine 
give the title of Marquess to the Duke of Atholl. 

BLACKNESS, a village, in the parish of Carriden, 
county of Linlithgow, 3 miles (E.) from Borrowstoun- 
ness ; containing 107 inhabitants. This place was 
formerly the sea-port of Linhthgow, and the residence of 
numerous merchants, who carried on an extensive trade 
with Holland, Bremen, Hamburgh, and Dantzic, in 



y^ 



B L A C 



BL A 1 



which they employed thirty-six ships of large burthen. 
It is now an inconsiderable hamlet, distinguished only 
by its royal castle, which is one of the four Scottish 
fortresses kept in repair according to the articles of the 
union of the two kingdoms. The harbour and quay 
are in a ruinous state : the custom-house has been con- 
verted into lodgings for the few individuals who, during 
the summer, resort to this deserted spot for the benefit 
of bathing ; and the only business carried on is the oc- 
casional shipping of bricks and tiles made at Brickfield, 
in the immediate vicinity, and the landing of lime and 
manure. Stake-nets for salmon have been laid down 
from the point of Blackness. 

The castle, which is still entire, is situated on a pro- 
montory on the south shore of the Firth of Forth, near 
the influx of the Black burn, and at a small distance 
from the village. It is supposed to occupy the site of 
a Roman station on the wall of Antonine, which, accord- 
ing to most writers, terminated at this place ; but the 
date of the present structure is not distinctly known. 
In 14S1, the castle, with eight ships at that time in the 
harbour, was burnt by the English fleet; and in 1488, 
the nobles who had rebelled against James III. held a 
conference with that monarch here, which was called 
the "Pacification of Blackness". In 1542, Cardinal 
Beaton was imprisoned in the castle by the Earl of 
Arran, then regent, but he was soon liberated, through 
the influence of the clergy ; and after the battle of 
Pinkie, in 1547, Lord Clinton, the admiral of the En- 
glish fleet, took three and burnt seven of the vessels 
lying in the harbour. The castle was garrisoned by the 
French forces under the command of General D'Esse 
in 1548, and also under the regency of Mary of Guise ; 
but in 1560 it was taken by the sheriff of Linlithgow. 
In 15/1, it was garrisoned by Claude Hamilton, a zea- 
lous adherent to the interests of Mary, Queen of Scots ; 
and by him it was held in her name till 1 573, when it 
was delivered up to the Earl of Morton, then regent. 
During the progress of the Reformation, and the con- 
tests that arose between the advocates of Presbytery and 
Episcopacy, the castle was frequently a place of confine- 
ment for the non-conforming clergy ; and in the latter 
part of the eighteenth and earlier part of the nineteenth 
century, it was chiefly occupied by French prisoners of 
war. The Earls of Linlithgow were hereditary constables 
of the castle till 1715, when that office was forfeited on 
the attainder of James the sixth earl, for his participa- 
tion in the Earl of Mar's rebellion. There are a gover- 
nor and a lieutenant-governor attached to the castle, 
neither of whom is resident ; and the garrison till lately 
consisted of two gunners, a Serjeant, two corporals, and 
fifteen privates ; but at present the only inmates are an 
inferior officer and his family. The buildings consist 
of a principal tower, with ramparts commanding the en- 
trance, and a court-yard, and have accommodation for 
100 men. 

BLACKRIDGE, for a time a quoad sacra parish, 
chiefly in the parish of Torphichen, county of Lin- 
lithgow, 3 miles (W.) from Bathgate ; containing 900 
inhabitants, of whom 94 are in the village. This parish 
comprised portions of the civil parishes of Torphichen, 
Shotts, Bathgate, Slamannan, and New Monkland. The 
village lies at the west end of the first-named parish, near 
the river Avon ; and the inhabitants are employed in 
agriculture, and in the mines and quarries in the neigh- 
139 



bourhood. The church, situated in the village, was 
erected by subscription, in 1838, and is a neat structure 
containing 400 sittings. One of the two parochial 
schools in Torphichen is fixed here ; the master has a 
salary of £10 from the lands of Blackridge, and 100 
marks Scots from heritors, with a house and garden, 
and the fees average about £14. Here is also one of the 
two parochial libraries. 

BLADNOCH, a village, in the parish and county of 
Wigtown, 1 mile (S.) from Wigtown; containing 215 
inhabitants. This village is pleasantly situated on the 
north bank of the river Bladnoch, over which is a bridge, 
connecting it with the parish of Kirkinner, on the south. 
An extensive whisky distillery has been established, in 
which about twenty persons are constantly employed, 
and which annually consumes about 16,000 bushels of 
barley. There is a small salmon-fishery carried on here, 
and various kinds of white fish are taken in the bay. 

BLAIR- ATHOLL, a parish, in the county of Perth, 
20 miles (N. by W.) from Dunkeld ; containing, with 
part of Tenandry quoad sacra parish, 2231 inhabitants. 
This place, the name of which in the Gaelic language 
signifies "the plain of AthoU ", comprises the four an- 
cient parishes of Blair, Lude, Kilmaveonaig, and Strowan, 
united into one parish in the early part of the seventeenth 
century. In the reign of James V., that monarch, with 
his mother, and the pope's legate, were entertained at 
Blair Castle with great hospitality by the Earl of Atholl, 
who, for their diversion, accompanied them in a cele- 
brated hunt on the north side of the mountain Beinn- 
ghlo. The castle afterwards became the headquarters 
of Viscount Dundee, in the memorable campaign of 
Killiecrankie, the battle taking place on the fields of 
Runrory, on the north side of Girnag mountain. It was, 
indeed, frequently occupied as an important military 
station, not only during the times of feudal warfare, but 
also in the rebellion of 1745 and 1746, when it was garri- 
soned with a force of 300 men under the command of Sir 
Andrew Agnew, whom the Duke of Cumberland, on his 
arrival at Perth, had despatched to take up his quarters 
here, and so cut ofi' all communication between the 
northern and southern parts of the country. In order 
to gain possession of this station, Lord George Murray, 
accompanied by several officers of the Highland army, 
and with a force of 100 men, was sent to surprise the 
castle, which, from its scanty supply of provisions, he 
attempted to reduce by famine. With this view, having 
made prisoners of all the detached out-posts, he took up 
his head-quarters in the village, and closely blockaded 
the castle. But after having reduced the garrison to the 
last extremity, he suddenly raised the blockade, and re- 
turned to join the Young Pretender's army at Inverness ; 
and on the following day, the garrison were relieved by 
the Earl of Crawford, and received the thanks of the 
Duke of Cumberland for their gallant defence. 

The PARISH is bounded on the north by the Grampian 
hills, and is about thirty miles in length and eighteen 
miles in average breadth, comprising 105,000 acres of 
hill pasture, 3000 of arable land under cultivation, and 
2500 in wood and plantations. The surface is finely 
varied with hills and valleys. On both sides of the river 
Garry is an extensive and fertile plain, constituting the 
vale of Garry, and extending from the pass of Killie- 
crankie to Strowan, terminating in hills whose slopes arc 
under cultivation, and the summits clothed with heather. 

T2 



B L A I 

In the Grampian range are several lofty mountains, of 
which Beinn-ghlo, Beinn-mheadhonaidh, Beinn-chait, 
and Beinn-deirg are the principal; the mountain Beinn- 
ghlo, which stands upon a base many miles in circum- 
ference, presents to view four detached summits, one 
having an altitude of 37'20 feet above the level of the sea, 
and the others being little inferior in height. The 
surface is also diversified with lakes, one of the chief of 
which is Loch Garry, near the boundary of the counties 
of Perth and Inverness ; it is inclosed on all sides by 
hills of lofty elevation, and is about six miles in cir- 
cumference, abounding with trout of excellent quality. 
Loch Tummel is a picturesque sheet of water, four miles 
in length and nearly a mile in breadth, tastefully em- 
bellished with an island of artificial formation, on which 
are the ruins of a castle, and inclosed with banks richly 
cultivated, interspersed with small hamlets. The castle 
was built in the time of Robert Bruce, by Duncan the 
Gross, founder of the clan Robertson. This lake, also, 
abounds with pike and trout of the largest size. The 
river Garry issues from the lake of that name, and after 
a course of nearly thirty miles, in which it receives the 
streams of the Erichkie, Bruar, and Tilt, falls into the 
Tummel at the south-eastern extremity of the parish ; 
the Tummel has its source in Loch Tummel, and urges 
its rapid and impetuous course but for a short way 
through the parish. The river Tilt, from the loch of 
that name, on the summit of the Grampian range, 
pursues a course of sixteen miles, and flows into the 
Garry at Blair, displaying in its progress a succession of 
beautifully picturesque scenery. Almost all the rivers 
form interesting cascades. The falls of the Garry, ob- 
structed in its course by shelving rocks, are peculiarly 
interesting ; and those of the Tummel are magnificently 
grand, from the vast body of water which is precipitated 
from rocks clothed to their summits with stately birch- 
trees. The Bruar, also, descending from a height of 
some hundred feet, forms a succession of cataracts, 
rendered still more striking from the beauty of the sur- 
rounding scenery. 

The SOIL is various : in the valleys, and on the slopes 
of the hills, a light loam or a gravelly soil prevails, and 
in the more elevated lauds the mossy soil of the Gram- 
pian range. The chief crops are different kinds of grain, 
and turnips, for which latter the soil is well adapted, and 
of which considerable quantities are raised. The farm- 
houses are generally well built ; and considerable im- 
provements have been made in husbandry, under the 
auspices of the AthoU Club, which distributes annual 
prizes for the promotion of agriculture and the breed of 
stock. The cattle are usually of the black Highland 
breed, to the rearing of which great attention is paid ; 
about I'iOO milch-cows are regularly pastured, and 
30,000 sheep are annually fed, all of the black-faced 
breed. AthoU "forest", formerly enjoying many privi- 
leges, is partly in the parish, and about 1 '2,000 head of 
red deer are found within its limits. The annual value 
of real property in the parish is £11,847. The natural 
woods are principally oak, ash, birch, alder, and aspen ; 
and the plantations, which are very extensive, consist of 
Scotch firs, spruce, and larch, with lime, elm, and plane 
trees, of which there are some very fine specimens in the 
park of Blair. The substratum is chiefly limestone, 
which forms part of the great vein extending from near 
Callender to Braemar, and is quarried for agricultural 
140 



B L AI 

and other purposes, but not insufficient quantity for the 
lands, in consequence of the scarcity of fuel for burning 
it. Marble, also, of various colours is abundant, especi- 
ally a vein of a green colour, much esteemed for mantel- 
pieces. 

Blair Castle, already noticed, the baronial seat of the 
Murray family, Dukes of AthoU, is a spacious structure, 
supposed to have been erected by John Cumin, of Strath- 
bogie, who became Earl of AthoU in right of his wife. 
In 1750 the building was reduced by taking down two 
stories, and converted into a family mansion. It con- 
tains a handsome suite of state apartments, but its cas- 
tellated appearance has been lost by the removal of its 
turrets. The house is inclosed in a very extensive park, 
embellished with ancient timber and thriving planta- 
tions ; and the grounds, which are laid out with great 
taste, command a rich variety of scenery. Her Majesty 
and Prince Albert, on their second visit to Scotland, 
spent three weeks at this place, in September, 1844 ; 
the castle was prepared by Lord Glenlyon (now Duke of 
AthoU) for Her Majesty's reception, and he introduced to 
the royal notice the most remarkable natural features of 
the vicinity. Lude House, a spacious modern mansion, 
occupies an elevated site, and forms an interesting object 
in the scenery of the Garry. Auchleeks is also a hand- 
some modern mansion, pleasantly situated. A post-office 
has been established, which has a daily delivery ; and 
fairs are held at Blair-AthoU on the 2nd of February for 
general traffic, and the third AVednesday in May for 
horses and cattle ; at Tilt Bridge, on the 25th of June 
and the '20th of August (O. S.), for cattle ; and at Trina- 
four, on the third Tuesday in March (O. S.), for horses, 
and the Wednesday in October before the tryst of Fal- 
kirk, for cattle. 

Ecclesiastically the parish is in the presbytery of Dun- 
keld, synod of Perth and Stirling, and in the patronage 
of the Duke of AthoU ; the minister's stipend is about 
£'200, with a manse, and the glebe is valued at £150 per 
annum. The parochial church is a handsome and sub- 
stantial edifice of modern erection, adapted for 650 per- 
sons, and the churchyard is spacious. A church was 
erected in the Strowan district, in 18'29, for a congrega- 
tion of 450 persons ; and divine service is performed on 
two consecutive Sundays at Blair-AthoU, and every third 
Sunday at Strowan. The old church of Kilmaveonaig 
was rebuilt in 1791, and appropriated as a place of wor- 
ship by the Episcopalians. There is also a meeting-house 
for Baptists, The parochial school affords education to 
about a hundred scholars ; the master has a salary of 
£34. 4. 4., with about £30 fees, and a house and garden. 
There are vestiges of an old religious establishment on 
the banks of the Tilt, called Cill Aindreas, consisting 
chiefly of sepulchral remains ; and in various parts of 
the parish are upright stones, the remnants of Druidical 
circles, near some of which are traces of ancient ceme- 
teries. The walls of the church of Lude are also still 
remaining. 

BLAIR-LOGIE, a village, in the parish of Logie, 
county of Perth, '2 miles (N. N. E.) from Stirling ; con- 
taining 1'24 inhabitants. This village, situated at the 
foot of the Ochil hills, is celebrated for its beauty and 
cleanliness, and the salubrity of its air, and is much 
visited by invalids for its goat's-whey. It contains a 
small library belonging to the parish, and there is a 
place of worship connected with the United Presbyterian 



i 



B L A I 



B L A I 



Synod. On the heights is the Castle of Blair-Logie, now 
occupied by a farmer. 

BLAIRBURN, a village, in the parish of Culross, 
county of Perth ; containing 85 inhabitants. 

BLAIRDAFF, Aberdeen.— See Garioch. 

BLAIRGOWRIE, a burgh, inarket-town, and pa- 
rish, in the county of Perth, .58 miles (N. by \V.) from 
Edinburgh ; containing about 3*00 inhabitants, of whom 
about '2600 are in the town. Blair is a term of doubtful 
etymology, by some supposed to be derived from a 
Gaelic root signifying a mossy locality, and by others 
thought to come from a word denoting the scene of a 
battle or of war. Gowrie was the ancient denomination 
of the district in which the parish is situated, and has 
been used as an affix to distinguish it from several other 
places of the name of Blair. The town stands not far 
from the eastern boundary of the county, bordering on 
Forfarshire, and on a pleasant eminence on the western 
bank of the river Ericht, forming the first step of the 
acclivity of the hill of Blair. From its secluded and re- 
mote neighbourhood, it has been free from the collisions 
of the great political and religious tumults which have 
been felt so frequently and extensively throughout the 
country, the only historical recollection noted of this 
kind being the passage of the celebrated Montrose 
through the place, in one of his hostile descents into the 
valley of Strathmore. But what, at the commencement 
of the present century, was a small, quiet, and inconsi- 
derable village, has since grown into a bustling manufac- 
turing and market town ; and not only the inhabitants 
of this spot, but those of the parish generally, have ex- 
changed their rural for a commercial character, the pea- 
santry having given place to artisans, partly through the 
breaking up of the cottar system by the consolidation of 
small farms, but chiefly through the extensive introduc- 
tion of manufactures. About forty or fifty years since, 
the village consisted of small, unsightly thatched houses, 
collected in the vicinity of the church. It now contains 
some good streets, which are well lighted with gas, 
supplied by a joint-stock company established in 1834 ; 
and its new and attractive character has for some time 
been gradually drawing, from the other parts of the pa- 
rish, a considerable portion of the people to take up their 
residence here. Blairgowrie is approached by several 
good roads from different quarters. The most consider- 
able of these is the great north road from Perth to Fort- 
George, which enters the parish at the southern boundary, 
about two miles distant, and crosses the Ericht a little 
way from the town, by the bridge of Blairgowrie. This 
road has lately been made a turnpike as far as the bridge 
of Cally, six miles north of the town. 

The river Ericht, forming the eastern boundary of the 
parish for ten miles, is a lively and interesting feature in 
the strikingly beautiful scenery which is commanded by 
the well-cultivated hill of Blair ; it has its course through 
diversified and romantic combinations of woods and 
rocks, and falls into the Isla at Cupar-Grange. Within 
half a mile of the town is a small cascade or salmon-leap, 
partly artificial, called the Keath. The hill of Blair, 
immediately behind the town, is crowned by the church, 
and skirted by a deep well-wooded ravine stretching 
down abruptly nearly to the river. From the churchyard 
a view of the first order is obtained, embracing the whole 
valley of Strathmore, in the northern portion of which 
part of the parish lies, and terminated on the east by the 
141 



Hunter hill of Glammis, and on the south by the pictu- 
resque chain of the Sidlaws. Near the town are the 
mansions of Newton and Ardblair, large structures in 
the castellated style, the former commanding beautiful 
and extensive prospects over Strathmore, and being 
itself seen as a conspicuous object from several parts ; 
and not far distant is Blairgowrie House, a large edifice, 
situated on the low grounds to the south of the town, 
the whole of the vicinity of which partakes of the rich 
and varied scenery characteristic of the lower or southern 
division of the parish, the northern district exhibiting the 
features of a liighland locality. 

The spinning-wheel, formerly so much in use here, has 
been entirely superseded by machinery ; and there are 
at present five mills in operation, worked by water-power, 
and employing about 'iOO hands in the spinning of flax 
and tow into yarn. The flax used is imported into Dun- 
dee from the Baltic, and after being spun, is either taken 
to the former place for sale, or disposed of to manufac- 
turers in the neighbourhood, and at Alyth and Cupar- 
Angus. The value of flax annually consumed at three 
mills near the town is from £'20,000 to £'26,000 per an- 
num, and the value of yarn spun at the same mills, from 
£33,000 to £36,000. About 350 persons are occupied 
in weaving yarn by hand-looms into cloth of different 
fabrics, consisting of fine dowlas and drill, and especially 
Osnaburghs and coarse sheetings : these are generally 
sold at Dundee, but sometimes shipped, on the part of 
the manufacturer, direct to North and South America and 
France. Another branch of trade carried on is that of 
salmon-fishing, which, however, is in a very low state, the 
rental for the whole course of the Ericht from the Keath 
to the boundary of the parish being only £'21. 1'2. per 
annum. This change from its former extent, which was 
very considerable, is owing partly to the circumstance of 
there being fisheries lower down, on the Tay and Isla, 
and partly to the erection of the numerous mills on the 
river, which in summer drain off nearly the whole of the 
water. A general post-office is established in the town. 
Besides the road from Perth to Fort-George, already 
noticed, there is ^ road from Blairgowrie to Cupar- 
Angus, made turnpike in 183'2, which quits the parish 
about two miles south of the town ; and the line of road 
from Kirriemuir, Forfar, and other places, to Dunkeld, 
passes through the town, in crossing the parish from 
east to west. In 1846 an act was obtained for the con- 
struction of a branch to Blairgowrie of the Perth and 
Forfar railway. A market, which is well attended, is held 
on Wednesday, in alternate weeks, during winter and 
spring, for cattle and grain ; and there are animal fairs 
in the town on the third Wednesday in March ; the 
'26th of May, if it fall on Wednesday, if not, the first 
Wednesday after ; the '23rd July ; the first Wednesday 
in Nov. i the '2'2nd Nov., or first Tuesday after j and 
the Wednesday before Falkirk tryst. There are two 
branch banks, and a savings' bank in connexion with the 
Perth National-Security Savings' Bank : the deposits in 
the savings' bank amount to upwards of £3000. 

Blairgowrie was erected into a burgh of barony by 
charter from Charles I., dated 9th July, 1634, in favour 
of George Drummond, then proprietor of the estate. In 
the year 1809, the town was created a free burgh of 
barony by a charter from Colonel McPherson, the supe- 
rior, and the burgesses were emi)0wered to elect a bailie 
and four councillors for the management of the affairs 



B L AI 



B L A I 



of the burgh. The bailie, and two of the councillors, 
vacate their office every two years ; and their places are 
filled up by the burgesses. The police is in accordance 
with the general police act, and under the control of the 
chief magistrate and four commissioners, the latter being 
annually elected by the £10 householders ; but the pro- 
visions of the act respecting watching and paving have 
not been adopted, the householders being still bound by 
their charter to take the watching by turns, themselves 
personally, or to provide substitutes. There are two 
commodious and well-ventilated cells in the lower story of 
the town-house, used as a prison, for the punishment of 
offenders within the jurisdiction of the burgh magistrate. 
The town is one of the seats of the quarterly sheriff- 
court, under the Small-Debt act, and a polling-place for 
the county parliamentary elections. 

The PARISH consists of a principal portion, about 
seven miles long and one mile and- a half in average 
breadth, and of two detached parts. One of these, lying 
north-west of the large division, and separated by 
branches of the parishes of Kiuloch and Bendochy, 
contains a tract on each side of the river Ardle (consist- 
ing of the estates of Blackcraig, Wester-Cally, and 
Whitehouse), and part of the district of the Forest of 
Cluny; covering altogether about four square miles. The 
other detached part, called Creuchies, situated to the 
north-east, and separated by the parish of Rattray, con- 
taius about two square miles. The total number of acres 
in the parish is estimated at about 16,000 or 17,000, of 
which about 10,000 are or have been cultivated, 5000 
are waste and pasture, and the remainder wood and 
plantations, comprising alder, birch, hazel, mountain-ash, 
larch to a considerable extent, and Scotch fir. Blair- 
gowrie parish comprehends two divisions, the highland 
and the lowland, separated from each other by a branch of 
the Grampian range ; the former is hilly, and constitutes 
the northern boundary of the vale of Strathmore, while 
the surface of the latter, which belongs to that vale, is 
tolerably equal, and replete with that beautiful and 
richly-diversified scenery for which the whole sweep of 
country is so highly celebrated. The Ardle and Black- 
water streams, partly skirting the northern division, 
unite near the bridge of Cally, and form the principal 
river, the Ericht. This river, in the vicinity of Craighall, 
passes through some of the most wildly romantic por- 
tions of the district, the beauties of which supplied the 
author of Waverley with many of the principal features 
in the description of Tully-Veolan. The parish is partly 
bounded on the south by the Lunan ; and the Lornty, 
after flowing for some distance, falls into the Ericht 
about half a mile above the town. The streams abound 
with trout : pike, perch, and eels are plentiful in all the 
lochs, which are six in number ; and the loch of Stor- 
mont is frequented in summer by swarms of sea-gulls, 
that build among the reeds and rushes, and furnish 
large quantities of eggs. 

The southern and most cultivated division of the 
parish, stretching southward from the hill of Blair, for 
four miles, to the middle of the valley of Strathmore, 
exhibits great diversity of soil, comprising stiff clay, 
moss, rich loam near the town, and alluvial earth ; the 
last, on the bank of the river, being the most fertile. In 
this division is the muir of Blair, a tract comprehending 
about 1000 acres, chiefly covered with thick plantations 
of Scotch fir, beyond which, to the south, the soil, though 
142 



thin and light, is mostly under cultivation. All kinds 
of grain and green crops are raised, and a considerable 
revenue is derived from pastures and the thinning of 
woods. The sheep kept here are not bred in the parish, 
but are purchased in autumn, and fattened with turnips 
eaten olf the ground in winter, for sale in the follow- 
ing spring. Much improvement has taken place in the 
stock of cattle, by crossing the native cows with the 
short-horned bulls, and large numbers are fed for the 
Glasgow and Falkirk markets. The husbandry is of a 
superior kind, all the modern usages having been intro- 
duced, and draining and inclosing have been practised 
to a great extent. The annual value of real property in 
the parish is £9291. The rocks consist chiefly of grey- 
wacke, greenstone, and sandstone ; the last, which is a 
coarse red conglomerate, is extensively quarried in the 
vicinity of the town, and there are several other quar- 
ries in different parts, including one of day-slate, not 
now in operation. 

For ecclesiastical purposes, the parish is in the pres- 
bytery of Meigle, synod of Angus and Meams, and in 
the alternate patronage of William McPherson, Esq., of 
Blairgowrie, and the Trustees of the late James Blair 
Oliphant, Esq., of Gask and Ardblair. The minister's 
stipend averages £222. IS. ; with a manse, rebuilt in 
1S3S, with the offices, at a cost of upwards of £500 ; and 
a glebe comprising 9i acres, valued at £20 per annum. 
The church, built in 1824, on the site of the old edifice, 
on an eminence close to the town, contains 1000 sittings. 
A chapel situated in Brown's-street was p\irchased for 
the sum of £400, of the Burgher congregation who had 
before used it, and was opened in 1837 in connexion 
with the Established Church. The money for the pur- 
chase, with the exception of £100 granted by the 
Church-extension Committee, was raised by subscription. 
No minister is now appointed. There are a Roman 
Catholic chapel, and places of worship for members of 
the Free Church and Independents ; and a handsome 
edifice has been erected in the early English style, con- 
sisting of a nave and chancel, for the use of a congrega- 
tion of Episcopalians ; it is named St. Catharine's, and 
was founded at the expense of the Rev. John Marshall, 
who ornamented the chancel with an elegant window of 
stained glass. Attached to it is a library containing 
many works of science and general literature, for the 
use of all denominations. The parochial school affords 
instruction in the usual branches ; the master has a 
salary of £34. 4., and about £60 fees. The late Mr. 
George Barty, tobacconist at Perth, and a native of this 
place, who died in 1S3S, bequeathed £1400 for the edu- 
cation of poor children belonging to this parish, and the 
parishes of Rattray, Bendochy, and Kinloch, in the 
parochial school of Blairgowrie. An elegant new shoool- 
room was built in 1842, at an expense of upwards of 
£S00. The antiquities comprise the ruins of the castle 
of Glasclune, formerly the property of the Blairs, and of 
that of Drumlochy, the seat of the Herons ; the build- 
ings are in close vicinity to each other, and between the 
possessors a feud once raged, ending in the ruin of the 
latter. There are several ancient cairns. A chalybeate 
spring called the " Heugh well", situated in a cliff about 
a mile from the town, is found of great benefit in 
cutaneous and dyspeptic complaints. After the royal 
visit to Ireland, Her Majesty, accompanied by Prince 
Albert and her suite, passed through the town of Blair- 



B L A N 



B L A N 



gowrie on the 15th August, 1S49, on her way from 
Glasgow to Balmoral in Aberdeenshire. 

BLAIRINGONE, for a time a quoad sacra parish, 
chiefly in the parish of Fossoway and Tulliebole, 
county of Perth ; containing 5*4 inhabitants, of whom 
210 are in New, and 79 'n Olfl. Blairingone, 10 miles 
(W.) from Kinross. This parish, the name of which 
implies " the Field of Spears ", included portions of the 
parishes of Muckart, Dollar, and Clackmannan ; it was 
bounded on the north by the river Devon, and inter- 
sected by the road between Alloa and Kinross. Coal is 
abundant, and several mines are in operation ; ironstone 
of very superior quality is also wrought, and some 
veins of an ore supposed to contain a considerable pro- 
portion of sulphur have lately been discovered. In the 
parish are several handsome residences, among which 
are, Devonshaw, a modern building in the Elizabethan 
style, beautifully situated on the south bank of the 
Devon ; and Arndean, also a modern mansion, of the 
same style. The village is in the south-western part of 
the parish, and is chiefly inhabited by the work-people 
of the collieries. Blairingone was ecclesiastically in 
the presbytery of Auchterarder, synod of Perth and 
Stirling ; the minister was appointed by the heads of 
families : the church is a neat plain building, erected 
by subscription, aided by a grant from the General 
Assembly's Church-extension Committee. There is a 
congregation of members of the Free Church, who 
assemble in a schoolroom of handsome design, erected 
in 1843 : the school is for all denominations, and 
connected with the Free Church is a library. On the 
banks of the Devon is a remarkable spring issuing from 
among strata of ironstone, and used medicinally. — See 
Fossoway. 

BLAIRMORE, a hamlet, in the parish of Kenmore, 
county of Perth ; containing 21 inhabitants. 

BLANTYRE, a parish, in the Middle ward of the 
county of Lanark ; including the villages of Auchin- 
raith, Auchintiber, Barnhill, Blantyre, Blantyre- Works, 
Hunthill, and Stonefield ; and containing 3047 inhabit- 
ants, of whom 1464 are in the village of Blantyre-Works, 
and 264 in that of Blantyre, or Kirkton,3 miles (N. W.) 
from Hamilton, and 8:^ (.S. S. E.) from Glasgow. The 
lands formerly belonged to the Dunbars of Enteckin, 
in which family they remained till the Reformation, 
when they were purchased by Walter Stewart, son of 
Lord Minto, treasurer of Scotland, upon whom, on the 
suppression of monastic establishments, the ancient 
priory of this place was bestowed by James VL, who 
also created him Lord Blantyre. The priory is said to 
have been founded by Alexander IL, as a cell to the 
abbey of Jedburgh, or, according to Spottiswoode, of 
Holyrood House ; and Walter, who was prior in the 
fourteenth century, was one of the commissioners ap- 
pointed to negotiate for the ransom of David Bruce, the 
Scottish king, who had been made prisoner by the 
English, in the battle of Durham, in 1346. The remains 
of the priory, which arc very inconsiderable, are situated 
on the summit of a high rock on the bank of the river 
Clyde, opposite to the ruins of Bothwell Castle. Little 
more is left than one of the vaults, which is still entire, 
with two gables, and a portion of the outer walls. The 
buildings were of red granite ; and in combination with 
the castle, the ruins form an interesting feature in the 
scenery. 

143 



The PARISH extends for six miles in length, from 
north to south, and varies greatly in breadth, not ave- 
raging more than one mile in the whole. It comprises 
4170 acres, of which, excepting 200 acres of moss land, 
and plantations, all is arable. The principal rivers 
are, the Clyde, which enters the parish at a short dis- 
tance below Bothwell bridge, and forms a boundary 
between this place and the parish of Botliwell for about 
three miles, flowing majestically between lofty banks 
richly clothed with wood ; and the Calder, which enters 
the parish near Rottenburn, and after forming several 
picturesque falls in its course along the western boun- 
dary, flows into the river Clyde near Daldowie. Other 
streams are, the Redburn, which has its source in the 
lands of Park farm, and joins the Clyde near Bothwell 
bridge ; and two other rivulets, one rising in the lands 
of Shott, and one at Newmain, which also fall into the 
river Clyde. Salmon are taken in abundance near the 
mill-dam of Blantyre. In many parts the scenery is 
exceedingly beautiful ; the parish is generally well 
wooded, and diversified with gently undulating emi- 
nences and fertile dales. The soil is various, being in 
some parts a fine rich loam, in others a strong clay, and 
in others sand, with some portions of moss ; the system 
of agriculture is improved, and good crops of various 
kinds of grain are raised. Great improvement has been 
made in draining the lands, and a considerable tract 
called Blantyre moor, formerly a common, has been 
subdivided, and brought into cultivation : the farm 
houses and buildings are of a superior order. The 
annual value of real property in the parish is £8280. 
Peat for fuel is cut on Edge Moss ; and coal, the veins 
of which are very thin, is worked at Calderside and 
Rottenburn. Limestone of a quality well adapted for 
building, and for agricultural purposes, is wrought in 
the southern part of the parish. Ironstone, also, is 
abundant, and at Black- Craig, on the borders of the 
parish, not less than seventeen different seams are to be 
seen, superincumbent on each other : the ironstone is 
worked in the parish of Kilbride, where are the openings 
of the mines, but the strata lie chiefly in this parish. 

The principal village is situated on an eminence over- 
looking the river Clyde, and in the midst of a beautiful 
country, embellished with timber of venerable and 
stately growth. It appears to have attained its present 
importance and extent, from the introduction of the 
cotton manufacture by Messrs. Dale and Monteith, who 
in 1785 erected a mill for the spinning of cotton-yarn, 
and, in the year 1791, another for the making of mule 
twist. In 1813 Messrs. Monteith and Company erected 
a weaving factory, in which the number of looms has 
since that time increased from 450 to nearly 600 ; and 
around these works, giving profitable employment to a 
large number of the population, the present village is 
erected. In the two spinning-mills, which are both 
worked by water-power, are 30,000 spindles, affording 
occupation to about 500 persons ; and in the weaving 
establishment, the works of which are driven partly 
by water-power and partly by steam, are 600 power- 
looms, in the management of which more than 300 
persons arc regularly employed. In connexion with 
these works is an establishment for dyeing cotton-yarn 
with the Turkey red. Tiie total number of persons 
employed in all the departments is nearly 1000, of 
whom more than 500 arc females. The houses are 



BLEB 



BOH A 



comfortable and neatly built, and the village is watched 
and cleansed by persons paid by the company, who have 
also built a public washing-house, and appropriated a 
large bleach green, on the banks of the Clyde, for the 
use of the inhabitants, who are supplied with hard and 
soft water for domestic purposes by force-pumps at the 
factory. A library has been some years established, 
which contains an extensive collection of useful volumes. 
Great facility of intercourse is afforded by the lines of 
the Caledonian railway company. 

Blantyre is ecclesiastically within the bounds of the 
presbytery of Hamilton, synod of Glasgow and Ayr, and 
in the patronage of Lord Blantyre ; the minister's sti- 
pend is about £184, with a manse, and a glebe valued 
at £16 per annum. The parish church was erected in 
1793, and will only hold about 300 persons. There is 
a chapel at the Blantyre Mills, erected by the company 
for the accommodation of the work-people employed 
there, and containing sittings for 400 persons ; the 
minister's stipend is paid, one-half by the proprietors 
of the works, and the other half from the seat rents. 
A place of worship has been erected for members of the 
Free Church. The parochial school affords a liberal 
education; the salary of the master is £26, with £19 
fees. There is also a school for the children of the 
work-people at the mills, to which purpose the chapel 
is applied during the week ; the master is appointed by 
the company, who give him a house and garden rent 
free, and a salary of £20. 

Ancient urns have been at various times discovered in 
several parts of the parish ; some of these were inclosed 
in a kind of kistvaeu, covered by heaps of loose stones, 
and contained ashes, with remnants of half-burnt bones 
scattered round them. Within the last few years a 
.<=tone coffin was discovered, containing an urn of baked 
earth, in which was a skull with the teeth nearly entire 
and in good preservation ; and fragments of six larger 
and more richly ornamented urns were found in ano- 
ther part of the same field, which is now called " Archers 
Croft". Stone cofl'ins have also been found at Lawhill 
and Greenhall, and other places situated within the limits 
of the parish. At Calderside is a large hill called the 
Camp- Know, of conical form, 600 feet in circumference 
at the base, and surrounded by a moat ; and near it is a 
kind of subterraneous cavern of flags. At Park farm is 
a fine .spring, which has long been in high repute for 
the cure of scorbutic affections and diseases of the e)'e ; 
It is strongly impregnated with sulphur, combined with 
muriate and sulphate of lime, and was formerly much 
resorted to by invalids from Glasgow and its neighbour- 
hood. There are also various mineral springs on the 
banks of the river Calder. The late John Miller, Esq., 
professor of law in the university of Glasgow, resided 
for some years at Milheugh, in the parish, and was 
buried in the churchyard. 

BLEBO-CRAIGS, a village, in the parish of Kem- 
B.\CK, district of St. Andrews, county of Fife, i a mile 
(S. E.) from Kemback; containing '234 inhabitants. It 
lies a short distance to the north of the road from Ceres 
to St. Andrew's. On the estate of Blebo, a vein of lead- 
ore was discovered in 1722, and was worked for some 
time, but relinquished in consequence of the expense. 
In the vicinity are extensive mills. Blebo House, the 
property of the Bethune family, is an elegant mansion, 
surrounded by fine plantations. 
144 



BLUE-ROW, a hamlet, in the parish of New Kil- 
PATRiCK, county of Dumbarton, containing 53 inha- 
bitants. 

BLUEVALE, a village, in the former ecclesiastical 
district of Camlachie, Barony parish, county of 
Lanark. This is a suburb of the city of Glasgow, and 
one of the divisions that were ecclesiastically separated 
from Barony parish. It consists chiefly of small cottages, 
irregularly built, and occupied by hantl-loom weavers and 
day-labourers. There are five schools connected with 
this place and the other divisions of Camlachie, Keppoch 
Hill, and Ladywell, which are attended by about 300 
children. 

BOARHILLS, a village, in the parish and district 
of St. Andrew's, county of Fife, 4 miles (S. E.) from 
St. Andrew's ; containing 1 .55 inhabitants. It is situated 
on the eastern coast, and southern point of St. Andrew's 
bay. A little northward of it is Mount Budda rock. 

BODDAM, a village, in the parish of Peterhead, 
district of Buchan, county of Aberdeen, 3 miles (S.) 
from Peterhead ; containing 526 inhabitants. This 
place anciently belonged to a branch of the Keith family, 
who had a strong baronial castle, situated on a rock 
overhanging the sea, and of which there are still consi- 
derable remains. The village is situated on the eastern 
coast, near the headland of Buchanness, and is in- 
habited chiefly by persons employed in the fisheries, 
which are carried 011 to a great extent. In the had- 
dock-fishery, commencing in March, and continuing till 
July, twenty-two boats, of four men and a boy each, 
are engaged ; and during the season, each boat takes 
generally about 30,000 fish, which are cured, and dried 
upon the rocks, and sell at from £3 to £4 per thousand. 
The herring-fishery begins in July, and continues till 
September : it employs twenty-three large boats, with 
crews of six men each ; and the quantity of fish taken 
during the season averages, when sold, about £100 for 
each boat. There are twelve boats employed during the 
winter months in the cod and white fishery ; the fish are 
cod, ling, skate, and turbot, and from 1200 to ISOO are 
taken by each boat, and produce from £30 to £40. The 
fish cured here obtain a decided preference in the market, 
especially the haddocks, which, from being dried on the 
rocks, are perfectly free from sand. The village has been 
extended and improved ; and a harbour of larger capacity 
has been constructed, which has a greater depth of water 
than that of Peterhead, and the approach of which is ren- 
dered safe by the lighthouse on Buchanness. 

BOGHEAD, a village, in the parish of Lesmahagow, 
Upper ward of the county of Lanark ; containing 198 
inhabitants. It is in the northern part of the parish, 
and on the read between Lesmahagow and Strathaven. 

BOHARM, a parish, partly in the county of Elgin, 
but chiefly in that of Banff, 6 miles (W.) from Keith; 
containing 1261 inhabitants. The original word Bucha- 
rin, or Bocharin, from which Boharm has been formed, 
is said to signify " the bow or bend about the hill". It 
was correctly applied to this locality on account of the 
cultivated part consisting chiefly of a valley, stretching 
in a circular form around the north, east, and south 
sides of the mountain of Benagen, which rises abruptly 
from the Spey river, the boundary line of the district on 
the west. There was formerly a church on the estate 
of Arndilly, called the church of Artendol ; and it ap- 
pears that, about the year 1215, one of the family of 



B O H A 



B O H A 



Freskyn de Moravia, who had large estates here, granted 
to the cathedral of" Moray " the church of Arteudol, 
with all its pertinents, excepting the corn-tithes of the 
two Davochs, which lay next to his castle of Bucharin ". 
It is therefore conjectured that the old parish was named 
Artendol, and that, upon the church there falling into 
ruin, the chapel of the castle of Bucharin was used in 
its stead as the parochial church, in consequence of 
which the parish was called Bucharin. The parish was 
augmented in l/SS, to the extent of about one-third, 
by the annexation of part of the suppressed parish of 
Dundurcus, lying on the east of the river. The whole 
measures about twelve miles in extreme length, and four 
at its greatest breadth, comprising 4739 acres under 
tillage, besides a large extent of wood, mountain-pasture, 
and waste. The lofty eminence of Benagen, situated 
about the middle of the parish, and attaining an eleva- 
tion of 1500 feet above the sea, occupies so large a por- 
tion of the surface as to render the valley at its base 
comparatively narrow. At its summit level the valley is 
about 400 feet above the sea, and from this height 
gradually descends towards each extremity, when it 
abruptly falls into the valley of the Spey. The sides of 
the vale are cultivated for a considerable distance up- 
wards, as well as the bed ; and the southern and eastern 
sides of the mountain, for nearly half way up, have been 
brought under tillage. 

The Fiddich, a stream of some magnitude, flowing 
between beautifully-wooded banks, forms a confluence 
with the Spey near the bridge of Craigellachie, from 
which point to the distance of a mile above the village 
of Fochabers, the latter river separates this parish from 
Rothes. Both these streams are subject to violent 
floodings, and sometimes, by the sudden and irresistible 
impulse of their waters, have destroyed the bridges, 
tenements, crops, and almost every thing in their way. 
A very ancient bridge, chiefly of wood, formerly crossed 
the Spey near the influx of the Orchil, and was sup- 
posed to have been constructed by the Romans under 
Severus ; but no remains of it have been visible for 
many years : the passage was afterwards accomplished 
by a ferry-boat. An establishment called the Hospital 
of St. Nicholas stood near this bridge, on the Boharm 
side of the river, having been founded in the beginning 
of the thirteenth century by Muriel de Pollock, heiress 
of Rothes, and dedicated to God, the Virgin, and St. 
Nicholas, for the reception of poor passengers. Andrew, 
Bishop of Moray, granted to the hospital the church of 
Rothes with its pertinents, and Alexander II. in 1232 
endowed it with a chaplaincy : it had pretty extensive 
estates also in the neighbourhood. It is supposed that 
the bridge was kept in repair by this house, and that, 
about the time of the Reformation, the structure either 
fell to decay, or was destroyed by a flood, and, having 
lost its means of support, was not renewed. The ruins 
of the hospital were removed, and a new bridge built, a 
few years since, at a cost of £3500, on the suspension 
principle, viith a span of 235 feet. The Orchil, or burn 
of Mullen, formed by a collection of the waters of the 
lower part of the district where a valley from Keith opens 
into the circular valley, runs rapidly through a rocky and 
romantic channel into the Spey at Boat of Bridge ; and 
the Aldernie conveys the waters of the upper district to 
the Fiddich. These streams abound with trout, which, 
as well as grilse and salmon, are also found in the Spey. 
Vol. I.— 145 



The soil in some parts is gravelly, and in others 
sandy, but is more frequently clayey, and very retentive 
of moisture. All sorts of grain are raised, the wheat in 
small quantity, and also most kinds of grasses and green 
crops. Much attention is paid to turnips, the growth 
of which has increased of late years, and large applica- 
tions of bone-manure have been made with great suc- 
cess. Lint also is cultivated, but oats of excellent 
quality are the staple article. Lime is extensively used 
for agricultural purposes, and draining and the improve- 
ment of waste land have been carried on with spirit : 
good inclosures and farm-buildings are still much 
needed, though in several parts the latter have been 
greatly improved. The black-cattle, which are small in 
size, are chiefly the Highland